Now showing items 1-20 of 1048

    • Perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers: prevalence and relationship with injury responses

      Pentith, Rebecca; Moss, Samantha; Lamb, Kevin; Edwards, Carmel; University of Chester (J. Michael Ryan Publishing, 2021-03-29)
      This study investigated the prevalence of perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers and examined the relationships between perfectionistic tendencies and coping strategies used when experiencing injury. Sixty-eight female dancers (Mean age: 14 ± 2.3 years) completed the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire and provided a record of injuries incurred during their championship careers. Participants reported 189 injuries, mostly involving the lower extremities. Seventy-nine percent of dancers reported perfectionistic tendencies (mixed perfectionism 40%, pure self-oriented perfectionism 29%, pure socially prescribed perfectionism 10%), and most frequently adopted “planful problemsolving,” “seeking social support,” “distancing,” and “self-controlling” strategies to cope with injury. Perfectionism and two coping strategies were found to be significantly related (p = 0.03); “planful problem-solving” was typically used “quite a bit or a great deal” by the mixed perfectionism group, but only “somewhat” by the non-perfectionism group, whereas “confrontive coping” was typically not used by the non-perfectionism group but was used “somewhat” by the mixed perfectionism group. Given the presence of such a large degree of perfectionism and the simultaneous employment of problem- and emotion-focused strategies when coping with injuries, it is suggested that medical practitioners acknowledge such tendencies when supporting their dancers in order to reduce the likelihood of negative psychological impact.
    • Introducing open-book examinations in clinical education: A case study

      Smith, Peter M.; Bowles, Joanne; Jellicoe, Mark; Mathur, Manu; Molyneux, Lorraine; Randell, Leigh-Ann; Smith, Richard N.; Valappil, Sabeel P. (Liverpool University Press, 2023-01)
    • Lower pollen nutritional quality delays nest building and egg laying in Bombus terrestris audax micro-colonies leading to reduced biomass gain

      Ryder, Jordan T.; Thompson, Helen M.; Walters, Keith F. A.; Cherrill, Andrew; Harper Adams University; University of Chester; Syngenta; Imperial College London (Springer, 2021-09-27)
      The performance of Bombus terrestris micro-colonies fed five diets differing in pollen species composition and level of nine essential amino acids (EAA; leucine, lysine, valine, arginine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, histidine, methionine) was assessed for 37 days by recording total biomass gain, nest building initiation, brood production (eggs, small and large larvae, pupae, drones), nectar, and pollen collection. Stronger colony performance was linked to higher amino acid levels but no consistent differences in biomass gain were recorded between mono- and poly-species diets. Poorest performance occurred in micro-colonies offered pure oilseed rape (OSR) pollen which contained the lowest EAA levels. Reduced micro-colony development (delayed nest initiation and lower brood production) was related to OSR proportion in the diet and lower EAA levels. Results are discussed in relation to selection of plant species in the design of habitats to promote bee populations.
    • Depth and temperature profiles reflect individual differences in the daytime diving behaviours of pelagic thresher sharks

      Oliver, Simon P.; Grothues, Thomas M.; Mayo, Zoe J.; Williams, Aimie L.; Silvosa, Medel; Cases, Gary; University of Chester; The Thresher Shark Research and Conservation Project; The State University of New Jersey; University of Liverpool; NatureScot; Mindanao State University; Divelink Cebu
      We used acoustic telemetry to investigate the roles of depth and temperature in the daytime foraging behaviours of 13 tagged pelagic thresher sharks by monitoring their fine scale vertical movements in the Philippines. Cumulatively, pelagic thresher shark dives traversed the entire water column where they encountered temperatures that ranged from 33oC at the surface to 12oC at 250m depths throughout the day, but the movements of individuals varied in the extent of both their deep and shallow water limits. Dives were not synchronized to diurnal cycles, and periodicity reflected cycles of similar dives, the dives themselves, deviations, cruising, and individuality. Pelagic thresher shark movements between the warm surface layer and cooler waters below the thermocline (155 – 175 m) may reflect a common Alopiid strategy that balances maintaining tolerable ambient water temperatures with opportunities to search for and forage on spatially patchy distributions of prey.
    • Exploring the interplay between fat talk, social media use and body image among young women: New opportunities for health education?

