• Misperception: No evidence to dismiss RPE as regulator of moderate-intensity exercise

      Eston, Roger; Coquart, J.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of South Australia; Universite´ de Rouen; University of Chester (American College of Sports Medicine, 2015-12-01)
      Dear Editor-in-Chief, Shaykevich et al. (7) demonstrate the efficacy of auditory feedback anchored at 75% of age-predicted HRmax to regulate intensity (claimed as ‘‘moderate’’) during several 20-min bouts of cycling. Their technical approach is novel, but 76% HRmax is the upper limit of moderate intensity, so given the large error in age-predicted HRmax, it is unlikely that their exercise bandwidth was ‘‘moderate’’ for all participants. This is not our major concern, but it reveals one among other inaccuracies: the most serious include training, interpretation, and inferences relating to the RPE.
    • Mission impossible? Reflecting upon the relationship between physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-05-08)
      It is widely believed that school physical education (PE) is or, at the very least, can (even should) be a crucial vehicle for enhancing young people’s engagement with physically active recreation (typically but not exclusively in the form of sport) in their leisure and, in the longer run, over the life-course. Despite the prevalence of such beliefs there remains a dearth of evidence demonstrating a ‘PE effect’. Indeed, the precise nature of the relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation is seldom explored other than in implicit, often speculative and discursive, ways that simply take-for-granted the positive effects of the former (PE) on the latter (youth and adult participation in sport and physically active recreation). Using largely European studies to frame the issue, this paper reflects upon the supposedly ‘causal’ relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation and, in doing so, highlights the inherent problems associated with attempts to identify, characterise and establish a ‘PE effect’.
    • Mitochondrial ROS regulate oxidative damage and mitophagy but not age-related muscle fiber atrophy

      Nye, Gareth; Sakellariou, Giorgos; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Griffiths, Richard; Jackson, Malcolm; McArdle, Anne; et al. (Nature Research, 2016-09-29)
      Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. The potential role of age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cumulative oxidative stress as the underlying cause of muscle aging remains a controversial topic. Here we show that the pharmacological attenuation of age-related mitochondrial redox changes in muscle with SS31 is associated with some improvements in oxidative damage and mitophagy in muscles of old mice. However, this treatment failed to rescue the age-related muscle fiber atrophy associated with muscle atrophy and weakness. Collectively, these data imply that the muscle mitochondrial redox environment is not a key regulator of muscle fiber atrophy during sarcopenia but may play a key role in the decline of mitochondrial organelle integrity that occurs with muscle aging.
    • A mixed methods study of the early development of childhood overweight and obesity: Understanding the process of infant feeding

      Thurston, Miranda; Perry, Catherine (University of Liverpool (University of Chester)University of Chester, 2013-03)
      Prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased in adult and child populations during the last two to three decades in both developed and developing countries. Childhood obesity is common in the United Kingdom and has become a major public health issue. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that the development of overweight and obesity in children has its roots in early life, with evidence of increasing weight over time in pre-school children. The study explored the early development of overweight in infants in Halton, an area of Northwest England. It was a mixed methods study comprising a quantitative analysis of routinely collected infant weight data and a longitudinal qualitative study of the process of weaning. Phase one - patterns of weight in Halton infants: The retrospective quantitative study utilised birthweight, and weight and length/height at eight weeks, eight months and 40 months of age from Halton infants born between 1994 and 2006 (16,328 singleton births). Analysis of these data provided further evidence of the early development of overweight, and highlighted patterns of infant overweight at eight months of age not previously reported. Phase two - longitudinal qualitative study of the process of weaning: Given the findings of phase one, factors that may influence early weight gain were considered. Therefore, the second phase focussed upon weaning, which has been little researched in terms of the way in which mothers manage the process. The aim was to explore weaning as a social process, focussing on the experience, knowledge, perceptions and actions of mothers as they weaned, in order to consider whether this could shed light on infant growth and development in general and the early development of overweight in particular. A grounded theory approach was utilised. Twenty one women were recruited and interviewed antenatally and then up to three times after their babies were born. A total of 67 interviews took place. A grounded theory, or ‘plausible account’, of the weaning process was developed. The centrality of the baby, and the way in which mothers talk about following the lead of the baby as they wean was highlighted, along with the ways in which this focus may falter or shift because of the complexity of influences on mothers’ lives. The primacy of embodied knowledge, that is the knowledge that mothers built up through the experience of feeding and weaning their infant, and the significance of being a mother in terms of being an ‘authority’ on feeding and weaning, were evident. In addition, the limitations of providing information, such as the feeding and weaning guidelines, without taking account of the individual mother, infant and their context was indicated. This is how some mistrust of the advice of health professionals, and possibly other ‘health messages’ emerged, as mothers did not see the advice as appropriate to them, their infant, or circumstances. Mothers did recognise babies as ‘bigger’ or ‘smaller’, but through valuing weight and weight gain were particularly aware of having small babies, which may have limited their capacity for recognising the significance of early signs of overweight in their infants. Final conclusions: Using mixed methods in this study allowed a broad picture of patterns of weight and overweight in Halton infants, and what some of the contributory factors to those patterns might be, to emerge, than if a single research method had been used. A number of implications for policy and practice: at an individual level in terms of the way in which women are supported to feed and wean their babies; and at a population level in terms of the monitoring of weight, were identified.
    • MODIS time series contribution for the estimation of nutritional properties of alpine grassland

