• Appendix 1: Questions of attribution. 'Marie Duval: maverick Victorian cartoonist'.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian
      This appendix considers questions of attribution arising in the published work of Marie Duval.
    • Appendix 2: Questions of terminology and historicisation. 'Marie Duval: maverick Victorian cartoonist'.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester; Central Saint Martins University of the Arts London
      This appendix considers questions of terminology and historicisation arising in the twenty-first-century study of the published work of Marie Duval.
    • Being at home abroad: Londoners ‘ong continong’ (on the continent) in the 19th-century comics of Marie Duval.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (, 6th Graphic Novel and Comics Conference and 9th Bande Desinee Society Conference, Paris., 2015-06-01)
      Marie Duval is one of the great unsung cartoonists of the 19th century. Her work for the journal Judy between 1869-1885 took comic strips into new and unexpected areas. One of her interests was travel, and in particular the way in which working class and lower middle class people were starting to go on holiday abroad. This phenomenon was a continuation of the notion of the ‘tour’, an upper class pursuit aimed at improving one’s cultural capital though seeing the (usually classical) sights. However, the new cheap package tours of the late 19th century allowed a ‘lower sort’ to participate – with obvious comedic possibilities for the cartoonist. This paper will explore Duval’s take on the clash of manners when ordinary British people came into contact with ‘funny foreigners’ (in particular the French, the Swiss, and the Germans), while at the same time indicating her very knowing references to cartooning traditions (Busch, Rowlandson, etc.) and her ‘other’ career as a popular actress. The paper is part of a bigger project about Duval, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, and will be presented jointly by the project’s three leads.
    • Depiction as comedy and truth: women’s dress in Marie Duval’s drawings for ‘Judy’ 1869 – 1885.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (Dressing and Undressing the Victorians Conference, University of Chester, 2015-03-01)
      This paper will present and theorise aspects of the facture and iconography of the work of pioneering female cartoonist Marie Duval, in relation to conceptions and representations of women’s dress in London in the 1860s, 1870s and 1880s. Duval’s work appeared in a variety of the cheap British penny papers and comics of the 1860s-1880s. An actress as well as a cartoonist, she lived and worked in an environment of music halls and unlicensed theatres, sensational plays, serials, novels and comic journals. Her drawing style was theatrical, untutored and introduced many techniques that only became common in much later cartooning. She drew hundreds of comic strip pages for the magazine Judy and spin-off compilations, focusing on the humour, attitudes, urbanity and poverty of the types of people she knew. Her characters’ appearance, the ways in which they shape and move themselves in her visual world, and the technically maverick style in which they were drawn, provide a range of subtle and forthright commentaries on the historic dress and behaviour of her working-class London contemporaries, in particularly women of a range of ages, occupations and financial and social situations within this immediate milieu. First, the paper will consider the extent to which the facture of Duval’s drawings articulates relationships between constraint and liberation, in the ways in which she depicts women’s dress, utilising tracing techniques and briccolage, combined with a technically untutored style of drawing. She both cues readers to comedy (emerging as dissonance in her cutting and re-inscribing of contemporaneous fashion illustrations), and depicts embodied social discourse in the form of practices (as contemporaneous truths, in her deft manipulation of misrecognition), themselves generating a system of ideas, and creating a cognitive consensus connecting particular ideas with the behaviour of specific social groups. Second, the paper will consider Duval’s use of body distortion, accumulation, diminution and exaggeration, in which her depictive techniques present women’s dress not as a produced subject but as praxis. It will examine the complex parodic relationships that she creates between readers’ cultural knowledge of action on the contemporaneous theatre stage, in the practices of stage melodrama, and her depictions of women moving through her drawn plots in ‘old fashioned’ bonnets; of their noses; of the significant, ever-changing silhouettes of the carapaces of their chin-to-ankle dresses and of their feet, for example. Parallels will be identified between these Victorian ‘innovations’ and their continued use in twenty-first century ‘current’ and neo-Victorian’visual comedy. Finally, the paper will focus on the plots of Duval’s cartoons, identifying the general anonymity of Duval’s women characters relative to the developing visual identity of a single woman character who appears throughout: Judy herself, the muse and mistress of the magazine. It will present a close reading of a single frontispiece drawing of Judy from 1884, in which Judy rides an ostrich, in order to extrapolate a description of Duval’s cartoons of contemporaneous women that brings together facture, iconography and social milieu in order to understand both the unique processes of her comedy and her ability to depict the truth.
    • Duval and the Woman Employee