      Kennedy, Lynne; Preston, Grace; Kenny, Ursula (SAGE Publications, 2023-01-11)
      Background: ‘Fat Talk’, or the act of negatively discussing one’s own or another person’s body, is linked to body image constructs, body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and disordered eating. The spaces in which young women talk about the body are changing, as social media use escalates. Understanding the interplay between social media use, body image and fat talk, in different contexts, is needed. Method: Focus group interviews were used to explore how young women (aged 15–19) experience fat talk while using social media and the possible effect on body image constructs. Using purposive convenience sampling, young women who regularly used social media and were living in an inner city of England were recruited. Thematic analysis was used for analysis and six themes were identified, both a priori and inductively, to explore the interplay between them. Findings: Over 35 women were successfully recruited into the study, with 18 of these finally participating in focus group interviews. Among participants, social media use was linked to increased self-evaluation of the body, engagement in social comparative behaviour and negative self-talk about the body. Although fat talk was reportedly common and widespread, it was unacceptable in the online space. However, body talk, other than size or shape, was permissible. Conclusion: Fat talk can be divisive; however, if it becomes unacceptable in the online space, negative self-talk may increase. If fat talk is replaced by an all-encompassing ‘body talk’, then this too may exacerbate existing pressures on young people and their mental health and well-being. Understanding the relationship between social media, body dissatisfaction and body talk may provide new opportunities for health education to promote a more constructive prevention discourse of the body, including body talk, in or around the online space.
    • See you in spring: overwinter survival is higher than post summer in the Alpine marmot

      Ferrari, Caterina; Cerri, Jacopo; Rolando, Antonio; Bassano, Bruno; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Bertolino, Sandro (Informa UK Limited, 2023-01-09)
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E.; Jones, Christopher E.; Federal Teaching Hospital, Nigeria; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2021-11-23)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV.
    • Sport, Children, and Socialization

      Green, Ken; Wheeler, Sharon; Foss Johansen, Patrick; University of Chester; Wrexham Glynd?r University; Inland University of Applied Sciences (Oxford University Press, 2022-11-21)
      This chapter explores what is meant by ‘socialization’ as well as some of the key aspects of sports socialization (such as the long-standing problematic of the process of socialization into sport, the impact of socio-economic divisions on socialization, and the relationship between socialization and lifelong participation). It also examines the main approaches to understanding socialization into sport and some of the main debates (such as the growing involvement of parents in the sporting socialization of children). All-in-all, there is now a substantial body of evidence that the foundations for lifelong participation in sport are usually laid in childhood and youth in family contexts. Participation is unlikely to endure into and through adulthood unless foundations have been laid in childhood in the family.
    • SCCS scientific opinion on Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) - SCCS/1636/21

      Granum (rapporteur), Berit; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bodin, Laurent; Chaudhry, Qasim; Pieter Jan, Coenraads; Dusinska, Maria; Ezendam, Janine; Gaffet, Eric; Galli, Corrado L.; Panteri, Eirini; et al. (Elsevier, 2023-01-05)
      Opinion to be cited as SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety), scientific opinion on Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), preliminary version of September 27, 2021, final version of December 2, 2021, SCCS/1636/21.
    • ‘Not to judge by the looks but you can tell by the looks!’ Physical capital as symbolic capital in the individualization of health among young Norwegians