      Ranghetti, Luigi; Bassano, Bruno; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Polmonari, Alberto; Formigoni, Andrea; Stendardi, Laura; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Università di Pavia; Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso; Università di Bologna; Università di Firenze; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-02-17)
      Despite the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used to make predictions on forage quality, its relationship with bromatological field data has not been widely tested. This relationship was investigated in alpine grasslands of the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italian Alps). Predictive models were built using remotely sensed derived variables (NDVI and phenological information computed from MODIS) in combination with geo-morphometric data as predictors of measured biomass, crude protein, fibre and fibre digestibility, obtained from 142 grass samples collected within 19 experimental plots every two weeks during the whole 2012 growing season. The models were both cross-validated and validated on an independent dataset (112 samples collected during 2013). A good predictability ability was found for the estimation of most of the bromatological measures, with a considerable relative importance of remotely sensed derived predictors; instead, a direct use of NDVI values as a proxy of bromatological variables appeared not to be supported.
    • Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Arabinoxylans

      Fadel, Abdulmannan; Plunkett, Andrew; Li, Weili; Ashworth, Jason J.; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; Al-Baha University; Al-Ahliyya Amman University; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Istanbul Universitesi (Wiley, 2017-11-30)
      Humans are exposed to harmful pathogens and a wide range of noxious substances every day.The immune system reacts to, and destroys, these pathogens and harmful substances. The immunesystem is composed of innate and adaptive immunity, which liaise to protect the host and maintainhealth. Foods, especially cereals, have been reported to modulate the immune response.Arabinoxylans are nonstarch polysaccharides that have been shown to possess immune-modulatory activities. This review article discusses the fundamentals of the immune system andprovides an overview of the immunomodulatory potential of arabinoxylans in conjunction withtheir structural characteristics and proposed similarities with lipopolysaccharides
    • Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Tumour Suppressor GAS5 LncRNA

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; Keele University (MDPI, 2015-07-07)
      It is increasingly recognised that lncRNAs play essential regulatory roles in fundamental biological processes and, consequently, that their dysregulation may contribute to major human diseases, including cancer. Better understanding of lncRNA biology may therefore offer new insights into pathogenetic mechanisms and thereby offer novel opportunities for diagnosis and therapy. Of particular interest in this regard is GAS5 lncRNA, which is down-regulated in multiple cancers, with expression levels related to both clinico-pathological characteristics and patient prognosis. Functional studies have further shown that GAS5 lncRNA both inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of multiple cell types, and that together these cellular mechanisms of action are likely to form the basis of its tumour suppressor action. At the same time, advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of GAS5 lncRNA action in recent years, including riborepression of certain steroid hormone receptors and sequestration of miR-21, impacting key regulatory pathways of cell survival. Overall this accumulating knowledge has the potential to improve both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and ultimately patient outcome.
    • Monocytes/macrophages express CCR9 in rheumatoid arthritis and CCL25 stimulates their differentiation

