• Novel anti-oxidant properties of cobalamin

      Williams, John H. H.; Andrew, Sarah M.; Altaie, Ala (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2009-09)
      Oxidative stress has been associated with a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease and cancer. It also plays a role in the ageing process. Hyperhomocysteimia is commonly found to be associated with these diseases. The hyperhomocysteimia is a result of a deficiency in both folate and cobalamin Folate is known to reduce Hey and protect cells from apoptosis, but there are no studies investigating the impact of cobalamin on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress or the mechanism(s) of the protection. The aims of the research are to investigate the protective role of cobalamin and the possible mechanism(s) for this protection. It also examines the protective role of novel cobalamin and investigates their superior protection. The methods used in this research for apoptosis detection we used caspase-3 and the annexin-V, while for necrosis we used PI staining, where cell viability were detected using MTS assay. We also measured the generation of superoxide by Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and reactive oxygene species by using the redox active prob DCFH-DA. Moreover, the intracellular proteins were measured via staining with specific fluorescent-conjugated antibodies were detected using flowcytometry. Our result demonstrated that 25|iM of cobalamin protects cells from apoptosis. The protection by cobalamin was associated with induction of iHsp72 and iHO-1, and these are shown to be essential for the protection. Furthermore, our research demonstrated a novel mechanism of cobalamin-apoptosis protection involving induction of NfkB, ERK1/2 and AKT signal transduction pathways. In order to protect cells from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress, cobalamin induces the pNfkB which in turn regulate the iNOS and HO-1 induction. Cobalamin also induces thepERK1/2 which regulates the induction of Hps72 and Nrf2. And finally, pAKT induced by cobalamin which regulate the Nrf2 and HO-1 induction. The inhibition of any of theses pathways leads to loss the protection. The GSCbl and NACCbl provide a superior protection against oxidative stress, this protection involved induction of the signal transduction pathways and Hsps. To conclude; cobalamin provides protection against cells death induced by oxidative stress. Cobalamin achieves this by multiple pathways which include direct antioxidant stimulation and induction of signal transduction pathways. Different cobalamin derivatives have superior protections. These finding are a useful pharmaceutical tool in the treatment of the oxidative stress related diseases.
    • The number of directional changes alters the physiological, perceptual and neuromuscular responses of netball players during intermittent shuttle running

      Ashton, Ruth; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 11/03/2015)
      This study investigated whether an increased number of changes in direction altered the metabolic, cardiovascular, perceptual and neuromuscular responses to intermittent shuttle running. Using a randomized crossover design, ten female netball players completed 30 min of intermittent shuttle running over a 10 m (ISR10) and 20 m (ISR20) linear course. Measures of expired air, heart rate (HR), RPE, blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) and peak torque of knee extensors and flexors were measured. Differences (% ± 90% CL) in VO2 (1.5 ± 5.6%) was unclear between conditions, while HR was possibly higher (1.5 ± 2.5%) and [BLa] very likely lower in ISR20 compared to ISR10 (-32.7 ± 9.9%). RPE was likely lower in the ISR20 compared to the ISR10 condition at 15 (-5.0 ± 5.0%) and mosly likely lower at 30 min (-9.4 ± 2.0%). Sprint times over 20 m were likely slower during ISR20 at mid (3.9 ± 3.2%) but unclear post (2.1 ± 5.4%). Changes in muscle function were not different between ISR10 and ISR20 conditions for knee extension (-0.2 ± 0.9%) but were likely different for knee flexion (-5.7 ± 4.9%). More directional changes during shuttle running increases the physiological and perceptual load on female athletes that also causes a greater reductions in knee extensor torque. These findings have implications for the effective conditioning and injury prevention of female team sport athletes.
    • Numerical simulation of non-Newtonian polymer film flow on a rotating spoked annulus

      Miah, Md Salim; orcid: 0000-0002-9722-8073; Hossain, Mohammad Sayeed; Ashraf, Muhammad Arif; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; McMillan, Alison (Wiley, 2017-03-03)
    • The nurse practitioner in primary care: Alleviating problems of access?

      Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Killey, Mona; Miller, Julia; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Halton Primary Care Trust (Mark Allen Publishing, 2005)
      Improving access to primary care services is an essential component of the NHS modernization plan and the advent of independent nurse practitioners in primary care has focused attention on the extent to which this group of nurses can effectively substitute for GPs. This study was designed to explore the role of a nurse practitioner in primary care, particularly whether the provision of a nurse practitioner facilitated access to care that met the needs of patients. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 patients who had consulted with the nurse practitioner, 10 staff within the practice who had knowledge of the role, and the nurse practitioner herself. With the permission of interviewees, interviews were audiotaped, the tapes transcribed verbatim, and the data were coded by theme. It was perceived by both groups of interviewees that access to care had been improved in that there were more appointments available, appointments were longer than they had been previously and were available at different times of the day. However, some areas in which access was 'restricted' were articulated by staff interviewees, such as limitations to the nurse practitioner's prescribing and problems with referring patients to secondary care. Additionally, while access to a member of the primary healthcare team was improved for many patients, access to a specific member of the team, such as a GP, was not always improved. Concerns were also expressed about how the role of the nurse practitioner needed to be developed in the practice. It can be concluded from this study that, potentially, the role of nurse practitioner has much to offer in terms of addressing problems of access in primary care for some patients. However, this is not a straightforward solution and in order for the role to be effective several issues highlighted in this study require addressing.
    • Nurses attitudes and beliefs to attempted suicide in Southern India

      Jones, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Rajendra, Raj G.; Keenan, Paul; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 20/05/2015)
      Background: There is growing global interest into the attitudes and clinical management of persons who have attempted suicide. Aims: The principal purpose was to determine senior nursing staff attitudes towards patients who had attempted suicide from a professional and cultural perspective, which might influence care following hospital admission. The focus concerned nursing staff interactions at a psychological level that compete with physical tasks on general hospital wards. Methods: A qualitative methodology was employed with audio-taped interviews utilising four level data coding. This article reports on a group of 15 nursing staff from a large general hospital in Mysore, Southern India. Results: Findings suggested that patient care and treatment is directly influenced by the nurse’s religious beliefs within a general hospital setting with physical duties prioritised over psychological support, which was underdeveloped throughout the participant group. Conclusion: The results allow a series of recommendations for educational and skills initiatives before progressing to patient assessment and treatment projects and cross-cultural comparison studies. In addition, interventions must focus on current resources and context to move the evidence-based suicide prevention forward.
    • Obesity and health: Understanding the issues in Pakistani women living in the UK

      Ludwig, Alison F.; Ellahi, Basma; Cox, Peter; University of Chester (British Sociological Association, 2008)
    • The observational analysis of elite coaches within youth soccer: The importance of performance analysis

      Nicolls, Scott B.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester; Middlesex University; Manchester Institute of Health and Performance (SAGE, 15/11/2016)
      The study investigated the observational capabilities of experienced elite coaches whilst focusing upon soccer specific actions and playing positions within elite youth soccer. Six soccer coaches assessed the performances of 10 youth soccer players (across 8 matches) on their short/long passing, tackling, shooting, heading and dribbling. Analysis was undertaken on an overall, quality and positional grouping basis. Mean observational accuracy was 38.8%, with successful shooting (78.6%) and passing (29.9%) illustrating the range. The limited effective observation of dribbling (37.2%), often considered a separating factor within talent identification, highlights the need for objective measures to aid such processes. Positional grouping analysis elicited 20% more effective observation for unsuccessful compared with successful actions. The poor level of observational accuracy identified herein has significant implications on talent identification assessments devoid of post-performance analyses. The findings reinforce the importance of performance analysis in the provision of highly accurate and comprehensive augmented feedback within the coaching process.
    • Oesophageal stenting: Status quo and future challenges.

      Kaltsidis, Harry; Mansoor, Wasat; Park, Jung-Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Edwards, Derek William; Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; orcid: 0000-0003-3109-6933 (11/06/2018)
      Oesophageal stents are widely used for palliating dysphagia from malignant obstruction. They are also used with increasing frequency in the treatment of oesophageal perforation, as well as benign strictures from a variety of causes. Improved oncological treatments have led to prolonged survival of patients treated with palliative intent; as a consequence, stents need to function and last longer in order to avoid repeat procedures. There is also increasing need for meticulous procedure planning, careful selection of the device most appropriate for the individual patient and planned follow-up. Furthermore, as more patients are cured, there will be more issues with resultant long-term side-effects, such as recalcitrant strictures due to radiotherapy or anastomotic scarring, which will have to be addressed. Stent design needs to keep up with the progress of cancer treatment, in order to offer patients the best possible long-term result. This review article attempts to illustrate the changing realities in oesophageal stenting, differences in current stent designs and behaviour, as well as the pressing need to refine and modify devices in order to meet the new challenges.
    • Office workers’ experiences of attempts to reduce sitting-time: An exploratory, mixed- methods uncontrolled intervention pilot study

