• Sure Start Widnes Children’s Centres: An evaluation of a new programme

      Powell, Katie; Perry, Catherine; Alford, Simon (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2007-06-01)
      This project reports evaluates the publicity material created and used by Sure Start Widnes Children's Centres.
    • Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer research report, April 2004-March 2005

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-04)
      This project report discusses Sure Start computerised records (covering personal details of all registrations within the Sure Start programme and records of each serivce and which service users have accessed them) which allow the development of Sure Start to be monitored on a national scale. Monitoring data loaded onto a Meggs, Costoya and Attfield database and combined the use of a range of computer-based programmes to interrogate, analyse and evaluate the reach of Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer and the individual services which the programme has delivered between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2005.
    • Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer user satisfaction survey

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2005-11)
      This project report discusses a user satisifaction survey with Sure Start services in the WidnesTrailblazer area.
    • Sure Start Winsford parent satisfaction survey

      Davies, Sarah; Thurston, Miranda (Centre for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-01)
      This project report evaluates user satisfaction with Sure Start services for families with young children.
    • Survey of reproduction and calf rearing in Asian and African elephants in European zoos

      Hartley, Matt; Stanley, Christina R.; University of Chester (European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, 2016-07-31)
      Acyclicity, conception failure, abortion, stillbirth, dystocia, infanticide and neonatal mortality have all been reported as causes of reproductive failure in zoo elephants. These events are often reported as single case reports or in specific studies focused on a particular stage in the reproductive process. In North America wider surveys of reproduction in the zoo elephant population have been completed and repeated to provide data over a number of years. This study is the largest and most comprehensive study of reproduction in the European zoo elephant population to date. Two questionnaires collected data from throughout the reproductive process from assessing cyclicity to independence of the calf at 5 years old. Information was collected regarding 189 birth events. Many causative and contributing factors such as obesity, infectious disease, husbandry, facilities, stress, behaviour, herd size and social grouping have been proposed. The importance of these was assessed and where possible association identified using statistical analysis. In African elephants, this study found that age, obesity, reproductive pathology and dominance, identified as important risk factors for failure to conceive in the American zoo elephant population were of low importance. The most significant cause in Europe was lack of access to a compatible bull. In Asian elephants reproductive failure was much less common but when it did occur age and reproductive pathologies were significant factors as found in previous studies. Previous studies have found that age, obesity and infanticide were considered as the most important risk factors in the period from birth to rearing. In this survey it was found that herd stability and compatibility, allomothering or maternal experience and management at parturition can significantly influence reproductive success. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpes virus was confirmed as the biggest cause of calf mortality. This work provides evidence to support changes to elephant management in European zoos in order to encourage development of social and affiliative herd behaviours and improve reproductive success.
    • Swarming behaviour in elite race bunch cycling: a case study

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; White, Christopher; Murray, Stafford; University of Chester (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2011-04)
      The current study undertook a dynamical systems analysis of race bunch cycling, considering the 'sports contest' as a dynamical, self organising system (McGarry et al., 2002). Data from one international track racing event was used to analyse a potential non-linear aggregation theory of 'swarming' in the 'points race', with two objectives; 1) To identify a race profile of a basic swarm mentality within the points race; 2) To identify system stability and the possible perturbation of stability in relation to successful and unsuccessful breakaways. Stability was based upon a 'normal' profile of race behaviours, measured by three separate dependent measures, namely; Absolute Difference, Rate of Change and Phase Duration. Results showed; 1) The points race exhibits the quintessential 'attract and repel' elements that characterise the swarm mentality 2) One-way ANOVA revealed that breakaways of both successful (3.3±1.2 half laps) and unsuccessful (3.1±1.5 half laps) conditions tend to differ from the race 'norm' (2.1±1.3 half laps) in terms of phase duration (F(2, 228)=18.4, P<0.05), suggesting that breakaways perturb the system through longer attract and repel phases. Results are discussed in relation to the current and future effectiveness of describing race bunch cycling as a dynamical system.
    • Systematic review and meta-analysis of group cognitive behavioural psychotherapy for sub-clinical depression