      Schmutz, Caroline; Cartwright, Alison; Williams, Helen; Haworth, Oliver; Williams, John H. H.; Filer, Andrew; Salmon, Mike; Buckley, Christopher D.; Middleton, Jim F.; Keele University/University of Birmingham ; Keele University ; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham ; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham ; University of Birmingham ; University of Birmingham ; Keele University/University of Bristol (BioMed Central, 2010-08-05)
      Abstract Introduction Monocytes/macrophages accumulate in the rheumatoid (RA) synovium where they play a central role in inflammation and joint destruction. Identification of molecules involved in their accumulation and differentiation is important to inform therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the expression and function of chemokine receptor CCR9 in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovium of RA, non-RA patients and healthy volunteers. Methods CCR9 expression on PB monocytes/macrophages was analysed by flow cytometry and in synovium by immunofluorescence. Chemokine receptor CCR9 mRNA expression was examined in RA and non-RA synovium, monocytes/macrophages from PB and synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients and PB of healthy donors using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Monocyte differentiation and chemotaxis to chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25)/TECK were used to study CCR9 function. Results CCR9 was expressed by PB monocytes/macrophages in RA and healthy donors, and increased in RA. In RA and non-RA synovia, CCR9 co-localised with cluster of differentiation 14+ (CD14+) and cluster of differentiation 68+ (CD68+) macrophages, and was more abundant in RA synovium. CCR9 mRNA was detected in the synovia of all RA patients and in some non-RA controls, and monocytes/macrophages from PB and SF of RA and healthy controls. CCL25 was detected in RA and non-RA synovia where it co-localised with CD14+ and CD68+ cells. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) increased CCR9 expression on human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 monocytic cells. CCL25 induced a stronger monocyte differentiation in RA compared to healthy donors. CCL25 induced significant chemotaxis of PB monocytes but not consistently among individuals. Conclusions CCR9 expression by monocytes is increased in RA. CCL25 may be involved in the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages particularly in RA.
    • More than a game? The role of sports governing bodies in the development of sport education programmes

      Reid, Paul; University College Chester (SAGE, 2003-10-01)
      This article explores the extent to which young people can transfer the skills and knowledge gained from a sport education programme to contexts experienced outside the curriculum. Furthermore, it seeks to identify how and where governing bodies of sport can be influential in the promotion of sport education values outside the school context; that is to say, are governing bodies able to develop initiatives to encourage community clubs to adopt a supporting role in the promotion and delivery of sport education?
    • Morphological aspects of male and female hands

      Lewis, Stephen J.; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 1996)
      This journal article discusses a series of hand radiographs from Gwynedd, North Wales, which were assessed for frequencies in digital and metacarpal formulae between the genders.
    • The movement and physiological demands of international and regional men's touch rugby matches

      Beaven, Robert; Highton, Jamie M.; Thorpe, Cari; Knott, Emma; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University; Huddersfield University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-05-14)
      This study compared the internal and external match demands imposed on international and regional standard male touch rugby players. The study adopted a cohort design with independent groups. Twelve international players (mean age 27.8 ± 6.2 y, body mass 72.8 ± 3.7 kg, stature 174.5 ± 5.4 cm) and nine regional players (mean age 25.5 ± 5.5 y, body mass 74.2 ± 7 kg, stature 174.1 ± 7 cm) were analysed during nine competitive matches from the 2013 season. Movement demands were measured using a 5 Hz global positioning system (GPS), alongside heart rate and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) to quantify internal load. Total distance covered by international players was lower than regional players (2265.8 ± 562.3 cf. 2970 ± 558.9 m, p<0.05). However, international players had greater relative distance (137.1 ± 13.6 cf. 126.2 ± 17.2 m·min) due to shorter playing times per match (p<0.05). Absolute high speed running (>14 km·h) was not different between groups (p>0.05), but relative high speed running (39.3 ± 12.0 cf. 26.0 ± 13.6 m·min) was higher for international players. Regional players performed more absolute low speed activity (≤14 km·h) than international players (p<0.05), whereas relative low speed activity was not different between groups (p>0.05). Very high speed running (>20 km·h) distance, bout number and frequency, peak and average speed were all greater in international players (p<0.05). Higher average heart rate, summated heart rate and s-RPE (p<0.05) indicated higher internal loads during matches for regional players. These data indicate that performance in men's touch rugby is characterised by more relative high speed running and better repeated sprint capacities in higher standard players.
    • Movement characteristics, physiological and perceptual responses of elite standard youth football players to different high intensity running drills

