• Use and experiences of front-line health services amongst Black and Minority Ethnic residents of Western Cheshire

      Ward, Fiona; Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Cleary, Paul; University of Chester; Western Cheshire PCT (University of Chester, 2008-06)
      This small-scale study was designed to explore the use and experiences of front-line health services within the Western Cheshire Primary Care Trust area amongst residents belonging to black and minority ethnic groups. A qualitative approach was adopted for the study as the aim was to explore perceptions and capture experiences.
    • Use of GMHAT/PC in old age population in India

      Krishna, Murali; Ramya, M.; Sharma, Vimal; Jones, Steven; University of Chester (Indian Psychiatric society, 2017)
      Book chapter
    • Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments

      Fitzgerald, Collette; Stanley, Karen; Andrew, Sarah M.; Jones, Keith; Lancaster University (American Society for Microbiology, 2001-04-01)
      Although campylobacters have been isolated from a wide range of animal hosts, the association between campylobacters isolated from humans and animals in the farm environment is unclear. Flagellin gene typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from animals (cattle, sheep, and turkey) in farm environments and sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis in the same geographical area. Forty-eight combined fla types were seen among the 315 Campylobacter isolates studied. Six were found in isolates from all four hosts and represented 50% of the total number of isolates. Seventy-one different SmaI PFGE macrorestriction profiles (mrps) were observed, with 86% of isolates assigned to one of 29 different mrps. Fifty-seven isolates from diverse hosts, times, and sources had an identical SmaI mrp and combined fla type. Conversely, a number of genotypes were unique to a particular host. Molecular evidence is provided which suggests a link between campylobacters in the farm environment with those causing disease in the community.
    • The Use of Qualitative Risk Analysis Methods to Facilitate Decision Making in the Management of Health and Welfare in Wildlife

      Hill, Sonya; Smith, Tessa; Hartley, Matt (University of Chester, 2018-10-08)
      This thesis is composed of a series of papers, all of which have been published in peer reviewed publications. The papers use the recognised process of qualitative risk assessment in a range of scenarios in the field of wildlife health and welfare in both in situ and ex situ environments. Chapter 1 discusses the challenges faced regarding availability of empirical data in field of wildlife and zoological health and welfare and justifies the exploration of techniques to assist with decision making. The development of risk analysis and its integration with risk management and risk communication to become risk assessment is described before being put into the specific context of wildlife and zoological disease. Chapters 2 and 3 consider two scenarios where disease risk assessment is well established as a tool, importation across national borders and in conservation interventions. Chapter 2 develops the standard import risk assessment approach to include multiple species and multiple diseases. Chapter 3 reviews developments made over the last 25 years and proposes best practice approaches to implement. Chapter 4 describes how the risk assessments formulated as described in Chapter 3 are used for licensing purposes emphasising the importance of risk management and communication. This theme is continued in Chapter 6 where the integration of risk assessment and evidence based decision making is considered in the broad context of a strategic approach to wildlife health bringing together the outcomes and processes described in Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5. The papers in Chapters 2,5 and 8 are focused on how risk analysis aids in development of disease control approaches and policy. The evidence base is composed primarily of peer-reviewed literature supported by expert review of the finalised assessment. Chapter 7 uses risk assessment in an applied scenario, taking the recognised process and modifying it to structure an active disease investigation demonstrating the versatility of the technique. Chapter 9 takes this a step further by again adapting the methodology which, has historically been used primarily for infectious diseases, to consider reproduction and assess risks to welfare rather than purely health. The paper in Chapter 9 builds on the methodology by combining existing peer-reviewed literature with data collected specifically for the purpose of feeding into the assessment and utilising a stakeholder and expert opinion elicitation workshop to obtain data too. These process are proposed and described in Chapter 3. The final chapter critically reviews risk assessment, highlighting three key areas of potential weakness and proposing approaches to address these criticisms. The value of the approach in wildlife and zoological health and welfare as demonstrated by this series of papers is described
    • The use of radiography in osteological measurement

