• The place of sport and physical activity in young people's lives and its implications for health: Some sociological comments

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; University of Chester (Routledge, 2005-06)
      This exploratory paper seeks, first, to offer some critical sociological comments on the common-sense, or rather ideological, claims surrounding two supposedly emerging 'crises': namely, the alleged poor health and declining sport and physical activity participation levels of young people. In this regard, it is suggested that while young people are, in fact, doing more sport and physical activity than at any other time in the past, this process has, and continues to, co-occur with other prominent social processes (e.g., rising levels of overweight, obesity and sedentariness). Second, the paper begins to make sense of this seemingly 'irreconcilable paradox' by arguing for the need to make use of a sociological perspective that views the complexity of young people's lives 'in the round' and by locating them within the particular social interdependencies or relationships in which they are inescapably involved.
    • Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates osteoprotegerin production in osteoblastic cells

      McCarthy, Helen S.; Williams, John H. H.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry / University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Wiley, 2009-02)
      This article discusses how osteoprotegerin (OPG) production by osteoblastic cells was stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in two human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG63, Saos-2), a mouse pre-osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) by 152%, 197%, 113% and 45% respectively over 24 h. OPG was measured in the cell culture medium by immunoassay. PDGF isoforms AA, BB and AB show similar stimulation of OPG production. Message for OPG was also increased similarly to the increased secretion into the culture medium. Using specific inhibitors of cell signalling the authors demonstrate that PDGF acts through the PDGF receptor, PKC, PI3K, ERK and P38 and not via NF-kB or JNK. The importance of PDGF in fracture healing suggests a role for OPG production in countering bone resorption during the early phase of this process.
    • Player responses to match and training demands during an intensified fixture schedule in professional rugby league: A case study.

      Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; Daniels, Matthew; Mill, Nathan; Close, Graeme L.; University of Chester; St Helens RFC; Liverpool John Moores (Human Kinetics, 2017-09)
      Player loads and fatigue responses are reported in 15 professional rugby league players (24.3 ± 3.8 y) during a period of intensified fixtures. Repeated measures of internal and external loads, perceived well-being, and jump flight time were recorded across 22 d, comprising 9 training sessions and matches on days 5, 12, 15, and 21 (player exposure: 3.6 ± 0.6 matches). Mean training loads (session rating of perceived exertion × duration) between matches were 1177, 1083, 103, and 650 AU. Relative distance in match 1 (82 m/min) and match 4 (79 m/min) was very likely lower in match 2 (76 m/min) and likely higher in match 3 (86 m/min). High-intensity running (≥5.5 m/s) was likely to very likely lower than match 1 (5 m/min) in matches 2–4 (2, 4, and 3 m/min, respectively). Low-intensity activity was likely to very likely lower than match 1 (78 m/min) in match 2 (74 m/min) and match 4 (73 m/min) but likely higher in match 3 (81 m/min). Accumulated accelerometer loads for matches 1–4 were 384, 473, 373, and 391 AU, respectively. Perceived well-being returned to baseline values (~21 AU) before all matches but was very likely to most likely lower the day after each match (~17 AU). Prematch jump flight times were likely to most likely lower across the period, with mean values of 0.66, 0.65, 0.62, and 0.64 s before matches 1–4, respectively. Across a 22-d cycle with fixture congestion, professional rugby league players experience cumulative neuromuscular fatigue and impaired match running performance.
    • Playing exposure does not affect movement characteristics or physiological responses of elite youth footballers during an intensified period of competition.

      Gibson, Neil; McCunn, Robert; MacNay, Sophie; Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig; Heriot-Watt University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-08)
      This study investigated the effect of playing time on physiological and perceptual responses to six, 60 min matches played over five days. Thirty youth football players (age = 14.1 ± 0.4 years; body mass = 57.4 ± 12.9 kg; stature 169.3 ± 7.7 cm) were grouped into low (<250 min; LPG, n = 18) and high (≥250 min; HPG, n = 12) match exposure groups and monitored daily for lower body power and perceived wellness. GPS technology was used to assess match running demands in total distance (m•min-1), low (<13 km•h-1) and high (≥13 km•h-1) speed running categories. Hypothesis based testing and effect sizes (ES) were used to analyse data. The HPG performed moderately more total distance (103.7 ± 10.4 cf. 90.2 ± 19.7 m•min-1, P = 0.03; ES=0.74 ± 0.63) and high speed running (26.7 ± 6.6 cf. 20.3 ± 6.5 m•min-1, P = 0.01; ES=0.87 ± 0.6) than the LPG across all six matches. Differences of a small magnitude were observed between groups for lower body power (P = 0.08; ES =0.59 ± 0.8) and perceived wellness (P = 0.09; ES=0.42 ± 0.4) which were both higher in the HPG. Youth football players appear well equipped to deal with intensified period of competition, such as those experienced in tournaments, irrespective of match exposure.
    • Position specific differences in the anthropometric characteristics of elite European Super League rugby players

      Morehen, James C.; Routledge, Harry E.; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University (Routledge, 2015-01-05)
    • Practising at a higher level. Interview by Alison Moore.