      Gibson, Neil; Henning, Greig; Twist, Craig; Heriot-Watt University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-06)
      Purpose: To examine responses to high intensity running drills in youth football players. Methods: Seventeen players completed the YoYo Intermittent Recovery test level one (YYIR1) and a 15 m maximal sprint to quantify target running speeds. Players performed three conditions on separate occasions comprising: 12 x 15 s high intensity runs at 100% of the final YYIRT1 speed, 12 x ~4 s repeated sprints with ~26 s recovery, and combination running using both modalities. Heart rate was monitored continuously with PlayerLoadTM and movement characteristics using microtechnology. Ratings of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses were measured 2 min after the final repetition. The ratio of Flight:contraction time was calculated from a countermovement jump before and at 2 min and 14 hours after each condition. Data analysis used magnitude based inferences and effect sizes statistics. Results: Peak speed (1.1%; ES 0.23 ± 0.44) and mean speed over the initial 4s (6.3%; ES 0.45 ± 0.46) were possibly faster during combination compared to high intensity running with unclear differences when compared to repeated sprinting. This was despite most likely (21.6%; ES 7.65 ± 1.02) differences in prescribed speeds between conditions. There were likely reductions in F:C at 14 hours ratio after high intensity (-5.6%; ES –0.44 ± 0.32) and combination running (-6.8%; ES -0.53 ± 0.47). Changes in the repeated sprinting condition were unclear. Conclusions: Actual movement characteristics of high intensity running drills may not reflect those used to prescribe them whilst reductions in F:C ratio are still evident 14 hours after their completion.
    • Movement demands of elite rugby league players during Australian National Rugby League and European Super League matches

      Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; Waldron, Mark; Edwards, Emma; Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim J.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; Sydney Swans Australian Football Club, Australia ; Australian Catholic University/University of Queensland (Human Kinetics Publishers, 2014-02-28)
      This study compared the movement demands of players competing in matches from the elite Australian and European rugby league competitions.
    • Moving primary physical education forward: start at the beginning

      Jess, Mike; McEvilly, Nollaig; Carse, Nicola; The University of Edinburgh; University of Chester; The University of Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-07)
      This paper presents selected findings from a questionnaire completed by 509 primary school teachers in Scotland. Drawing on policy enactment theory, the paper focusses on teachers’ personal experiences of physical education and perceptions of the importance of physical education in their schools. More than half (56%) reported that physical education was either ‘very important’ or ‘important’, while almost 40% perceived it to be of ‘limited’ or ‘very limited importance’. ‘Staff’, ‘time’ and ‘subject status’ were the main themes they drew on to explain their responses. Our findings highlight the diverse nature of the physical education professional cultures in Scottish primary schools. From this, we propose that future initiatives to support change in primary physical education should, as a starting point, acknowledge these diverse professional cultures and move beyond the simplistic one-size-fits-all change projects that have been shown to have limited impact on practice.
    • A multidisciplinary approach to structuring in reduced triacylglycerol based systems