      Green, Ken; Roset, Linda; Tjomsland, Hege; Cale, Lorraine; Sigurjonsson, Thorsteinn; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences; Loughborough University; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (Taylor and Francis, 2022-12-28)
      In this paper we explore how 15–16-year-old Norwegians experience social and cultural norms that shape their relationship with health and physical activity (PA) in a country where participation in PA is normative, in the sense that it is not only a widely shared practice but, in having significant cultural traction, is commonly understood as a ‘normal’ part of Norwegian daily life. The study draws upon qualitative data generated from 31 focus groups involving 148 10th graders (15–16-year-olds) in eight secondary schools in Norway. A key finding was that health was primarily viewed as synonymous with physical health and physical health as closely related to PA. A symbolic marker for physical condition – and, by extension, physical health – was physical appearance and ‘looks’ (in other words, physical attractiveness), revolving around gender normative bodily ‘shape’. In this vein, the youngsters tended towards individualistic views of health – seeing health as a responsibility that lay largely in their hands. We argue that the significance of growing up and living in a wealthy, social democratic nation-state, with high living standards and high social and cultural expectations, can have profound implications for youngsters’ perceptions of health and PA, the impact of neoliberalism notwithstanding.
    • Short Research Article: Do demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics influence the number of psychological intervention sessions attended by young people in need of mental health care?

      Meddings, John; Harries, Anthony D; Michelet, Felix; Nall-Evans, Sharleen; Pender, Fiona; Jaydeokar, Sujeet (2022-12-22)
      A cohort study using secondary data assessed associations between baseline characteristics and psychological sessions attended in young persons discharged from a Children and Young People's Mental Health Service in 2019. There were 584 persons who attended a median of seven sessions. On multivariable regression analysis, males attended fewer sessions than females, young people from more affluent communities attended more sessions than those from poorer communities and those presenting with eating disorders and self-harm in particular attended more sessions than those with anxiety. Addressing why these associations occur may improve mental health care in young persons. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.]
    • Care givers experiences of caring for people with intellectual disability and dementia: a qualitative evidence synthesis

      Acton, Danny; Jones, Steven; Jaydeokar, Sujeet; Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; Centre for Autism Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disability (CANDDID); University of Chester (Emerald, 2023-01-20)
      This paper aims to identify the lived experience of anxiety from people with intellectual disabilities and being co-design partners in developing a multi component approach to the management of anxiety. Design/methodology/approach The development of an anxiety manual and programme was part of a service development which allowed existing and establish psychological therapies be adapted for people with intellectual disabilities. A qualitative approach was used to understand the views of people who experience anxiety on a daily basis. The feedback generated was used to make modifications to the manuals and anxiety management programme. Findings The study has demonstrated the value of involving people with intellectual disabilities in co-production of an anxiety management programme. Additional findings identified the rea life challenges and experiences of the impact anxiety has on people’s lives.
    • Interacting effects of environmental enrichment across multiple generations on early life phenotypes in zebrafish

      Green, Michael R.; Swaney, William T.; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Wiley, 2022-12-07)
      The environment plays an important role in an individual's development during early life, however, parents may also influence offspring development through so called “parental effects.” We examined the effects of environmental enrichment in zebrafish (Danio rerio) across two generations through the paternal lineage. Fathers and grandfathers were exposed to either standard or high levels of housing enrichment for 4-weeks during adulthood. First-generation (F1) and second-generation (F2) offspring were obtained from controlled breeding and tested as larvae for changes in morphology at hatching stage (72hpf), and in locomotor activity at larval stage (120hpf) in both generations. We found paternal experience of enrichment resulted in changes in trunk length of F1 offspring and changes in spine curvature and dorsal length of F2 offspring, while changes in snout morphology of F2 offspring seemed to be driven by whether grandpaternal and paternal experience of the environment was matched or not. We found that while paternal enrichment increased the frequency of spontaneous movement in F1 and F2 offspring, interacting effects of paternal and grandpaternal enrichment on movement distance were seen in F2 offspring, and that spontaneous movement and the distance that larvae swam are thus distinct phenotypes that were differentially affected by the experiences of previous paternal generations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the parental and grandparental environment influence zebrafish behavior and morphology. The nature of these effects and the design of this study mean that these phenotypes were likely the result of nongenetic transmission through the paternal germline.
    • Degree of egg-taking by humans determines the fate of maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) nesting grounds across Sulawesi