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; Deeside Community Hospital (Scutari Projects, 2000)
    • Predicting maximal oxygen uptake via a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET)

      Morris, Mike; Lamb, Kevin L.; Cotterrell, David; Buckley, John P.; University of Chester (2009)
      Recent research has yielded encouraging, yet inconsistent findings concerning the validity and reliability of predicting maximal oxygen uptake (O2 max) from a graded perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET). Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to revisit the validity and reliability of this application of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) using a modified PRET protocol. Twenty-three volunteers (mean age, 31 ± 9.9 years) completed four counter-balanced PRETs (involving two 2-minute and two 3-minute bouts administered over 9 days, each separated by 48 hours) on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer and one maximal graded exercise test. Participants self-regulated their exercise at RPE levels 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17 in a randomized order. Oxygen uptake (O2) was recorded continuously during each bout. The O2 values for the RPE ranges 9-17, 9-15 and 9-13 were extrapolated to RPE 20 using regression analysis to predict individual O2 max scores.
    • Predicting the potential distribution of the Endangered huemul deer Hippocamelus bisulcus in North Patagonia

      Quevedo, Paloma; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Pastore, Hernan; Alvarez, Jose; Corti, Paulo; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität, Greifswald, Germany; University of Chester; Administración de Parques Nacionales, Bariloche, Argentina;Corporación Nacional Forestal, Chile, Universidad Austral de Chile (2017-04)
      Habitat loss is one of the main threats to wildlife, particularly large mammals. Estimating the potential distribution of threatened species to guide surveys and conservation is crucial, primarily because such species tend to exist in small fragmented populations. The Endangered huemul deer Hippocamelus bisulcus is endemic to the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina. Although the species occurs in the Valdivian Ecoregion, a hotspot for biodiversity, we have no information on its occupancy and potential distribution in this region. We built and compared species distribution models for huemul using the maximum entropy approach, using 258 presence records and sets of bioclimatic and geographical variables as predictors, with the objective of assessing the potential distribution of the species in the Valdivian Ecoregion. Annual temperature range and summer precipitation were the predictive variables with the greatest influence in the best-fitting model. Approximately 12,360 km2 of the study area was identified as suitable habitat for the huemul, of which 30% is included in the national protected area systems of Chile and Argentina. The map of potential distribution produced by our model will facilitate prioritization of future survey efforts in other remote and unexplored areas in which huemul have not been recorded since the 1980s, but where there is a high probability of their occurrence.
    • The prediction of maximal oxygen uptake from a perceptually-regulated exercise test (PRET)

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Buckley, John P.; Cotterrell, David; Morris, Mike (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2012-12)
      The Borg 6–20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale is a common measure reported during exercise testing and training, and is usually taken as a response measurement to provide a subjective assessment of exercise intensity. A lesser used application of the scale is for regulating exercise intensity, referred to as its ‘production mode’. Recent research on this topic initiated by Eston et al. (2005) has led to a novel application of this procedure as a means of predicting an individual’s maximal oxygen uptake ( O2max) via a perceptually-regulated exercise test (PRET). The PRET could play a significant role in guiding exercise prescription and monitoring cardiorespiratory fitness levels in situations where the normal heart rate response is affected. The aim of this thesis is to develop further and test the integrity of the PRET technique. Firstly, a review of the evidence on the validity and reliability of the Borg RPE scale when used to regulate exercise intensity in healthy and unhealthy adults is presented, as to-date, no scholarly publication has synthesised the body of knowledge on this specific application of the scale. Subsequently, four studies were completed to investigate the effects of different methodological variations on the predictive capabilities of the PRET, including an examination (for the first time) of its utility among heart failure patients (Study 4). Study 1 re-visited the validity and reliability of the PRET technique utilising a modified protocol of differing durations (2 and 4 min bouts), with revised instructions and placing the graded exercise test (GXT) as the final trial during cycle ergometry. Superior results were observed to those reported in previous investigations (Eston et al., 2008; Faulkner et al. 2007; Eston et al., 2006) during the 3 min trial, further reinforcing the validity and reliability of this technique. Accordingly, Study 2 was the first to investigate the reliability and validity of a treadmill PRET protocol with a ceiling intensity of RPE 15, rather than RPE 17, and observed that a safer modified PRET (with practice) provides acceptably valid and reliable predictions of O2max in healthy adults. In addition, Study 3 extended the research thus far by investigating the PRET protocol during cycle exercise, once again with a ceiling intensity of RPE 15, and demonstrated that (with practice) a cycle-based PRET can yield reliable and valid predictions of O2max that compare favourably to previous investigations. Finally, given that the research employing a PRET has unanimously alluded to its likely value in clinical populations among whom heart rate as a physiological response to exercise is affected (e.g. via medication) and precluded as a means predicting O2max, Study 4 investigated the utility of a PRET in a beta-blocked population of heart failure patients. In the event, it was observed that a PRET (up to RPE 15) was too strenuous and needs to be capped at an intensity of RPE 13 in this population. In addition a continuous protocol seemed unsuitable due to its length and it was recommended that a discontinuous PRET protocol be investigated. Future research needs to investigate the utilisation of the PRET (i) in different exercise modes; (ii) determine the optimum number of practice trials required; (iii) whether a discontinuous or continuous protocol is more appropariate; (iv) whether the extrapolation should be made to RPE 19 or 20 and; (v) whether the PRET can be employed succesfully in other clinical populations.
    • Preliminary study of heat shock protein 70 gene expression and serum levels in newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes

      Hunter-Lavin, Claire; Stanaway, Stephen; Bowen-Jones, David; Jones, I. R.; Loenard, M.; Clooney, K.; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (Hunter-Lavin) (Williams) (American Diabetes Association, 2004)
    • Prescribing in mental health practice - the balancing act

      Green, Ben; University of Chester (SAGE, 2013)
      This book chapter aims to discuss the potential impact of psychiatric pharmacology on the physical health of people with mental health problems; discuss the potential impact of medical prescibing on those with mental health problems; and reflect on the role of the mental health practitioner in medication management.
    • ‘Pressure to play?’ A sociological analysis of professional football managers’ behaviour towards injured players

      Law, Graeme; Bloyce, Daniel; York St John University; UIniversity of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-05-05)
      Drawing upon figurational sociology, this paper examines professional football managers’ attitudes towards injured players. Following interviews with 10 managers, as with previous research, we found that managers have an expectancy that players are rarely fully fit. Players were stigmatised when they were seemingly unwilling to play when a manager encouraged them to. However, we also found that many managers shaped, in part, by their habitus formed from their own experiences as a player, showed greater empathy towards injured players. Many claimed they would not risk the long-term health of players, although at times, managers at the lower levels felt more constrained to take certain risks. We argue this is an unintended outcome of the increasing pressures on managers to succeed with smaller squads. The increasing emphasis and reliance on ‘sport science’ enabled managers at the higher levels to have a more supportive approach to managing injuries not previously identified in existing literature.
    • Production of DNA aptamers with specificity for bacterial food pathogens

      Bonwick, Graham A.; Drasbek, Mette R.; Young, Niall; Smith, Christopher; McDowall, Ian; Kärkkäinen, Riikka M. (University of Chester, 2012-09)
      Aptamers are biomolecular ligands composed of nucleic acids. They can be selected to bind specifically to a range of target molecules and subsequently exploited in a fashion analogous to more traditional biomolecules such as antibodies. In this study a method for selecting new aptamers which specifically bind whole live bacterial cells is described. A non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli K12 was used to develop the method. A DNA library containing 100 bases long random nucleotide sequences was produced and the aptamer selection process was repeated nine times. An enzyme-linked technique was first used to detect bound aptamers thereafter fluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy methods were used for the detection. The aptamers were cloned and sequenced and the cloned aptamers produced with fluorescent labels. The E. coli K12-binding aptamers were used to demonstrate the detection of the bacterial cells in a complex food matrix, namely probiotic yogurt, by using fluorescence based detection method. The aptamer selection method with some modifications was also used to select aptamers with specificity for the food pathogens E. coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis. The aptamers against E. coli O157 and S. typhimurium were cloned and the sequences and the binding properties of these aptamers were analysed. The use of E. coli K12 as a target organism and the aptamer sequences presented in this study, have not previously been published in scientific literature. This is also the first report where the aptamers have been used in detection of live bacterial cells in yogurt.
    • Professional golf - A license to spend money? Issues of money in the lives of touring professional golfers

      Fry, John; Bloyce, Daniel; Pritchard, Ian; Myerscough College ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-11-11)
      Drawing upon figurational sociology, this paper examines issues of money that are central to touring professional golfers’ workplace experiences. Based on interviews with 16 professionals, results indicate the monetary rewards available for top golfers continues to increase, however, such recompense is available to relatively small numbers and the majority fare poorly. Results suggest that playing on tour with other like-minded golfers fosters internalized constraints relating to behaviour, referred to as ‘habitus’, whereby many players ‘gamble’ on pursuing golf as their main source of income despite the odds against them. Golfers are constrained to develop networks with sponsors for financial reasons which has left some players with conflicting choices between regular money, and adhering to restrictive contractual agreements, or the freedom to choose between different brands.
    • Promoting health through physical activity: Prescribing exercise intensity