      Dewitt, Stephen; Hall, Jennifer; Smith, Lee; Buckley, John P; Biddle, Stuart J.H.; Mansfield, Louise; Gardner, Benjamin; University of Chester (BMC Springer Nature, 2019-06-25)
      Background: Office workers typically sit for most of the workday, which has been linked to physical and mental ill- health and premature death. This mixed-methods study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to reducing sitting and increasing standing among office workers who received an intervention prototype (the ‘ReSiT [Reducing Sitting Time] Study’). The intervention comprised a sit-stand workstation and tailored advice to enhance motivation, capability and opportunity to displace sitting with standing. Methods: Twenty-nine UK university office workers (aged ≥18y, working ≥3 days per week, most time spent at a seated desk) participated in a 13-week uncontrolled study. They were initially monitored for one-week. In a subsequent face-to-face consultation, participants received sitting time feedback from a prior one-week monitoring period, and selected from a set of tailored sitting-reduction techniques. Quantitative data comprising sitting, standing and stepping time, which were objectively monitored for 7 consecutive days across three post- intervention timepoints, were descriptively analysed. Qualitative data, from semi-structured interviews conducted at 1, 6 and 12-weeks post-intervention, were thematically analysed. Results: Compared to baseline, mean sitting time decreased at weeks 1, 6 and 12 by 49.7mins, 118.2mins, and 109.7mins respectively. Despite prior concerns about colleagues’ reactions to standing, many reported encouragement from others, and standing could be equally conducive to social interaction or creating private, personal space. Some perceived less cognitively-demanding tasks to be more conducive to standing, though some found standing offered a valued break from challenging tasks. Participants prioritised workload over sitting reduction and were more likely to stand after rather than during work task completion. Temporary context changes, such as holidays, threatened to derail newfound routines. Conclusions: Our findings emphasise the importance of understanding workers’ mental representations of their work, and the social functions of sitting and standing in the workplace. Workplace intervention developers should incorporate a pre-intervention sitting time monitoring period, encourage workers to identify personally meaningful tasks and cues for standing, and build organisational support for sitting-reduction. We will use these insights to refine our intervention for self-administered delivery. Trial registration: ISRCTN29395780 (registered 21 November 2016). Keywords: Sedentary behaviour, Workplace, Qualitative, Occupational health
    • On 'Kantian Experimentation' in the health sciences

      Lewis, Stephen J. (2002-05)
      This presentation dicusses various approaches to the definition of health and disease.
    • On the question of questions

      Lewis, Stephen J.; University College Chester (Philo Sophos.com, 2004)
      This article discusses Russell's dictum that "in philosophy, what is important is not so much the answers that are given, but rather the questions that are asked" - posing questions and posing them properly.
    • On the Role of Lyrics in the Music-Exercise Performance Relationship

      Sanchez, Xavier; Moss, Samantha L.; Twist, Craig; Karageorghis, Costas I.; University of Groningen; University of Chester; Brunel University (Elsevier, 27/10/2013)
      Objectives. To examine the role of the musical constituent of lyrics with reference to a range of psychological, psychophysical, and physiological variables during submaximal cycling ergometry. Design. Two-factor (Condition x Time) within-subject counterbalanced design. Method. Twenty five participants performed three 6-min cycling trials at a power output corresponding to 75% of their maximum heart rate under conditions of music with lyrics, same music without lyrics, and a no-music control. Cycling cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were recorded at 2-min intervals during each trial. Positive and negative affect was assessed before and after each trial. Results. A significant (p = .006) Condition x Time interaction emerged for cadence wherein participants cycled at a higher rate at the end of the task under music with lyrics. Main effects were found for perceived exertion and heart rate, both of which increased from min 2 through to min 6, and for affect: positive affect increased and negative affect decreased from pre- to post-trials. Conclusions. Participants pedalled faster in both music conditions while perceived exertion and heart rate did not differ across conditions. The inclusion of lyrics influenced cycling performance only at min 6 and had no bearing on the remaining dependent variables throughout the duration of the task. The impact of lyrical content in the music-exercise performance relationship warrants further attention in order that we might better understand its role.
    • One strategy doesn’t fit all: determinants of urban adaptation in mammals