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      Radiographs provide a means of obtaining permanent images of objects. These images may be readily and repeatedly copied, disseminated or used in a variety of ways without the need further to disturb the original material. Although measurements are frequently taken from such images for metrical analysis, it must be remembered that these images are only representations of the original object. To obtain accurate data, one must be aware of the sources of error inherent in the image-forming process so that radiographs can be used in the appropriate way. This paper outlines the factors involved in the production of radiographic images and applies this to the generation of accurate metrical data.
    • Use of sandwich IgG ELISA for the detection and quantification of adulteration of milk and soft cheese

      Hurley, Ian P.; Coleman, Robert C.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2006-02-21)
      The aim of the article was to develop an assay capable of detecting adulteration of soft goat, sheep and buffalo milk cheese with bovine milk from cheaper sources.
    • Uses of media-reported female body parameters - A contribution to the study of body image

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (2001)
      The portrayal of the female body in the media has been shown to influence body image and self esteem amongst young women. While visual comparisons with those portrayed by the media as beautiful are prone to subjective judgment, when numerical values for such parameters as height, weight, bust, waist and hip size are reported, more objective comparisons may be made and may prompt some to strive to attain certain numerical ideals. Whether the measurements given are true or accurate is secondary to the fact of their reportage and their availability for such use. Data pertaining to over 500 of 'Playboy' magazine's 'playmates' were obtained - being readily available via the Internet - from which it was possible to determine a number of anthropometric features. The use of such data in academic studies is not new although the scope of previous use seems to have been somewhat limited. The present study, therefore, sought to determine alternative ways of using such data to characterize the physiques portrayed. A simple comparison with UK dress sizes, available in high street stores, showed that the characteristic 'playmate' physique did not generally conform to standard proportions - bust size, for example, being greater than catered for by standard sizes. However, despite this dimensional excess, the mean Body Mass Index was below 20. This latter finding, representing a state of mild starvation, is a potential cause for concern should the typical heights and weights from which it is derived be used by more vulnerable individuals to influence their own physique.
    • Using magnetic nanoparticles for gene transfer to neural stem cells: stem cell propagation method influences outcomes

      Pickard, Mark R.; Adams, Christopher F.; Barraud, Perrine; Chari, Divya M.; Keele University, United Kingdom; University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2015-04-24)
      Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) transplants offer a key strategy to augment neural repair by releasing therapeutic biomolecules into injury sites. Genetic modification of NSCs is heavily reliant on viral vectors but cytotoxic effects have prompted development of non-viral alternatives, such as magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs). NSCs are propagated in laboratories as either 3-D suspension "neurospheres" or 2-D adherent "monolayers". MNPs deployed with oscillating magnetic fields ("magnetofection technology") mediate effective gene transfer to neurospheres but the efficacy of this approach for monolayers is unknown. It is important to address this issue as oscillating magnetic fields dramatically enhance MNP-based transfection in transplant cells (e.g., astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors) propagated as monolayers. We report for the first time that oscillating magnetic fields enhanced MNP-based transfection with reporter and functional (basic fibroblast growth factor; FGF2) genes in monolayer cultures yielding high transfection versus neurospheres. Transfected NSCs showed high viability and could re-form neurospheres, which is important as neurospheres yield higher post-transplantation viability versus monolayer cells. Our results demonstrate that the combination of oscillating magnetic fields and a monolayer format yields the highest efficacy for MNP-mediated gene transfer to NSCs, offering a viable non-viral alternative for genetic modification of this important neural cell transplant population.
    • Using ‘sport in the community schemes’ to tackle crime and drug use among young people: Some policy issues and problems

      Smith, Andy; Waddington, Ivan (Sage, 2004-10-01)
      This article discusses the effectiveness of sport in the community schemes such as the Positive Futures initative and Summer Splsh/Splash Extra in reducing crime and drug use amongst young people.
    • The utilisation of the Rugby League Athlete Profiling battery for assessing the anthropometric and physical characteristics of rugby league players

      Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie; Moss, Sam; Dobbin, Nicholas (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2020-01-18)
      The research described in this thesis used a standardised battery of tests called the ‘Rugby League Athlete Profiling (RLAP)’ battery for assessing the anthropometric and physical characteristics of UK-based rugby league players. The overall purpose of this research was to determine the utility of the RLAP battery, which involved establishing the use of RLAP across numerous professional clubs over a three-year period, determining the measurement properties of the tests included and investigating the factors associated with a change in the characteristics. An early version of the RLAP battery existed [called SPARQ] and was provided by the Rugby Football League with scope to alter this as part of this programme of research. Before determining if an alteration to the battery was required, it was essential to understand the tests that are currently used in rugby league for assessing the anthropometric and physical characteristics of players. As such, the systematic review initially sought to determine the volume of performance tests used in rugby league along with their measurement properties. Based on the results, it was evident that a shorter sprint distance (< 20 m) ought to be included in the battery. It was also clear that only one field-based method for measuring muscle strength was available, though had received minimal research. Furthermore, the review highlighted that no rugbyspecific intermittent running test had previously been used and that RLAP was the first battery to include such a test. Therefore, based on these results, the battery was rebranded to RLAP, which included a stature, body mass, a 10 m and 20 m sprint test, a rugby-specific intermittent test, a change of direction test, measures of lower- and whole-body power. With the RLAP battery confirmed, it was then used and the reliability (Chapter 4) and discriminant validity (Chapter 5) of its elements determined. Results indicated that the RLAP battery is reliable and does not require habituation. Furthermore, the calculation of the required change, which includes the worthwhile change and random error of each test, provides researchers and practitioners with a single value that can be used as an analytical goal to evaluate a true change in characteristics with confidence. All components of the RLAP battery (except 10 m sprint time) possessed adequate discriminant validity between youth, academy and senior rugby league players, suggesting this battery can accurately distinguish between playing standards. As noted in above, the review highlighted a rugby-specific intermittent test has yet to be established in the literature before its inclusion in the RLAP battery. Whilst it appeared to be suitable and, based on Chapters 3 and 4, is reliable and possesses discriminant validity, the test itself had received no previous attention. Given the novelty of this test, it was unknown if this test was better associated with the responses to rugby league match performance and what the physiological responses were to this test. As such, Chapter 5 sought to determine the concurrent validity of this test and compare it against the traditional Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). The results indicated the association between prone Yo-Yo IR1 distance and the external, internal and perceptual responses to simulated match-play was improved when compared to the Yo-Yo IR1. Chapter 6 demonstrated that starting each 40 m shuttle in a prone position increases the internal, external and perceptual loads whilst reducing the total distance achieved. The degree of shared covariance between the prone Yo-Yo IR1 and Yo-Yo IR1 suggest the rugby-specific test provided insight into additional characteristics associated with rugby league performance. In studies that have reported on the anthropometric and physical characteristics, few have considered the multiple factors that might influence these with no studies conducted in rugby league. Chapter 7 sought to determine the complex interaction between anthropometric and physical characteristics that requires careful consideration by those involved in developing youth and academy athletes. The results also revealed a number of contextual factors such as season phase, league ranking, playing age and playing position that can influenced the change in characteristics over the course of a competitive season. The findings of this study highlight how some characteristics are impaired towards the end of the season, thus providing a rationale for considering in-season training loads and the application of short training interventions to off-set these negative changes. Based on negative changes in some anthropometric and physical characteristics towards the end of the year, Chapter 8 reported on the efficacy of two in-season sprint interval interventions for enhancing the physical characteristics of rugby league players. Furthermore, the study provided insight into the sensitivity of the RLAP battery for detecting changes in the characteristics of rugby league players. The results highlighted that two weeks of rugby-specific and running-based sprint interval training appeared affective for promoting the physical characteristics of rugby league players with minimal deleterious effects on wellness and neuromuscular function. Using the reliability statistics from Chapter 1, the mean change for prone Yo-Yo IR1 in the rugbyspecific group met the required change whilst changes approached this value for the running-based group despite contrasting loads. In all, this study demonstrated that sprint interval training that includes sport-specific actions is a suitable and effective training modality that can be used in-season. In addition, the result demonstrated how the prone Yo-Yo IR1 was sensitive to change across the intervention period whilst others were not sensitive to sprint interval training due to the lack of specificity. This thesis provides a thorough evaluation of the RLAP battery that can be used by researcher and practitioners to assess the anthropometric and physical characteristics of rugby league players. The battery is reliable and possess discriminant validity, while the prone Yo-Yo IR1 has concurrent validity and is sensitive to change during a lowvolume in-season training intervention. Overall, this thesis provides justification for the tests included and comprehensively examines the utility of this battery for assessing the anthropometric and physical characteristics of rugby league players. Practically, this battery of tests can be used by researcher and applied practitioners in rugby league with an understanding of the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the tests along with some factors that might influence the characteristics of players across a season.
    • Validation of a new hand-held electronic appetite rating system against the pen and paper method

