• Local geodiversity action plans - setting to context for geological conservation

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; University of Chester (English Nature, 2006)
      This booklet discusses local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) can be established to safeguard and manage the geological resources. A number of case studies are included and recommendations are made.
    • Local geodiversity action plans - sharing good practice workshop, Peterborough, 3 December 2003

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 2004)
      This booklet discusses a workshop held in Peterborough in 2003 to examine good practice in the development of local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs). Six cases studies from Cheshire, County Durham and North Pennines, Leicestershire and Rutland, Staffordshire, Tees Valley, and Warwickshire.
    • Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships

      Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Sheffield ; Hedmark University College, Norway ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-04-01)
      Area-based initiatives (ABIs) have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in ABIs, little empirical work has explored relations between ABI providers and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This paper addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an ABI. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an ABI targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that, although effective delivery of ABIs is premised on a high level of coordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of cooperation. In particular, the interdependency of ABI providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here ‘organisational pull’) constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. ‘Local’ status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policy makers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. Keywords: partnership, collaboration, community services, area-based initiatives, organisational pull, figurational sociology
    • Localisation of heat shock proteins in haematological malignancies

      Williams, John H. H.; Hoyle, Christine; Dempsey, Nina C. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2009-08)
      Although a number of HSPs have been shown to be up-regulated in a wide range of human cancers, the full significance of this remains to be determined. The localisation of HSPs seems to be critical in determining their role in cancer cell survival; High intracellular levels (iHsp) appear to be advantageous to the tumour cell, inhibiting key steps in apoptosis, while in some circumstances, surface expression (sHsp) appears to be detrimental to the cell, aiding immune recognition by various effector cells. Consequently, clarifying the importance of HSP cellular location in the cancer setting may lead to the development of novel therapies based upon manipulation of HSP localisation. This thesis had two major aims; (1) to investigate the cellular localisation of HSPs in leukocytes from patients with both myelocytic and lymphocytic malignancies in order to establish relationships between apoptosis and stage of disease (2) to study the synergistic effect of four chemotherapeutic drugs with membrane fluidising agents, compounds which have the potential to modulate HSP localisation. Hsp90 and Hsp27 expression was shown to be restricted to the inside of peripheral blood leukocytes, while Hsp72 was localised both intracellularly and on the cell surface. In CLL, iHsp90 and iHsp27 levels were found to be significantly higher than in control subjects, while surface and intracellular Hsp72 was shown to be expressed either at very high levels or at very low levels. Furthermore, iHsp90 levels were found to be associated with stage of disease, while iHsp27 levels were shown to negatively correlate with levels of apoptosis. CLL patients with stable disease were found to express higher levels of iHsp72 than patients with progressive disease. However, in AML and MDS, levels of all HSPs in peripheral blood were found to be similar to those seen in control subjects, but disease patients showed a much wider range of expression. In AML, levels of sHsp72 positively correlated in all cell types, an observation not made in MDS patients or control subjects. HSP localisation was shown to be affected by membrane fluidising agents, with a movement of Hsp72 and Hsp60 to the cell surface. This effect was not due to proteotoxicity and supports data implicating the cell membrane in the regulation of HSP responses. This manipulation of HSP localisation and the increase in membrane fluidity resulted in increased sensitivity of CLL cells to three chemotherapeutic agents and points to the possibility that manipulation of membrane fluidity, may have significant value in the development of new treatment regimes.
    • The long non-coding RNA NEAT1 regulates cell survival in breast cancer cell lines