      Bonwick, Graham A.; Young, Niall; Wassell, Paul (University of Chester, 2013-05)
      This study (Wassell & Young 2007; Wassell et al., 2010a) shows that behenic (C22:0) fatty acid rich Monoacylglycerol (MAG), or its significant inclusion, has a pronounced effect on crystallisation (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008) and interfacial kinetics (3.0; 4.0). New interfacial measurements demonstrate an unusual surface-interactive relationship of long chain MAG compositions, with and without Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR). A novel MAG synthesised from Moringa oleifera Triacylglycerol (TAG) influenced textural behaviour of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and anhydrous TAG systems (4.0: 5.0; 6.0). Emulsifier mixtures of PGPR and MAG rich in C18:1 / 18:2 and C16:0 / C18:0 do not decrease interfacial tension compared with PGPR alone. Only those containing MAG with significant proportion of C22:0 impacted interfacial behaviour. A mixture of C22:0 based MAG and PGPR results with decreasing tension from ~20°C and is initially dominated by PGPR, then through rearrangement, the surface is rapidly dominated by C22:0 fatty acids. A Moringa oleifera based MAG showed unusual decreased interfacial behaviour not dissimilar to PGPR. All other tested MAG (excluding a C22:0 based MAG), irrespective of fatty acid composition resulted with high interfacial tension values across the measured temperature spectrum (50°C to 5°C). A relative decrease of interfacial tension, with decreased temperature, was greater, the longer the chain length (Krog & Larsson 1992). Moreover, results from bulk and interfacial rheology showed that the presence of C22:0 based MAG has a pronounced effect on both elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G’’). Through a multidisciplinary approach, results were verified in relevant product applications. By means of ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique, it was possible to examine the effect of a C22:0 based MAG in an anhydrous TAG system whilst in a dynamic non-isothermal condition (3.0). The non-invasive UVP-PD technique conclusively validated structural events. The application of a Moringa oleifera based MAG in low TAG (35% - 41%), W/O emulsions, results in high emulsion stability without a co-surfactant (PGPR). The bi-functional behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG is probably attributed to miscibility (Ueno et al., 1994) of its fatty acids, ranging ~30% of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), with ~70% of C18:1 (5.0). It is concluded that the surface-interactive behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG, is attributed to approximately 10% of its SAFA commencing from C20:0. When examined separately and compared, results showed that physical effect of a Moringa oleifera based MAG was not dissimilar to PGPR, influencing the crystallisation kinetics of the particular anhydrous TAG system. When either was combined with a C22:0 rich MAG, enhanced gelation onset and strong propensity to form dendrite structure occurred (5.0). Macrobeam and synchrotron radiation microbeam small angle x-ray diffraction (SR-μ-SAXD) was utilized (6.0) to assess behavior of C22:0 rich MAG, with and without PGPR (Wassell et al., 2012). The C22:0 based MAG combined with PGPR promoted TAG crystallisation as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polarised optical microscopy (POM) observations indicated that C22:0 based MAG eliminates formation of large crystal aggregates, resulting in the likely formation of tiny Pickering TAG / MAG crystals (6.0). It is concluded that the presence and interactive behaviour of Pickering surface-active MAG, is strongly linked to increased fatty acid chain length, which induce increased textural resilience owing to viscoelasticity (4.0; 5.0). A multidisciplinary approach was able to verify structuring behaviour (4.0; 5.0), using multiple analyses (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008). Novel structuring solutions in reduced TAG based systems have been provided (4.0; 5.0). This study both enhances current understanding of structuring in low TAG W/O emulsions and has led to novel MAG compositions, which address emulsification, structuring and texture in TAG based food systems (Wassell et al., 2010a; 2012a; 2012b; 2012c; 2012d; 2012e; Bech et al., 2013).
    • Multifunctional poly(methacrylate) polyplex libraries: A platform for gene delivery inspired by nature.

      Favretto, Marco E.; Krieg, Andreas; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich; Brock, Roland; Department of Biochemistry, Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 2 Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), Eindhoven, The Netherlands 3 Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany 4 Jena Center for Soft Matter, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany 5 Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany (Elsevier, 2015-07-10)
      Polymer-based gene delivery systems have enormous potential in biomedicine, but their efficiency is often limited by poor biocompatibility. Poly(methacrylate)s (PMAs) are an interesting class of polymers which allow to explore structure-activity relationships of polymer functionalities for polyplex formation in oligonucleotide delivery. Here, we synthesized and tested a library of PMA polymers, containing functional groups contributing to the different steps of gene delivery, from oligonucleotide complexation to cellular internalization and endosomal escape. By variation of the molar ratios of the individual building blocks, the physicochemical properties of the polymers and polyplexes were fine-tuned to reduce toxicity as well as to increase activity of the polyplexes. To further enhance transfection efficiency, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-like functionality was introduced on the polymeric backbone. With the ability to synthesize large libraries of polymers in parallel we also developed a workflow for a mid-to-high throughput screening, focusing first on safety parameters that are accessible by high-throughput approaches such as blood compatibility and toxicity towards host cells and only at a later stage on more laborious tests for the ability to deliver oligonucleotides. To arrive at a better understanding of the molecular basis of activity, furthermore, the effect of the presence of heparan sulfates on the surface of host cells was assessed and the mechanism of cell entry and intracellular trafficking investigated for those polymers that showed a suitable pharmacological profile. Following endocytic uptake, rapid endosomal release occurred. Interestingly, the presence of heparan sulfates on the cell surface had a negative impact on the activity of those polyplexes that were sensitive to decomplexation by heparin in solution. In summary, the screening approach identified two polymers, which form polyplexes with high stability and transfection capacity exceeding the one of poly(ethylene imine) also in the presence of serum.
    • Multiple-sprint sport exercise and carbohydrate-protein ingestion in humans

      Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Highton, Jamie M. (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2012-03)
      The aim of the present thesis was to examine the potential for acute carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P) ingestion to enhance performance and recovery from exercise designed to simulate the demands of multiple-sprint sports (MSSs). Chapter 3 of the thesis explored the inter- and intra-day reliability and concurrent validity of non-motorised treadmill ergometry (NMT) for the assessment of short-distance sprint performance [i.e. 10-30 m). There were no significant mean differences between NMT variables recorded on the same day or between days. Ratio limits of agreement indicated that the best agreement was in 20 [1.02 */-=- 1.09) and 30 m [1.02 */* 1.07) sprint times, peak [1.00 */T 1.06) and mean (0.99 */+ 1.07) running speed and step length (0.99 */-=- 1.09) and frequency (1.01 */+ 1.06). The poorest agreement was observed for time to peak running speed (1.10 */* 1.47). Significant differences were observed between NMT and over-ground sprint times across all distances, with times being lower (faster) by approximately 25-30% over-ground. The correlations between NMT and over-ground variables were generally modest (r5 = 0.44 - 0.67), and optimal for time to cover 30 m on Day 2 (rs = 0.8). Chapter 4 sought to examine the efficacy of CHO-P ingestion during 4 h of recovery from the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) when compared to CHO matched for energy (ISOEN) or CHO (ISOCHO) in a typical CHO beverage. There were significant increases over time in muscle soreness, and reductions in extensor and flexor peak torque (by approximately 9%, 9% and 8%, and 13 %, 13% and 11% at 60 deg-s-1) and jump performance (10%, 7% and 5%) with the ingestion of CHO-P, ISOEN and ISOCHO, respectively. Beverage type x time interactions were not significant for any of these variables, indicating that changes in each variable were similar for all groups. Decrements in sprint performance assessed on the NMT were typically small and not different between beverage types (<4%), although sprint times over 20 and 30 m remained elevated for 48 h post-exercise. Accordingly, Chapter 4 provided no clear evidence for a benefit of ingesting CHO-P in the hours after exercise to enhance recovery of muscle function and selected performance variables following MSS activity. Chapters 5 and 6 of the thesis aimed to examine the effect of CHO-P ingestion during simulated MSS exercise. In Chapter 5, it was observed that sprint times, HR and gut fullness increased over the course of the LIST, with no influence of consuming each of the different beverages. In contrast, there was a main effect of time (P < 0.001), and drink (P = 0.042) observed for RPE, which was lower (P < 0.001) during the LIST in the CHO-P condition (16.9 ± 1.4) than in either the ISOCHO (17.8 ± 1.1) or ISOEN (17.7 ± 1.3). However, time to exhaustion was not different (P = 0.29) between CHO-P (468.3 ± 268.5 s), ISOCHO (443.4 ± 286.3 s) and ISOEN (446.2 ± 282.08 s), although these times did equate to a non-significant mean improvement of 4% in the CHO-P trial. Chapter 6 demonstrated that during a modified version of the LIST with two self-regulated blocks of exercise intensity, participants had a higher average speed (8.1 ± 0.3 cf. 7.9 ± 0.5 knvlr1) during the final (self-regulated) 15 min block of the LIST in the CHO-P condition compared to CHO. Whilst the mechanisms for such an improvement are not certain, the attenuated rise in RPE observed in Chapter 5, and increased blood urea concentration observed in Chapter 6, with CHO-P ingestion may suggest altered central fatigue and/or increased protein oxidation enhances performance during MSSs.
    • Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage: Considerations for athletic performance in children and adults