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester
      This Chapter will examine aspects of the life and work of Duval as both exemplary of and, in some aspects in contradiction to, conceptions of the emerging roles of professional women in the journals and literature of the later nineteenth century. Utilising both Duval’s drawings and her historic place in the remediation culture of new serialised papers, the novel and popular theatre productions in the 1870s and 80s, the chapter will extrapolate and examine shared characteristics in the fictional women newspaper journalists Henrietta Stackpole (in James’ The Portrait of a Lady, 1881) and Elsie Bengough (in Onions’ The Beckoning Fair One, 1911). Considering the impact of class on nineteenth century gendering of professional work, first in Patmore’s iteration of the “separate spheres” of agency of men and women in The Angel in the House (1854, derived from de Toqueville’s 1840 Democracy in America), and then in Sarah Grand’s antithetical The New Aspect of the Woman Question (1894), in which the term “new woman” first appeared, the chapter will chart the transformation of women’s domestic work into new types of professional occupations––particularly the new, equivocally gendered, professions that arose with the advent of serial journals, including Judy, or The London Serio-Comic Journal. The Chapter will argue for more diverse conceptions of the lives of urban professional women in the later nineteenth century, touching on recent critiques of masculine constructions of ‘journalistic’ observation and public commentary.
    • Introduction

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester; Central Saint Martins University of the Arts London
      Introduction to the book 'Marie Duval: maverick Victorian cartoonist'.
    • Marie Duval and the Technologies of Periodical Publishing

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester
      The chapter will focus on three areas of activity constituting commercial illustration: training, degrees of labour organisation and types of employment and remuneration. It will construct a description of Duval’s career in commercial illustration according to relationships made between the known corpus of her published work, over a fifteen year period, and the technical processes, personnel and locations of the print technologies utilised by her publisher (Wright 1995). Duval appears to have lacked training in two key areas of her profession: studio – that is, academic – training as a draughtswoman and training as an engraver. The chapter will examine how training, and the lack of it, constituted types of access and prohibition of access to key personnel and locations, as well as to conventions of topic and approach, and levels of remuneration (Huneault 2002). It will argue that these types of facility and prohibition were explicitly gendered whilst also being established trade orthodoxies, in which proof of agreed types of technical competency was key to accessing employment. (Flood 2013). The chapter will consider contemporaneous concepts of women’s work in the media in the last half of the century (in Craik 1857, Starr 1899 and in the Alexandra Magazine 1864, for example), proposing that distinctions can be made on the basis of social class as well as gender, between women who joined or enjoined established trades, such as wood engraving, and women generating new types of work, alongside men, in media professions with emerging or changing identities, such as photography and journalism (Colligan and Linley (2011).
    • The Significance of Marie Duval’s Drawing Style

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester
      Duval’s drawings were made to provoke laughter, by articulating and rearticulating social stereotypes and contradictions. Duval achieved this in her choice of topics and, more unusually, in her use of ideas of her own position as a humorous visual journalist: her visible lack of training, stage career, gender and social class, relative to the experiences of readers. This chapter will examine this articulation, considering late nineteenth-century gender and class relationships between humour, displays of technical skill and concepts of vulgar behaviour. The chapter will finally exemplify these relationships in two Duval drawings on the topic of the Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions of 1880 and 1876.