      Almnaseer, Zainab; Pickard, Mark R.; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Keele University, United Kingdom (NCRI Cancer Conference 2015 Abstracts, 2015)
      Background Nuclear long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) regulate various cellular processes including the organization of nuclear sub-structures, the alteration of chromatin state, and the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear Enriched Abundant Transcript 1 (NEAT1) is a nuclear lncRNA transcribed from chromosome 11q13. Two transcripts are produced from the NEAT1 gene, 3.7-kb NEAT1_v1 and 23-kb NEAT1_v2. Both isoforms participate in the formation of the nuclear paraspeckles . NEAT1 is reported to be overexpressed in prostate cancer and a direct transcriptional target of hypoxia-inducible factor in many breast cancer cell lines. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of silencing NEAT1 on breast cancer cell survival. Method MCF7 and MDA-MB 231 cells were transfected with siRNAs to different NEAT1 sequences or NEAT1 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Controls received scrambled siRNA or scrambled oligonucleotide, as appropriate. In some experiments, cells were exposed to ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light post-transfection to induce apoptosis, and then culture viability and apoptosis were assessed. NEAT1 expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR TaqMan® analysis. Results In MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, siRNA-mediated silencing of NEAT1 reduced basal survival and after UV-C irradiation and decreased their colony forming ability. NEAT1 ASOs were more effective in silencing NEAT1 and caused a greater reduction in cell viability. NEAT1 silencing also affected cell cycle profile by enhancing the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase. Conclusion NEAT1 regulates the survival of Breast cells. Down regulation of NEAT1 expression decreased cell survival, proliferation and modulated cell cycle progression of breast cancer cells, indicating a link between the NEAT1 expression levels and carcinogenesis of breast cancer.
    • Long non-coding RNAs: new opportunities and old challenges in cancer therapy

      Williams, Gwyn T.; Pickard, Mark R.; Keele University; University of Chester (AME Publishing Company, 2016-09)
      No abstract - invited commentary
    • Long-term administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate fails to attenuate age-related oxidative damage or rescue the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging of skeletal muscle

      Nye, Gareth; Sakellariou, Giorgos; Lightfoot, Adam; Pearson, Timothy; Wells, Nicola; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia; Griffiths, Richard; University of Liverpool (Faseb Journal, 2016-08-22)
      Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is the underlying cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 and over. Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype that occurs with aging. To examine this, we administered the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate {[10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl] triphenylphosphonium; 100 μM} to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for 15 wk (from 24 to 28 mo of age) and investigated the effects on age-related loss of muscle mass and function, changes in redox homeostasis, and mitochondrial organelle integrity and function. We found that mitoquinone mesylate treatment failed to prevent age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with myofiber atrophy or alter a variety of in situ and ex vivo muscle function analyses, including maximum isometric tetanic force, decline in force after a tetanic fatiguing protocol, and single-fiber-specific force. We also found evidence that long-term mitoquinone mesylate administration did not reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or induce significant changes in muscle redox homeostasis, as assessed by changes in 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, protein carbonyl content, protein nitration, and DNA damage determined by the content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Mitochondrial membrane potential, abundance, and respiration assessed in permeabilized myofibers were not significantly altered in response to mitoquinone mesylate treatment. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that long-term mitochondria-targeted mitoquinone mesylate administration failed to attenuate age-related oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of old mice or provide any protective effect in the context of muscle aging
    • A longitudinal analysis of performance, growth and maturation in youth rugby league players: Implications for talent identification and development

