• Stimulating public interest in our urban environment in Wales / Ennyn diddirdeb y cyhoedd yn ein hamgylchedd trefol yng Nghymru

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Cadw, 2005-01-01)
      This book chapter discusses urban geology trails in Wales and how they can act as an inexpensive method of increasing public awareness of local geology.
    • Stimulating public interest in our urban geology in Wales

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (National Museums and Galleries of Wales, 2009-05-11)
    • Stochastic ordering of simulated rugby match activity produces reliable movements and associated measures of subjective task load, cognitive and neuromuscular function

      Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-31)
      The study assesses the test–retest reliability of movement and physiological measures during a simulated rugby match that employed activities performed in a stochastic order. Twenty male rugby players (21.4 ± 2.1 y) completed two trials of a 2 × 23 min rugby movement simulation protocol during which the order of events was performed in a stochastic order, with 7–10 days between trials. Movement characteristics, heart rate (HR), RPE, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA%) of the quadriceps, Stroop test and subjective task load rating (NASA-TLX) were measured. The most reliable measures of external load was relative distance (typical error [TE] and CV% = 1.5–1.6 m min−1 and 1.4–1.5%, respectively), with all other movement characteristics possessing a CV% <5%. The most reliable measure of internal load, neuromuscular function and perceptual measures were for %HRmax (TE and CV% = 1.4–1.7% and 1.4–2.1%, respectively), MVC before (TE and CV% = 10.8–14.8 N·m and 3.8–4.6%, respectively), and average RPE (TE and CV% = 0.5–0.8 AU and 3.6–5.5%, respectively). The Stroop test, NASA-TLX and blood lactate produced the least reliable measures (CV% >5%). Future studies can confidently examine changes in several perceptual, neuromuscular, physiological and movement measures related to rugby activity using stochastic movements.
    • Strenght training methods and the work of Arthur Jones

      Smith, Dave; Bruce-Low, Stewart; University College Chester (American Society of Exercise Physiologists, 2004-12)
      This paper reviews research evidence relating to the strength training advice offered by Arthur Jones, founder and retired Chairman of Nautilus Sports/Medical Industries and MedX Corporation. Jones advocated that those interested in improving their muscular size, strength, power and/or endurance should perform one set of each exercise to muscular failure (volitional fatigue), train each muscle group no more than once (or, in some cases, twice) per week, perform each exercise in a slow, controlled manner and perform a moderate number of repetitions (for most people, ~8-12). This advice is very different to the strength training guidelines offered by the National Strength and Conditioning Association, the American College of Sports Medicine and most exercise physiology textbooks. However, in contrast to the lack of scientific support for most of the recommendations made by such bodies and in such books, Jones' training advice is strongly supported by the peer-reviewed scientific literature, a statement that has recently been supported by a review of American College of Sports Medicine resistance training guidelines. Therefore, we strongly recommend Jones' methods to athletes and coaches, as they are time-efficient and optimally efficacious, and note that, given his considerable contribution to the field of strength training, academic recognition of this contribution is long overdue.
    • Studies in cancellous bone in osteoarthritis

      Williams, John H. H.; Brown, Sharon J. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)Charles Salt Research Centre, Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry, 2002-06)
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common musculoskeletal disability and represents a major health burden to society. Pathological changes are found in all tissues of the joint; however studies on bone are few. The aims of this thesis were to characterize some of the densitometric, mechanical and compositional properties of cancellous bone from the Superior (Sup) and Inferior (Inf) regions of human femoral heads, and to compare age-selected healthy bones with those from patients with end-stage OA. From coronal sections of the femoral head, bone cores were drilled out along the anterior-posterior axis and non-adherent fatty tissues removed. Measurements of apparent (PA), true (pj) and volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv) were made prior to determining the ultrasound-derived elastic modulus (Eu) and the compression-derived parameters, compressive modulus (Ec), yield strength (CTY) and yield energy (Wy). From aliquots of powdered bone, calcium and hydroxyproline were determined and a minerahcollagen ratio calculated, and osteocalcin, IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 measured by RIA. Another aliquot was processed to remove soft tissue, demineralized in EDTA and the resulting collagen matrix digested with trypsin. From these crude tryptic digests (CTDs), divalently and trivalently (ICTP, IIINTP) crosslinked collagen telopeptides and procollagen propeptides of collagens type I and III were analysed by RIA. PA, BMDv, EC, ay, Wy and EU were systematically increased in cores from the Sup region of both Normal and OA groups (all/KO.05) and reflects differences in loading experienced by this region. In OA bone, PA, BMDv and EU were increased in the Inf region (all/KO.05) possibly as a result of adaptation of the bone to altered loading patterns at the hip. Furthermore, the relationship between EC and PA was different to those in Normals (p=0.019) indicating that other factors, such as architecture, may influence the stiffness of cancellous bone. Of the compositional measures, IGFBP-5 was systematically increased in both regions of OA bone (all /?<0.005) and may be the factor responsible for maintenance of bone mass in OA. The minerahcollagen ratio was decreased in the OA Sup region (p=0.008) indicating undermineralization of bone. In the mineralized matrix of OA bone, concentrations of ICTP:collagencTD and type III collagen antigens were increased in both Sup and Inf regions (all/><0.05) suggesting an increase in type I collagen trivalent crosslinking at the Qtelopeptide and an overall increase in type III collagen respectively. Of the relationships between the various properties, inverse correlations were found between mineral.'collagen and ICTPrcollagenciD ratios (rs= -0.36,/?<0.05) in the OA group indicating increased trivalent collagen crosslinking when bone is under mineralized. In the Normal group PA correlated inversely with IGFBP-5 (rs=-0.64 and -0.72, bothp<0.05) and OC (rs=-0.59,/7=0.056 and -0.71, p<0.05) at both Sup and Inf regions respectively, but were lost in the OA group suggesting loss of regulation at this level in OA. hi conclusion, the cancellous bone in OA femoral heads is denser, but not stiffer than that of Normal bone, and has an altered composition with respect to both structural (ICTP) and regulatory (IGFBP-5) factors which may affect the quality of the bone matrix.
    • Submaximal Exercise Testing in Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Settings (BEST Study)