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Green, Hilary; Virgili, Robert; Aeschlimann, Jean-Marc; Mosera, Mireille; Erkner, Alfrun; University of Chester (Almirion-Roig) : Nestlé Research Centre (Elsevier, 2009-10-01)
      This study describes the validation of a new electronic appetite rating system, and a statistical variance model for visual analogue scale (VAS) research. Thirty volunteers rated hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective intake, thirst and liking on 100 mm paper VAS and on 70 mm electronic VAS presented on a Dell™ Pocket PC, after consuming breakfast, in a repeated trial. The electronic method was comparable in relative accuracy and reproducibility to the paper method, with weak differences between tests (within-subject SD ≤ 14 mm). The data obtained were used to generate a model for VAS data variability.
    • Validation of urinary cortisol as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the bearded emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens)

      McCallister, Josephine M.; Smith, Tessa E.; Elwood, Robert W.; Queen's University of Belfast ; University College Chester/Queen's University of Belfast ; Queen's University of Belfast (Wiley, 2004-05-14)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to collect samples of cortisol levels from bearded emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens) in noninvasive manner and validate an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of cortisol in urine to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in the the bearded emperor tamarin.
    • Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester ; University of Maine (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine, 2004-04)
      Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach’s = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p<0.001) and moderate correlations were found between all BDS and MDI subscales, and between five of the eight EDQ subscales. A multivariate analysis of covariance, with univariate F tests and Tukey HSD tests, revealed that both male and female competitive bodybuilders scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on all three BDS subscales than the male and female non-competitive bodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.
    • The validity and reliability of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a treadmill-based sub-maximal perceptually regulated exercise test

      Morris, Mike; Lamb, Kevin L.; Hayton, John; Cotterrell, David; Buckley, John P.; University of Chester ; (Springer-Verlag, 2010-03-30)
      The purpose of this study was to determine for the first time whether VO2max could be predicted accurately and reliably from a treadmill-based perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) incorporating a safer and more practical upper limit of RPE 15 ("Hard") than used in previous investigations.
    • Validity of a pictorial perceived exertion scale for effort estimation and effort production during stepping exercise in adolescent children