      Santini, Luca; González‐Suárez, Manuela; Russo, Danilo; Gonzalez‐Voyer, Alejandro; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Radboud University; University of Reading; University of Napoli; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; University of Chester (Wiley, 20/12/2018)
      Urbanisation exposes wildlife to new challenging conditions and environmental pressures. Somemammalian species have adapted to these novel environments, but it remains unclear which char-acteristics allow them to persist. To address this question, we identified 190 mammals regularlyrecorded in urban settlements worldwide, and used phylogenetic path analysis to test hypothesesregarding which behavioural, ecological and life history traits favour adaptation to urban environ-ments for different mammalian groups. Our results show that all urban mammals produce largerlitters; whereas other traits such as body size, behavioural plasticity and diet diversity were impor-tant for some but not all taxonomic groups. This variation highlights the idiosyncrasies of theurban adaptation process and likely reflects the diversity of ecological niches and roles mammalscan play. Our study contributes towards a better understanding of mammal association tohumans, which will ultimately allow the design of wildlife-friendly urban environments and con-tribute to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.
    • Optimising the management of bone disease for coeliac patients in a dietetic-led clinic

      Martin, Kirsty J.; Woodall, Alison; University Hospital Aintree and The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Science and Education Publishing Co., 2016-06)
      Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition of the small bowel; the only treatment is lifelong adherence to a gluten free diet (GFD). Adherence to a GFD also minimises the risk of associated conditions such as osteoporosis in CD patients. The present study aimed to evaluate and optimise management of bone disease in CD patients in a dietetic-led clinic. This study was conducted in two parts: study 1 utilised retrospective data to evaluate management of bone disease with reference to British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines in 229 CD patients. Based on the results from study 1, study 2 developed a tool to estimate dietary calcium intake in CD patients, which was then trialled on 50 patients. There were no significant differences between the population demographics for study 1 and study 2. 65% of patients had a diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis, in a female predominant population (74.6%). Reported mean dietary calcium intake was over estimated at 1239.6mg/day (SD ± 377.1mg) in study 1 and corrected to 852mg/day (SD ± 264.57mg) using improved methodology (study 2) (p≤0.05). Understanding and compliance with dietary advice correlated positively with GFD (p≤0.001) but not osteoporosis or fracture risk. Overall patients attending the clinic did not meet the BSG recommended calcium intake. However, 30% of patients could meet the 2014 BSG target from oral diet alone. Utilising individual dietary prescriptions and targeted use of calcium supplementation maximised the opportunity to reduce risk of bone disease and improved compliance with BSG recommendations.
    • Orally administered beta-glucan attenuates the Th2 response in a model of airway hypersensitivity

      Burg, Ashley R.; Quigley, Laura; Jones, Adam V.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Boelte, Kimberly; McVicar, Daniel W.; Orr, Selinda J.; National Cancer Institute-Frederick; University of Alabama at Birmingham; University Dental Hospital, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board; University of Chester; Cardiff University School of Medicine (SpringerOpen, 21/06/2016)
      beta-Glucan is a polysaccharide that can be extracted from fungal cell walls. Wellmune WGP((R)), a preparation of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans, is a dietary supplement that has immunomodulating properties. Here we investigated the effect WGP had on a mouse model of asthma. OVA-induced asthma in mice is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into the lung, production of Th2 cytokines and IgE. Daily oral administration of WGP (400 microg) significantly reduced the influx of eosinophils into the lungs of OVA-challenged mice compared to control mice. In addition, WGP inhibited pulmonary production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), however serum IgE levels were unaffected by WGP treatment. These data indicate that WGP could potentially be useful as an oral supplement for some asthma patients, however, it would need to be combined with therapies that target other aspects of the disease such as IgE levels. As such, further studies that examine the potential of WGP in combination with other therapies should be explored.
    • The osteological use of diagnostic radiographs: Further material for osteoarchaeologists