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Waldron, Mark (University of Chester, 2013)
      This study monitored a cohort of youth rugby league players from one professional club in England, across three competitive seasons (under-15 to under-17 age group). The aims were to establish which dimensions of growth and performance characterized players who were either coach-selected or unselected each season and to evaluate annual developments in growth and performance. It was also necessary to establish the credibility of various measurement techniques that are implicated in the talent identification process. In the assessment of sprint performance, GPS measurements systematically underestimated both distance and timing gate speed but can be used to reliably evaluate sprint performance, particularly for measurements of peak speed (95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) = 0.00 ± 0.8 km·h-1; CV = 0.78%). Using a larger sample of youth team sport players (n = 60), multiple linear regression analysis, incorporating mean and peak GPS speeds as predictors of timing gate speed, yielded a prediction model that was able to provide a valid alternative to timing gates in the assessment of sprint performance over 30 m. With regards to the reliability of assessments of sport-specific skill in youth rugby league players, no comparisons met the pre-determined analytical goal of ‘perfect agreement’, meaning that up to 56% of players’ skill could be misinterpreted. The credibility of such assessments should be questioned and alternative tests considered. In the period between the under-15 and under-16 group, there were large annual increments in speed (5.02 Δ%), force (13.82 Δ%) and power (19.85 Δ%) generated over 10 m sprint intervals and predicted vertical jumping power (13.02 Δ%), with concomitant developments in body mass (5.14 Δ%), lean body mass (3.20 Δ%) and predicted muscle of the quadriceps (10.12 Δ%). A discriminant function analysis also highlighted 30 m force and 10 m acceleration as significant predictors of selected players in the under-15 group and under-16 group, explaining 47.3% and 40.7% of the between-group variance, respectively – which was the case independent of age at peak maturity. However, there were 5 no differences between selected and unselected players in the under-17 group. During match time, there were differences between selected (57.1 ± 11.9 min) and unselected (44.1 ± 12.3 min) players for average playing interval in the under-16 group. In turn, selected players covered more total distance (5181.0 ± 1063.5 m c.f. 3942.6 ± 1108.6 m, respectively; P = 0.012) and high intensity distance (1808.8 ± 369.3 m c.f. 1380.5 ± 367.7 m, respectively; P = 0.011) than unselected players. When age at peak height velocity (PHV) was statistically controlled, only distance in zone 3 and summated-HR remained higher in the selected players of the under-16 group. Conversely, higher values amongst the unselected under-16 players for total and relative distance in zone 4, 5 and high intensity were revealed. There was a relationship in the under-15 group (R = 0.702, P < 0.001), under-16 group (R = 0.607, P < 0.001) and under-17 group (R = 0.671, P < 0.006) between the number of successful ball carries and 10 m sprinting force, thus supporting the use of 10 m sprinting force as a predictor of match performance. The relationship (r = 0.51, P = 0.044) between aerobic capacity and HIT·min-1 in the under-17 group also provides preliminary evidence of aerobic endurance as a potential predictor of match running intensity. It was concluded that players who are coach-selected are not characterized by match related performance variables but are offered greater match exposure during the under-16 age group, resulting in larger running distances. Unselected players are unrewarded for higher intensity running during matches when maturational age is statistically controlled and are also equally effective in regard to tackling and ball carrying outcomes. These results collectively indicate the inability of match performance measurements to contribute to talent identification processes in players of this type. The changes in growth and performance should be used to guide talent development practices of rugby league coaches. In particular, the assessment of force (i.e. the product of acceleration and body mass) should be considered as an important factor in differentiating between higher and lower ability players, as well as relating to match performance.
    • A look at life

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (1996-11-14)
    • Low Body Fat Does Not Influence Recovery after Muscle-Damaging Lower-Limb Plyometrics in Young Male Team Sport Athletes.

      Fernandes, John F T; Lamb, Kevin L; orcid: 0000-0003-4481-4711; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378 (2020-11-05)
      This study assessed the influence of fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (FM:FFM) on recovery from plyometric exercise. After assessment of body composition, 20 male team sport players (age 20.7 ± 1.1 years; body mass 77.1 ± 11.5 kg) were divided into low- ( = 10; 0.11 ± 0.03) and normal- ( = 10; 0.27 ± 0.09) fat groups based on FM:FFM ratio. Thereafter, participants completed measurements of knee extensor torque at 60 and 240°∙s , countermovement jump flight time, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and perceived muscle soreness (VAS) before and at 0, 24 and 48 h after 10 × 10 maximal plyometric vertical jumps. Evidence of muscle damage was confirmed by alterations in VAS, peak torque at 60 and 240°∙s and flight time at 0, 24 and 48 h after plyometric exercise ( < 0.05). CK was increased at 0 and 24 h ( < 0.05) but returned to baseline values by 48 h. No time by group effects were observed for any of the dependent variables ( > 0.05). The current findings indicate that while muscle damage was present after plyometric exercise, the magnitude was similar across the two body composition groups. Applied practitioners can allow for a similar recovery time after plyometric exercise in those with low and normal body fat.
    • Low leukotriene B4 receptor 1 leads to ALOX5 downregulation at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia

      Lucas, Claire; Harris, Robert; McDonald, Elizabeth; Giannoudis, Athina; Clark, Richard; University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool University hospital, (Ferrata Storti Foundation, 2014-11-01)
      ALOX5 is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia development in mouse leukemic stem cells, but its importance in human chronic myeloid leukemia is unknown. Functional ALOX5 was assessed using an LTB4 ELISA and ALOX5, and LTB4R1 mRNA expression was determined via a TaqMan gene expression assay. LTB4R1 and 5-LOX protein levels were assessed by cell surface flow cytometry analysis. At diagnosis ALOX5 was below normal in both blood and CD34(+) stem cells in all patients. On treatment initiation, ALOX5 levels increased in all patients except those who were destined to progress subsequently to blast crisis. LTB4 levels were increased despite low ALOX5 expression, suggesting that the arachidonic acid pathway is functioning normally up to the point of LTB4 production. However, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) protein in newly diagnosed patients was significantly lower than after a period of treatment (P<0.0001). The low level of LTB4R1 at diagnosis explains the downregulation of ALOX5. In the absence of LTB4R1, the arachidonic acid pathway intermediates (5-HEPTE and LTA4) negatively regulate ALOX5. ALOX5 regulation is aberrant in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and may not be important for the development of the disease. Our data suggest caution when extrapolating mouse model data into human chronic myeloid leukemia.
    • Low pulse pressure does not reduce the efficacy of a heart failure exercise programme