      Reed, Jennifer L; Cotie, LM; Cole, CA; Harris, Jennifer; Moran, B; Scott, K; Buckley, John P; Pipe, Andrew L; University of Ottawa, University Centre Shrewsbury/Chester
      Abstract BACKGROUND: This study compared changes in measured versus predicted peak aerobic power (V̇O2 peak) following cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR). Peak cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) results were compared to four V̇O2 peak estimation methods: the submaximal modified Bruce treadmill, Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer, and Chester step tests, and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI). METHODS: Adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) who completed a 12-week CR program were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks follow-up. CPET, the DASI and three subsequent submaximal exercise tests were performed in a random order. RESULTS: Of the 50 adults (age: 57 ± 11 years) who participated, 46 completed the 12-week CR program and exercise tests. At baseline 69, 68, and 38% of the treadmill, step and cycle tests were successfully completed, respectively. At follow-up 67, 80, and 46% of the treadmill, step and cycle tests were successfully completed, respectively. No severe adverse events occurred. Significant improvements in V̇O2 peak were observed with CPET (3.6 ± 5.5 mL.kg-1.min-1, p < 0.001) and the DASI (2.3 ± 4.2 mL.kg-1.min-1, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots of the change in V̇O2 peak between CPET and the four V̇O2 peak estimation methods revealed the following: a proportional bias and heteroscedastic 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) for the treadmill test, and for the cycle and step tests and DASI, mean bias' and 95% LoA of 1.0 mL.kg-1.min-1 (21.3, -19.3), 1.4 mL.kg-1.min-1 (15.0, -12.3) and 1.0 mL.kg-1.min-1 (13.8, -11.8), respectively. CONCLUSION: Given the greater number of successful tests, no serious adverse events and acceptable mean bias, the step test appears to be a valid and safe method for assessing group-level mean changes in V̇O2 peak among patients in CR. The DASI also appears to be a valid and practical questionnaire. Wide limits of agreement, however, limit their use to predict individual-level changes. Copyright © 2020 Reed, Cotie, Cole, Harris, Moran, Scott, Terada, Buckley and Pipe. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular diseases; exercise test; physiology; rehabilitation; submaximal
    • Sulthiame add-on therapy for epilepsy

      Bresnahan, Rebecca; Milburn-McNulty, Philip; Powell, Graham; Sills, Graeme; Marson, Anthony G.; Martin-McGill, Kirsty J.; University of Chester; University of Liverpool; The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust; University of Glasgow; Liverpool Health Partners (Wiley, 2019-08-27)
      Background This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 10. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, characterised by recurrent seizures. Most people respond to conventional antiepileptic drugs, however, around 30% will continue to experience seizures, despite treatment with multiple antiepileptic drugs. Sulthiame, also known as sultiame, is a widely used antiepileptic drug in Europe and Israel. We present a summary of the evidence for the use of sulthiame as add-on therapy in epilepsy. Objectives To assess the efficacy and tolerability of sulthiame as add-on therapy for people with epilepsy of any aetiology compared with placebo or another antiepileptic drug. Search methods For the latest update, we searched the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy Group’s Specialized Register and CENTRAL (17 January 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to January 16, 2019), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP Search Portal (17 January 2019). We imposed no language restrictions. We contacted the manufacturers of sulthiame, and researchers in the field to seek any ongoing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of add-on sulthiame, with any level of blinding (single, double or unblinded) in people of any age, with epilepsy of any aetiology. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted relevant data. We assessed these outcomes: (1) 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency between baseline and end of follow-up; (2) complete cessation of seizures during follow-up; (3) mean seizure frequency; (4) time-to-treatment withdrawal; (5) adverse effects; and (6) quality of life. We used intention-to-treat for primary analyses. We presented results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). However, due to the paucity of trials, we mainly conducted a narrative analysis. Sulthiame add-on therapy for epilepsy (Review) 1 Copyright © 2019 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For Preview Only Main results We included one placebo-controlled trial that recruited 37 infants with newly diagnosed West syndrome. This trial was funded by DESITIN Pharma, Germany. During the study, sulthiame was given as an add-on therapy to pyridoxine. No data were reported for the outcomes: 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency between baseline and end of follow-up; mean seizure frequency; or quality of life. For complete cessation of seizures during a nine-day follow-up period for add-on sulthiame versus placebo, the RR was 11.14 (95% CI 0.67 to 184.47; very low-certainty evidence), however, this difference was not shown to be statistically significant (P = 0.09). The number of infants experiencing one or more adverse events was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.64; very low-certainty evidence; P = 0.63). Somnolence was more prevalent amongst infants randomised to add-on sulthiame compared to placebo, but again, the difference was not statistically significant (RR 3.40, 95% CI 0.42 to 27.59; very low-certainty evidence; P = 0.25). We were unable to conduct meaningful analysis of time-to-treatment withdrawal and adverse effects due to incomplete data. Authors’ conclusions Sulthiame may lead to a cessation of seizures when used as an add-on therapy to pyridoxine in infants with West syndrome, however, we are very uncertain about the reliability of this finding. The included study was small and had a significant risk of bias, largely due to the lack of details regarding blinding and the incomplete reporting of outcomes. Both issues negatively impacted the certainty of the evidence. No conclusions can be drawn about the occurrence of adverse effects, change in quality of life, or mean reduction in seizure frequency. No evidence exists for the use of sulthiame as an add-on therapy in people with epilepsy outside West syndrome. Large, multi-centre randomised controlled trials are needed to inform clinical practice, if sulthiame is to be used as an add-on therapy for epilepsy
    • Sure Start Blacon parent satisfaction survey