      Krishna, Murali; Lepping, Peter; Jones, Steven; Lane, Stephen; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-06-04)
      Key Points • Group CBT for patients with sub-threshold depression has a significant effect on depressive symptomatology at post treatment in both working age and older adult population. • Group CBT does not appear to reduce the incidence of major depressive disorders. • Group CBT has minimal or no effect on depressive symptomatology during follow-up. The article considers group psychotherapy in sub-threshold depression to investigate if group psychological interventions reduce depressive symptoms post treatment, and whether these interventions result in a reduced incidence of new cases of major depressive disorder.
    • A Systems Biology Approach Reveals a Calcium-Dependent Mechanism for Basal Toxicity in Daphnia magna.

      Antczak, Philip; White, Thomas A.; Giri, Anirudha; Michelangeli, Francesco; Viant, Mark R.; Cronin, Mark T. D.; Vulpe, Chris; Falciani, Francesco; University of Birmingham, University of Liverpool, University of California, Berkley, Liverpool John Moores, Assam University (ACS publications, 2015-09-01)
      The expanding diversity and ever increasing amounts of man-made chemicals discharged to the environment pose largely unknown hazards to ecosystem and human health. The concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) emerged as a comprehensive framework for risk assessment. However, the limited mechanistic information available for most chemicals and a lack of biological pathway annotation in many species represent significant challenges to effective implementation of this approach. Here, a systems level, multistep modeling strategy demonstrates how to integrate information on chemical structure with mechanistic insight from genomic studies, and phenotypic effects to define a putative adverse outcome pathway. Results indicated that transcriptional changes indicative of intracellular calcium mobilization were significantly overrepresented in Daphnia magna (DM) exposed to sublethal doses of presumed narcotic chemicals with log Kow ≥ 1.8. Treatment of DM with a calcium ATPase pump inhibitor substantially recapitulated the common transcriptional changes. We hypothesize that calcium mobilization is a potential key molecular initiating event in DM basal (narcosis) toxicity. Heart beat rate analysis and metabolome analysis indicated sublethal effects consistent with perturbations of calcium preceding overt acute toxicity. Together, the results indicate that altered calcium homeostasis may be a key early event in basal toxicity or narcosis induced by lipophilic compounds.
    • A tabular method for performing Fourier analysis of complex biological shape

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for The Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1997-12-01)
      Whilst linear dimensions are easily measured and analysed numerically, curvilinear forms are difficult both to define and to compare and are frequently left unexplored. A method of describing curved or non-uniform shapes, which has become popular among a number of biological workers, is Fourier analysis — a numerical analytical technique with an established mathematical background. Of the three stages followed when using this technique to describe biological shape - the construction of a wave-like curve from the shape being studied, the numerical (Fourier) analysis and the use of the Fourier coefficients to perform statistical analyses - that of how the Fourier analysis is performed is largely unreported. This leaves many unclear about how to perform a technique which they may otherwise find useful. A tabular method, which allows the computational steps of Fourier analysis to be monitored throughout, is described. This procedure can be readily performed, using a computer spreadsheet or on paper. The original curve may also be reconstructed from the Fourier coefficients, allowing one to check the success and accuracy of the method and to determine the number of coefficients necessary to define the shape to the required precision.
    • Tackling the "couch potato" culture amongst children and young people

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; University College Cheter (2004)
    • A tale of two sites - how RIGS can complement SSSIs

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 2005)
      This article discusses the Dee Cliffs SSSI in Farndon and the Holt Castle quarry RIGS.
    • Targeting long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with oligonucleotides in cancer therapy

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; University of Chester; Keele University (AME Publishing Company, 2016-10)
      No abstract
    • The technical demands of amateur boxing: Effect of contest outcome, weight and ability