      Leslie, Rosalind; Buckley, John P. (New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton ; University of Chester, 2012-03)
      Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) may have low pulse pressures (PP). This retrospective study was undertaken to analyse the relationship between PP and outcomes of a 12-week exercise training programme. Data analysed from 86 patients (69 male) aged 40 to 86 years, included: PP, functional capacity (metabolic equivalents [METS]) and quality of life (QoL) using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ). Median pre-training PP was 54 ± 19 mmHg. Functional capacity for the same heart rate (estimated 60% heart rate reserve) and Borg rating of 13 increased from 3.6 ± 1.1 to 4.0 ± 1.2 METS (p=0.0005); MLHFQ scores improved from 26 ± 19 to 22 ± 20 (p=0.0005). There was a high correlation between PP and systolic blood pressure pre- and post-training (pre: r=0.77, p=0.0005; post: r=0.80, p=0.0005). Changes in all the above outcomes were independent of pre-training PP. In conclusion, low PP did not reduce the efficacy of an exercise training programme, indicating that CHF patients with low PP can benefit similarly to those with normal/raised PP.
    • The low-risk perception of developing type 2 diabetes among women with a previous history of gestational diabetes

      Sharma, Manisha; Purewal, Tejpal Singh; Fallows, Stephen; Kennedy, Lynne; Edge Hill University; Royal Liverpool Hospital; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-02-12)
      We conducted a qualitative study to explore the risk perceptions, health beliefs and behaviours of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women aged between 18 to 40 years (at the time of pregnancy) with a previous history of GDM, registered at The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, United Kingdom, participated in individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Qualitative data from seven participants were collected until data saturation and were analysed by thematic analysis. Participants had a low-risk perception of the future risk of developing diabetes. Some believed that their risk was the same as that of any other woman without a history of GDM, and some other participants were not aware of the risk at all and perceived GDM as a temporary health condition with no long-term risks. Participants showed some understanding of a healthy lifestyle in general. However, most of the information was self-acquired by participants and not linked to the future risk of developing diabetes. The findings of this research also indicated a contrast between the high perception of the immediate risks of complications during the pregnancy and low long-term risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy associated with GDM. Participants received healthy lifestyle advice during their pregnancy, but none of them reported involvement in any postnatal health education, intervention or counselling as recommended by 2008 and 2014 NICE guidelines. The low-risk perception impedes positive health behaviour required to overcome the barriers against a healthy lifestyle. This was a small research project but the findings warrant scope for more research in this field. A larger study might promote the development of a well-structured, long-term follow-up health intervention programme, incorporating a reminder system for annual diabetes screenings to improve the risk perception and reduce the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes in this population.
    • Lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, including selective clinical outcome measures

      Hughes, Stephen F.; Hendricks, Beverly D.; Edwards, David R.; Bastawrous, Salah S.; Middleton, Jim F.; University of Chester; Keele University; Glan Clwyd Hospital; Gwynedd Hospital; University of Bristol (BioMed Central, 2013-11-09)
      Background: With an aging society and raised expectations, joint replacement surgery is likely to increase significantly in the future. The development of postoperative complications following joint replacement surgery (for example, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and deep vein thrombosis) is also likely to increase. Despite considerable progress in orthopaedic surgery, comparing a range of biological markers with the ultimate aim of monitoring or predicting postoperative complications has not yet been extensively researched. The aim of this clinical pilot study was to test the hypothesis that lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation, non-specific markers of inflammation (primary objective) and selective clinical outcome measures (secondary objective). Methods Test subjects were scheduled for elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery due to osteoarthritis (n = 10). Platelet counts and D-dimer concentrations were measured to assess any changes to coagulation function. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured as markers of non-specific inflammation. Patients were monitored regularly to assess for any signs of postoperative complications, including blood transfusions, oedema (knee swelling), wound infection, pain and fever. Results THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery resulted in similar changes of coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, suggestive of increased coagulation and inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in an increase in platelet (P = 0.013, THR) and D-dimer (P = 0.009, TKR) concentrations. Evidence of increased inflammation was demonstrated by an increase in CRP and ESR (P ≤ 0.05, THR and TKR). Four patients received blood transfusions (two THR and two TKR patients), with maximal oedema, pain and aural temperatures peaking between days 1 and 3 postoperatively, for both THR and TKR surgery. None of the patients developed postoperative infections. Conclusions The most noticeable changes in biological markers occur during days 1 to 3 postoperatively for both THR and TKR surgery, and these may have an effect on such postoperative clinical outcomes as oedema, pyrexia and pain. This study may assist in understanding the postoperative course following lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and may help clinicians in planning postoperative management and patient care.
    • Lower-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against high-volume muscle-damaging exercise and the detrimental effects on endurance performance