      Sykes, Kevin; University College Chester (Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women's Health, 2004)
    • The protein phosphatase 4 - PEA15 axis regulates the survival of breast cancer cells

      Mohammed, Hiba N.; Pickard, Mark R.; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Keele University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-06-15)
      BACKGROUND: The control of breast cell survival is of critical importance for preventing breast cancer initiation and progression. The activity of many proteins which regulate cell survival is controlled by reversible phosphorylation, so that the relevant kinases and phosphatases play crucial roles in determining cell fate. Several protein kinases act as oncoproteins in breast cancer and changes in their activities contribute to the process of transformation. Through counteracting the activity of oncogenic kinases, the protein phosphatases are also likely to be important players in breast cancer development, but this class of molecules is relatively poorly understood. Here we have investigated the role of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 4 in the control of cell survival of breast cancer cells. METHODS: The breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, were transfected with expression vectors encoding the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 4 (PP4c) or with PP4c siRNAs. Culture viability, apoptosis, cell migration and cell cycle were assessed. The involvement of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15kDa (PEA15) in PP4c action was investigated by immunoblotting approaches and by siRNA-mediated silencing of PEA15. RESULTS: In this study we showed that PP4c over-expression inhibited cell proliferation, enhanced spontaneous apoptosis and decreased the migratory and colony forming abilities of breast cancer cells. Moreover, PP4c down-regulation produced complementary effects. PP4c is demonstrated to regulate the phosphorylation of PEA15, and PEA15 itself regulates the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of PP4c on breast cancer cell survival and growth were lost in PEA15 knockdown cells, confirming that PP4c action is mediated, at least in part, through the de-phosphorylation of apoptosis regulator PEA15. CONCLUSION: Our work shows that PP4 regulates breast cancer cell survival and identifies a novel PP4c-PEA15 signalling axis in the control of breast cancer cell survival. The dysfunction of this axis may be important in the development and progression of breast cancer.
    • Providing health care for the homeless population: An evaluation of Chester City Homeless PMS pilot

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University College Chester, 2005-06)
      This project evaluates the Chester City Homeless PMS pilot. Homeless people, when compared to the general population, have poor health, one reason being their infrequent use of health care services. In 2001 a PMS pilot to provide primary health care to homeless people was established in Chester.
    • Providing services for lesbian, gay and bisexual people in the North West: A consultation exercise on behalf of the Gay Healthy Alliance Project

      Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Jones, Jenny; Chester College of Higher Education (Chester College of Higher Education, 2000-09)
      This report aims to identify some of the holisitc health needs of gay, lesbian and bisexual people in the North West of England and investigate whether this population would be interested in the establishment of a holistic health, therapy and social centre.
    • Provision of contraception and its influence on abortion

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; Western Cheshire PCT (Churchill Livingstone, 2009-03)
      Nurses have a key role to play in the provision of contraception, advice and information to patients.
    • Psychiatric responses to traumatic events

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Green, Ben (University of Chester, 2015-01)
      The main aims and objectives of this Ph.D. by publication are: • To analyse, explore and contextualise the psychiatric response to trauma and aetiological issues • To analyse and explore the management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • To critically analyse the wider historical, legal and political management of mental disorder. Five peer-reviewed publications from recent years are presented on the theme of psychiatric responses to traumatic events. Two papers focus on the aetiology, (where the Oxford definition of aetiology is the ‘cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a condition’), of PTSD and therefore consider the injuries that cause PTSD and also potential vulnerability factors (Green & Griffiths, 2013). These papers contain a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods – examining characteristics such as psychological conceptions of risk in relation to illness duration within a case series for instance and a comparative statistical analysis of birth order in differing samples. Two papers consider modern aspects of the treatment of PTSD – including pharmacological and psychotherapeutic and difficulties and use a methodology of a structured review of the literature including analysis of the evidence base for trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) including Numbers Needed to Treat (NNT) (Green 2013, Green 2014). A final paper looks at admissions trends for PTSD and a range of other mental disorders and uses a statistical analysis of national data looking for emerging trends against a historical and political background of changes in the management of mental disorder (Green & Griffiths, 2014). These recent papers are set in context against older papers from a career which has spanned epidemiological research into risk factors for depression over six years, writings about psychopharmacology, and planned future research into birth order and domestic violence, and an editorial for the British Journal of General Practice (Green & Gowans, 2014) seeking to promote future epidemiological research into unmet mental health needs in the community. The papers can be viewed as being within the context of a continuum of research interests and publications (represented diagrammatically below in Figure One). In the narrative text I refer to this earlier work and also explain my plans for progress in terms of future research and publications, thus setting the work in this Ph.D. by publication in context within a continuing pattern of interests.