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-03)
      As research to-date has typically considered the technical features of amateur boxing performance with respect to contest outcome only, this study examined the offensive and defensive technical demands with respect to the independent and interactive effects of contest outcome, weight class and ability. Appraising eight offensive and four defensive actions and their corresponding outcomes (successful/unsuccessful), the technical demands of competitive boxing from 84 English amateurs (age: 21.3 ± 3.1 y; body mass: 68.1 ± 11.4 kg) across 11 weight categories (48 – 91+ kg) and two standards of competition (regional and national) were notated using computerized software. Data analysis reinforced that amateur boxing produces high technical loads (e.g. ~ 25 punches and ~ 10 defences per minute) and that performance is influenced significantly by the study’s independent variables. In particular, boxing standard (ability) was positively associated with external load (frequency of offensive and defensive actions), and winning was associated with high offensive and low defensive frequencies, whereas weight class had an inconsistent impact on technical performance. It is recommended that appraisals of performance and approaches to training and competition should take heed of our observations and that future research considers the role of other independent variables, including opposition quality and ‘style’, likely to affect boxing performance.
    • Technical note: Validation of an automatic recording system to assess behavioural activity level in sheep (Ovis aries).

      McLennan, Krista M.; Skillings, Elizabeth, A.; Rebelo, Carlos J. B.; Corke, Murray J.; Pires Moreira, Maria A.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; University of Cambridge; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (Elsevier, 2015-06-01)
      The welfare of an individual can be assessed by monitoring behavioural changes, such as inactivity, that may indicate injury or disease. In this study we validated the Actiwatch Mini® activity monitor (AM) for automatic recording of behavioural activity levels of nine Texel ewes. The AM devices were attached to collars placed around the necks of the ewes. AM recordings were taken at 25 second intervals for 21 consecutive days and in addition, direct behavioural observations made on days 9 to 13. AM recordings were compared with direct behavioural observations to investigate whether different levels of behaviour activity could be distinguished by the AM. Six different behaviours were matched to the activity scores recorded by the AM which were low activity (lying ruminating, lying), medium activity (standing, standing ruminating, and grazing) and high activity behaviours (walking). There were differences in the activity scores for all three scores. However, higher levels of accuracy in distinguishing between activity levels were achieved when combining high and medium activity level behaviours. This method of capturing data provides a practical tool in studies assessing the impact of disease or injury. For example, assessing the effects of lameness on the activity level of sheep at pasture, without the presence of an observer influencing behaviour.
    • Test-retest reliability in quantitative physical education research: A commentary

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 1998-10-01)
      This paper highlights an important statistical development for exercise and physical education research. Traditionally, the Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients have been liberally used by researchers to quantify the test-retest reliability of many performance, behavioural, and physiologically-related measurements. The suitability of these forms of analyses has recently been challenged by British exercise scientists, who argue that they do not really address what they are meant to, that is, the level of agreement between repeated measurements or scores. As a consequence, our existing knowledge of the reliability of such measurements is questionable and deserves to be re-established with a more appropriate statistical technique. Accordingly, the 95% Limits of Agreement method is presented and offered as an essential supplement for future measurement and evaluation research.
    • The Differences in Acute Management of Asthma in Adults and Children

      Chavasse, Richard; Scott, Stephen (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019-03-11)
      Acute asthma or wheeze is a common presentation to emergency services for both adults and children. Although there are phenotypic differences between asthma syndromes, the management of acute symptoms follow similar lines. This article looks at the similarities and differences in approaches for children and adults. Some of these may be age dependent, such as the physiological parameters used to define the severity of the attack or the use of age appropriate inhaler devices. Other differences may reflect the availability of evidence. In other areas there is conflicting evidence between adult and pediatric studies such as a temporary increase in dose of inhaled corticosteroids during an acute attack. Overall there are more similarities than differences.
    • The Importance of Metrology and Standardization of Nanomaterials for Food Industry and Regulatory Authorities in Europe

      Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Chaudhry, Qasim (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017-01-20)
    • The importance of perturbations in elite squash: An analysis of their ability to successfully predict rally outcome

      Roddy, Ryan; Lamb, Kevin L.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the presence of perturbations within elite squash through the analysis of critical incidents responsible for successful rally outcome.
    • The World Anti-Doping Agency at 20: progress and challenges

      Houlihan, Barrie; Vidar Hanstad, Dag; Loland, Sigmund; Waddington, Ivan (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-06)