      Summers, Marcy; Geary, Matthew; Djuni, Nurlin; Kresno, Pandji, A.; Laya, Augustian; Stallin, Sawuwu; Bawotong, Adrianus; Abas, Wiranto; Oga, Vivi Megayanti T.; Nur, Ahmad Muh; et al. (Springer, 2022-12-17)
      The maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) of Sulawesi, Indonesia, is culturally iconic and Critically Endangered, but the causes of its decline have never been systematically analyzed nor its nesting grounds comprehensively surveyed. We visited 122 previously known and 58 previously unrecorded sites, collecting data and interviewing local people at each site. We used ordinal logistic regression to fit models with combinations of 18 different predation, habitat, and nesting ground variables to determine the strongest predictors of nesting ground success, as represented by maleo numbers. At least 56% of known nesting grounds are now inactive (abandoned), and 63% of remaining active sites host ≤ 2 pairs/day at peak season. Egg-taking by humans is the single biggest driver of maleo decline. Protecting eggs in situ predicts higher numbers than protecting eggs through hatchery methods. After egg-taking, quality (not length) of the travel corridor connecting nesting ground to primary forest best predicts nesting ground success. Being inside a federally protected area is not a primary driver of success, and does not ensure persistence: 28% of federally protected nesting grounds have become inactive. Local conservation efforts protected nesting grounds 2‒3 times better than federal protection. We update the methodology for assessing nesting ground status, and recommend five measures for maleo conservation, the foremost being to protect nesting grounds from egg-taking by humans at all remaining active sites.
    • Home‐based care nurses' lived experiences and perceived competency needs: A phenomenological study

      Rusli, Khairul Dzakirin Bin; orcid: 0000-0002-8096-0006; Ong, Shu Fen; orcid: 0000-0001-9179-1968; Speed, Shaun; orcid: 0000-0002-6133-7622; Seah, Betsy; orcid: 0000-0002-6048-2190; McKenna, Lisa; orcid: 0000-0002-0437-6449; Lau, Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8289-3441; Liaw, Sok Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8326-4049 (Wiley, 2022-05-31)
    • Ideal models of good inpatient care for adults with intellectual disability: Lessons from England

      Burrows, Lisa; Page, Georgia; Plugaru, Elena; Kent, Bridie; Odiyoor, Mahesh; Jaydeokar, Sujeet; Williams, Jonathan; Elliot, Kevin; Laugharne, Richard; Shankar, Rohit; orcid: 0000-0002-1183-6933 (SAGE Publications, 2022-12-04)
      Background: In recent years, a significant proportion of inpatient facilities for people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism has been de-commissioned in England, This has resulted in individuals with intellectual disabilities being sent to distant hospitals far away from their families and carers leading to challenges in follow-up, community care and interventions. The impact of de-institutionalisation, has often caused patient trauma, family distress and subsequent discharge difficulties. Not every individual with intellectual disabilities and/or autism requires inpatient care but inpatient care when needed has to be local, adequate and appropriate. Aims: To evaluate current evidence of utility of inpatient models for people with intellectual disabilities and outline best clinical practice. Method: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science were searched with key search terms. The search was conducted by the information specialist and identified abstracts screened further for inclusion criteria, methodological issues, and other appropriate characteristics. Twenty-three papers were included in the rapid review. Papers shortlisted had the inclusion criteria applied against the full text version independently by two reviewers. Disagreements regarding eligibility of studies was resolved by discussion and consensus within the project team. Key data related to in-patient models of care was extracted from the included papers, which included year of study, design, study objectives, target population, method/s tested, outcomes reported, country of study/studies, and results. Data extraction was performed by two reviewers and reviewed by the project team. Results: From the review of services for people with intellectual disabilities, we came across four broad models/frameworks/approaches. Evidence on what worked for inpatient service provision tended to be based on models developed and implemented locally. Conclusions: We make recommendations for the best clinical practice and standards. Both clinical service providers and policymakers need to be aware of specific needs of individuals with intellectual disability and/or autism.
    • Radiation-mediated supply of genetic variation outweighs the effects of selection and drift in Chernobyl Daphnia populations