      Eston, Roger; Byrne, Christopher; Twist, Craig; University of Wales, Bangor ; DSO National Laboratories, Republic of Singapore ; NEWI/University of Wales, Bangor (Elsevier, 2004)
    • Muscling in on mitochondrial sexual dimorphism; role of mitochondrial dimorphism in skeletal muscle health and disease

      Nye, Gareth; Lightfoot, Adam; Sakellariou, Giorgos; Degans, Hans; University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University (Portland Press, 2017-07-07)
      Mitochondria are no longer solely regarded as the cellular powerhouse; instead, they are now implicated in mediating a wide-range of cellular processes, in the context of health and disease. A recent article in Clinical Science, Ventura-Clapier et al. highlights the role of sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial function in health and disease. However, we feel the authors have overlooked arguably one of the most mitochondria-rich organs in skeletal muscle. Many studies have demonstrated that mitochondria have a central role in mediating the pathogenesis of myopathologies. However, the impact of sexual dimorphism in this context is less clear, with several studies reporting conflicting observations. For instance in ageing studies, a rodent model reported female muscles have higher antioxidant capacity compared with males; in contrast, human studies demonstrate no sex difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative damage. These divergent observations highlight the importance of considering models and methods used to examine mitochondrial function, when interpreting these data. The use of either isolated or intact mitochondrial preparations in many studies appears likely to be a source of discord, when comparing many studies. Overall, it is now clear that more research is needed to determine if sexual dimorphism is a contributing factor in the development of myopathologies.
    • Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace: An examination of the underlying causes and contributory risk factors

      Fallows, Stephen; Gellatly, Pamela (University of Chester, 16/05/2018)
      Introduction The incidence of musculoskeletal disorders remain the most common single condition, by incidence, affecting the working population. This remains true even though the apparent historic causation of manual handling, has reduced significantly. Back pain alone has been termed a 20thcentury medical disaster, which has reverberated into the 21stcentury, with 85% of low back pain having no clear clinical diagnosis yet individuals continue to seek a clinical solution. Understanding pain remains as complex as ever with very little evidence to suggest progress. The overall scale and cost of MSDs in the workplace are not easily identifiable as objective and accurate data are rare. Other workplace incidence and costs are either, not recorded or not published, in documents or grey literature, that are generally only accessible to individual organisations on a regular basis. Objectives The epistemology of this thesis is complexity and the extent to which this influences outcomes. The trilogy of complexity considered includes: 1. The issues facing organisations in how they prevent and manage MSDs; 2. The individual’s perspective and what they understand about possible causation, their beliefs, fears and expectations; 3. The interface with clinical and non-clinical practitioners, and whether interventions provided, are beneficial to the individual. Consideration of the multiple perspectives that arise from the various influences affecting the organisation, the employees within that organisation and the practitioners, has been possible by the metaphoric use of a “bricolage” methodology, and suggests that the current medical model is no longer appropriate. Methods A mixed method research design comprising four studies was undertaken. Firstly, a retrospective quantitative study of data (n = 21,092) from benefits provided by four organisations followed by a qualitative case example study (n = 21) of supporting documents and clinical information. These studies then informed the need for a qualitative study (n= 9) symptomatic individuals who participated in a focus group and (n= 6) face-to-face interviews and finally a qualitative study of practitioners involved in the provision of treatment services to the participating organisations. The data from each study informed the others and the data merged with the findings from the literature review and common interventions. Conclusions A disparity was found between what has been identified in literature and what actually is considered in clinical practice. The healthcare industry operates in “silos” and this separation of disciplines is reflected in organisational management. The range of underlying risk factors, evident in modern society, which are affecting or may affect an individual’s future musculoskeletal health are not being addressed by the medical model, and practitioners require training, or need to work in a multidisciplinary team, if they are to improve long-term outcomes. This thesis discusses the complexity of the multifactorial nature of musculoskeletal health, and provides a framework to challenge current practice and promote a fundamental change in the way in we assess, and treat the range of MSDs including a move towards educating individuals to take personal responsibility.