      Yelling, Martin; Lamb, Kevin L.; Swaine, Ian; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 2002-06-01)
      Recent developments in the study of paediatric effort perception have continued to emphasise the importance of child-specific rating scales. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of an illustrated 1 – 10 perceived exertion scale; the Pictorial Children’s Effort Rating Table (PCERT). 4 class groups comprising 104 children; 27 boys and 29 girls, aged 12.1±0.3 years and 26 boys, 22 girls, aged 15.3±0.2 years were selected from two schools and participated in the initial development of the PCERT. Subsequently, 48 of these children, 12 boys and 12 girls from each age group were randomly selected to participate in the PCERT validation study. Exercise trials were divided into 2 phases and took place 7 to 10 days apart. During phase 1, children completed 5 x 3-minute incremental stepping exercise bouts interspersed with 2-minute recovery periods. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of exertion were recorded during the final 15 s of each exercise bout. In phase 2 the children were asked to regulate their exercising effort during 4 x 4-minute bouts of stepping so that it matched randomly prescribed PCERT levels (3, 5, 7 and 9). Analysis of data from Phase 1 yielded significant (P<0.01) relationships between perceived and objective (HR) effort measures for girls. In addition, the main effects of exercise intensity on perceived exertion and HR were significant (P<0.01); perceived exertion increased as exercise intensity increased and this was reflected in simultaneous significant rises in HR. During phase 2, HR and estimated power output (POapprox) produced at each of the four prescribed effort levels were significantly different (P<0.01). The children in this study were able to discriminate between 4 different exercise intensities and regulate their exercise intensity according to 4 prescribed levels of perceived exertion. In seeking to contribute towards children’s recommended physical activity levels and helping them understand how to self-regulate their activity, the application of the PCERT within the context of physical education is a desirable direction for future research.
    • Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Rugby Football League, Leeds (Thieme Publishing, 2016-12-08)
      Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players
    • Validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer in male youth athletes

      Till, Kevin; Morris, Rhys; Stokes, Keith; Trewartha, Grant; Twist, Craig; Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben (2017-11-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer against a criterion measure (i.e., 1,000 Hz force platform) for assessing muscle strength in male youth athletes. Twenty-two male adolescent (age 15.3 ± 0.5 years) rugby league players performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e., two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) separated by 5 minutes rest in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Mean bias, typical error of estimate (TEE) and Pearson correlation coefficient for peak force (PF) and peak force minus body weight (PFBW) from the force platform were validated against peak force from the dynamometer (DynoPF). When compared to PF and PFBW, mean bias (with 90% Confidence limits) for DynoPF was very large (-32.4 [-34.2 to -30.6] %) and moderate (-10.0 [-12.8 to -7.2] %), respectively. The TEE was moderate for both PF (8.1 [6.3 to 11.2] %) and PFBW (8.9 [7.0 to 12.4]). Correlations between DynoPF and PF (r 0.90 [0.79 to 0.95]) and PFBW (r 0.90 [0.80 to 0.95] were nearly perfect. The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimated PF and PFBW obtained using a criterion force platform. However, strong correlations between the dynamometer and force platform suggest that a dynamometer provides an appropriate alternative to assess isometric mid-thigh pull strength when a force platform is not available. Therefore, practitioners can use an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess strength in the field with youth athletes but should be aware that it underestimates peak force.
    • The validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a perceptually-regulated graded exercise test

      Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; King, Nicholas; University of Exeter ; University of Chester ; University of Exeter ; University of Wales, Bangor (Springer-Verlag, 2005-04-07)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from sub-maximal values elicited during a perceptually-regulated exercise test. We hypothesised that the strong relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and would enable to be predicted and that this would improve with practice. Ten male volunteers performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to establish followed by three sub-maximal RPE production protocols on a cycle ergometer, each separated by a period of 48 h.
    • Violence, competition and the emergence and development of modern sports: Reflections on the Stokvis-Malcolm debate

      Green, Ken; Liston, Katie; Smith, Andy; Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005-03-01)
      This article discusses the place of violence reducation in the socio-genesis of sports. It focuses on the debate between Dominic Malcolm and Ruud Stokvis.
    • Visualisation of xanthan conformation by atomic force microscopy

      Moffat, Jonathan; Morris, Victor J.; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Gunning, A. Patrick; Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company; Norwich Research Park; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-04-20)
      Direct visual evidence obtained by atomic force microscopy demonstrates that when xanthan is adsorbed from aqueous solution onto the heterogeneously charged substrate mica, its helical conformation is distorted. Following adsorption it requires annealing for several hours to restore its ordered helical state. Once the helix state reforms, the AFM images obtained showed clear resolution of the periodicity with a value of 4.7 nm consistent with the previously predicted models. In addition, the images also reveal evidence that the helix is formed by a double strand, a clarification of an ambiguity of the xanthan ultrastructure that has been outstanding for many years.