      Goodman, Jessica; Brand, June; Laptev, Gennady; Auld, Stuart, K, J, R; University of Stirling; Ukrainian HydroMeteorological Intstitute; University of Chester (Wiley, 2022-01-19)
      Populations experiencing varying levels of ionizing radiation provide an excellent opportunity to study the fundamental drivers of evolution. Radiation can cause mutations and thus supply genetic variation; it can also selectively remove individuals that are unable to cope with the physiological stresses associated with radiation exposure, or non-selectively cull swathes of the population, reducing genetic variation. Since the nuclear power plant explosion in 1986, the Chernobyl area has experienced a spatially heterogeneous exposure to varying levels of ionizing radiation. We sampled Daphnia pulex (a freshwater crustacean) from lakes across the Chernobyl area, genotyped them at ten microsatellite loci and also calculated the current radiation dose rates. We then investigated whether the pattern of genetic diversity was positively associated with radiation dose rates, consistent with radiation-mediated supply of de novo mutations, or negatively associated with radiation dose rates, as would be expected with strong radiation-mediated selection. We found that measures of genetic diversity, including expected heterozygosity and mean allelic richness (an unbiased indicator of diversity), were significantly higher in lakes that experienced the highest radiation dose rates. This suggests that mutation outweighs selection as the key evolutionary force in populations exposed to high radiation dose rates. We also found significant but weak population structure, indicative of low genetic drift and clear evidence for isolation-by-distance between populations. This further suggests that gene flow between nearby populations is eroding population structure and that mutational input in high radiation lakes could, ultimately, supply genetic variation to lower radiation sites.
    • Distribution of the reef manta ray Mobula alfredi and the oceanic manta ray Mobula birostris in the Philippines: A collaborative effort for conservation

      Rambahiniarison, Joshua; Agustines, Ariana; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Araujo, Gonzalo; Armstrong, Asia O.; Arnold, Shannon; Barruga, Aldrin; Cañete, Titus; Conales, Segundo; Delijero, Kymry; et al. (Wiley, 2022-11-30)
      Little is known about manta ray population size, structure, and connectivity in the Philippines. In collaboration with dive operators, non-governmental organizations, and authorities, sightings of manta rays were collated into a single national database. Using in-water photographs and videos gathered through citizen science and dedicated research efforts, this study compiled sightings between 2004 and 2020, showing 22 separate sites throughout the archipelago with manta rays present. A total of 392 individual reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) and 107 oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) were identified from the collected footage. Four specific sites in the provinces of Masbate and Palawan together hosted 87% of all identified individuals and accounted for 94% of sightings, highlighting these areas are key aggregation sites. This study also reports movements of M. birostris within the Philippines, based on photo-identification of three individuals moving 150 km between Cebu and Masbate. Despite the growing number of recreational divers in Daanbantayan and San Jacinto, an 80% decline in M. birostris sightings was observed at these sites. To ensure effective future conservation, it is recommended that efforts focus on the identification and protection of manta ray hotspots and migratory corridors, the creation of a sustainable tourism framework, and most importantly, on the implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce fisheries interactions.
    • Scholar, gentleman and player: a tribute to Eric Dunning

      Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; Loughborough University; University of Chester (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-14)
    • Right cardiac chambers echo-bubble contrast in a patient with decompression sickness: A case report and a literature review

      Harfoush, Allam; Ramadan, Mohammad; Hamdallah, Hanady; Tishreen University Hospital; University of Chester (Wiley Open Access, 2022-04-14)
      Background: so far there is no available modality to fully confirm the diagnosis, however, the application of echocardiography in suspected DCS cases has been more frequently used, in this case, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to detect micro-bubbles in the right cardiac chambers and monitor the patient after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT); which proposes the possible applicability of TTE in diagnosing and monitoring DCS patients. Case presentation: This report describes a 54-year-old fisherman who was referred to the emergency department with dyspnea and mild confusion after rapid ascend of a saturation diving of 50m sea depth. After the initial evaluation, he was assessed using TTE to exclude the presence of structural heart diseases, where it surprisingly showed spontaneous echo contrast inside the right cardiac chambers similar to agitated saline echo testing, the patient then was admitted for HBOT and follow-up; rapid improvement was noticed after the first HBOT session and the TTE findings were fully resolved. Conclusion: TTE could be considered in the initial workup when DCS is suspected, and it might have a role in monitoring DCS patients if echocardiographic findings of bubbles formation were documented in the pre-hyperbaric therapy settings.