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (1996)
      This article discusses the use of radiography in osteoarchaeology.
    • Osteoprotegerin is produced when prostaglandin synthesis is inhibited causing osteoclasts to detach from the surface of mouse parietal bone and attach to the endocranial membrane

      O’Brien, E. A.; Williams, John H. H.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Chester College ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (Elsevier, 2001-02)
      This article tests the hypothesis that osteoprotegerin (OPG) mediates the inhibition of osteoclast activity that occurs with indomethacin in the mouse calvaria.
    • An overview of extra-curricular education for sustainable development (ESD) interventions in UK universities

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Emerald, 2008)
      This article explores the extent and type of extra-curricular education for sustainable development-related practice in UK universities and to record opinions about the utility of such work, through a postal questionnaire survey of all UK universities was undertaken in 2006.
    • Oxygen Costs of the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants: An Historical and Contemporary Analysis

      Buckley, John P.; Cardoso, Fernando, M. F.; Birkett, Stefan T.; Sandercock, Gavin R. H.; University Centre Shrewsbury (Springer, 07/04/2016)
      Background The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is a standardised assessment for cardiac rehabilitation. Three studies have reported oxygen costs (VO2)/metabolic equivalents (METs) of the ISWT. In spite of classic rep- resentations from these studies graphically showing curvilinear VO2 responses to incremented walking speeds, linear regression techniques (also used by the American College of Sports Medicine [ACSM]) have been used to estimate VO2. Purpose The two main aims of this study were to (i) re- solve currently reported discrepancies in the ISWT VO2- walking speed relationship, and (ii) derive an appropriate VO2 versus walking speed regression equation. Methods VO2 was measured continuously during an ISWT in 32 coronary heart disease [cardiac] rehabilitation (CHD-CR) participants and 30 age-matched controls. Results Both CHD-CR and control group VO2 responses were curvilinear in nature. For CHD-CR VO2 = 4.4- e0.23 9 walkingspeed (km/h). The integrated area under the curve (iAUC) VO2 across nine ISWT stages was greater in the CHD-CR group versus the control group (p \ 0.001): & John P. Buckley j.buckley@chester.ac.uk 1 (±86) ml􏰀kg-1􏰀min-1􏰀km􏰀h-1; con- trol = 316 (±52) ml􏰀kg-1􏰀min-1􏰀km􏰀h-1. Conclusions CHD-CR group vs. control VO2 was up to 30 % greater at higher ISWT stages. The curvilinear nature of VO2 responses during the ISWT concur with classic studies reported over 100 years. VO2 estimates for walking using linear regression models (including the ACSM) clearly underestimate values in healthy and CHD-CR par- ticipants, and this study provides a resolution to this when the ISWT is used for CHD-CR populations.
    • Pacing during a cross-country mountain bike mass-participation event according to race performance, experience, age and sex.

      Moss, Samantha L.; Francis, Ben; Calogiuri, Giovanna; Highton, Jamie (15/12/2018)
      This study describes pacing strategies adopted in an 86-km mass-participation cross-country marathon mountain bike race (the 'Birkebeinerrittet'). Absolute (km·h ) and relative speed (% average race speed) and speed coefficient of variation (%CV) in five race sections (15.1, 31.4, 52.3, 74.4 and 100% of total distance) were calculated for 8182 participants. Data were grouped and analysed according to race performance, age, sex and race experience. The highest average speed was observed in males (21.8 ± 3.7 km/h), 16-24 yr olds (23.0 ± 4.8 km/h) and those that had previously completed >4 Birkebeinerrittet races (22.5 ± 3.4 km/h). Independent of these factors, the fastest performers exhibited faster speeds across all race sections, whilst their relative speed was higher in early and late climbing sections (Cohen's d = 0.45-1.15) and slower in the final descending race section (d = 0.64-0.98). Similar trends were observed in the quicker age, sex and race experience groups, who tended to have a higher average speed in earlier race sections and a lower average speed during the final race section compared to slower groups. In all comparisons, faster groups also had a lower %CV for speed than slower groups (fastest %CV = 24.02%, slowest %CV = 32.03%), indicating a lower variation in speed across the race. Pacing in a cross-country mountain bike marathon is related to performance, age, sex and race experience. Better performance appears to be associated with higher relative speed during climbing sections, resulting in a more consistent overall race speed.