      Pearson, Charlotte; Thurston, Miranda; University College Chester (University College Chester, 2004-11)
      This report evaluates parent satisfaction with Sure Start in the Chester suburb of Blacon in 2004.
    • Sure Start Blacon reach report, April 2004 - March 2005

      Ward, Fiona; Alford, Simon; Thurston, Miranda; Pearson, Charlotte (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-03)
      This project report discusses Sure Start computerised records (covering personal details of all registrations within the Sure Start programme and records of each serivce and which service users have accessed them) which allow the 'reach' of the local programme across Blacon to be established between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2005.
    • Sure Start Blacon: Parent satisfaction survey

      Pearson, Charlotte; Thurston, Miranda; University College Chester (University College Chester, 2004-11)
      This report evaluates Sure Start in the Chester suburb of Blacon
    • Sure Start Dino parent satisfaction survey

      Manning, Rebecca; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-02)
      This project report evaluates the Sure Start Dino programme, established in 2002, in Halton.
    • Sure Start Ellesmere Port parent satisfaction survey 2004

      Barrow, Marjorie; Thurston, Miranda; University College Chester (University College Chester, 2005-01)
      This report aimed to establish levels of satisfaction with services amongst families eligible to access Sure Start in Ellesmere Port and to promote Sure Start services.
    • Sure Start Ellesmere Port reach report, May 2005 - December 2005

      Alford, Simon; Thurston, Miranda (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-07)
      This project report discusses the 'reach' of the Sure Start programme in Ellesmere Port.
    • Sure Start Halton Children’s Centres: User satisfaction survey

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine; University of Chester, Centre for Public Health Research (University of Chester, 2008-05)
      Children’s Centres are required to establish, on an annual basis, the percentage of parents with children aged 0 to 5 years reporting that they are satisfied with the services for families with young children. The Centre for Public Health Research (CPHR) was commissioned to undertake this survey of parent and carer satisfaction with Halton Children’s Centres’ services in February 2008. The survey was the first of this kind to be carried out on behalf of all Halton Children’s Centres.
    • Sure Start Jolly Giraffe user satisfaction survey

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine; Davies, Sarah (Cente for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-07)
      This project report discusses an evaluation of the Sure Start Jolly Giraffe programme in Halton.
    • Sure Start new steps user satisfaction survey

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-07)
      This project report discusses users' satifaction with Sure Start services in the New Steps area.
    • Sure Start Widnes Children’s Centres: An evaluation of a new programme

      Powell, Katie; Perry, Catherine; Alford, Simon (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2007-06-01)
      This project reports evaluates the publicity material created and used by Sure Start Widnes Children's Centres.
    • Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer research report, April 2004-March 2005

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-04)
      This project report discusses Sure Start computerised records (covering personal details of all registrations within the Sure Start programme and records of each serivce and which service users have accessed them) which allow the development of Sure Start to be monitored on a national scale. Monitoring data loaded onto a Meggs, Costoya and Attfield database and combined the use of a range of computer-based programmes to interrogate, analyse and evaluate the reach of Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer and the individual services which the programme has delivered between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2005.
    • Sure Start Widnes Trailblazer user satisfaction survey

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2005-11)
      This project report discusses a user satisifaction survey with Sure Start services in the WidnesTrailblazer area.
    • Sure Start Winsford parent satisfaction survey

      Davies, Sarah; Thurston, Miranda (Centre for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-01)
      This project report evaluates user satisfaction with Sure Start services for families with young children.