      Burt, Dean G.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Springer Verlag, 2015-02-21)
      Purpose: This study examined whether lower-volume exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) performed 2 weeks before high-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against its detrimental effect on running performance. Methods: Sixteen male participants were randomly assigned to a lower-volume (five sets of ten squats, n = 8) or high-volume (ten sets of ten squats, n = 8) EIMD group and completed baseline measurements for muscle soreness, knee extensor torque, creatine kinase (CK), a 5-min fixedintensity running bout and a 3-km running time-trial. Measurements were repeated 24 and 48 h after EIMD, and the running time-trial after 48 h. Two weeks later, both groups repeated the baseline measurements, ten sets of ten squats and the same follow-up testing (Bout 2). Results: Data analysis revealed increases in muscle soreness and CK and decreases in knee extensor torque 24–48 h after the initial bouts of EIMD. Increases in oxygen uptake ˙V O2 , minute ventilation ˙V E and rating of perceived exertion were observed during fixed-intensity running 24–48 h after EIMD Bout 1. Likewise, time increased and speed and ˙V O2 decreased during a 3-km running time-trial 48 h after EIMD. Symptoms of EIMD, responses during fixed-intensity and running time-trial were attenuated in the days after the repeated bout of high-volume EIMD performed 2 weeks after the initial bout. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the protective effect of lower-volume EIMD on subsequent high-volume EIMD is transferable to endurance running. Furthermore, time-trial performance was found to be preserved after a repeated bout of EIMD.
    • Mabel Elizabeth Tomlinson and Isabel Ellie Knaggs: two overlooked early female Fellows of the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V; University of Chester
      Abstract: The first female Fellows of the Geological Society of London were elected in May 1919. Brief biographies were documented by Burek in 2009 as part of the celebrations for the bicentenary of the Geological Society. While some of those women were well known (e.g. Gertrude Elles and Ethel Wood), others had seemingly been forgotten. In the decade since that publication, information has come to light about those we knew so little about. There are, however, still some details evading research. From 1919 until 1925, 33 women were elected FGS, including Isobel Ellie Knaggs (1922) and Mabel Tomlinson (1924). Mabel Tomlinson had two careers, and is remembered both as an extraordinary teacher and a Pleistocene geologist. She was awarded the Lyell Fund in 1937 and R.H. Worth Prize in 1961, one of only 13 women to have received two awards from the Geological Society. She inspired the educational Tomlinson–Brown Trust. Isabel Knaggs was born in South Africa and died in Australia but spent all her school, university and working years in England. She made significant contributions to crystallography, working with eminent crystallography scientists but remained a lifelong FGS. The achievements of Tomlinson and Knaggs are considerable, which makes their relative present-day obscurity rather puzzling.
    • Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery to two- and three-dimensional neural stem cell cultures: magnet-assisted transfection and multifection approaches to enhance outcomes

      Pickard, Mark R.; Adams, Christopher F.; Chari, Divya M.; University of Chester; Keele University (Wiley, 2017-02-02)
      Neural stem cells (NSCs) have high translational potential in transplantation therapies for neural repair. Enhancement of their therapeutic capacity by genetic engineering is an important goal for regenerative neurology. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are major non-viral vectors for safe bioengineering of NSCs, offering critical translational benefits over viral vectors, including safety, scalability, and ease of use. This unit describes protocols for the production of suspension (neurosphere) and adherent (monolayer) murine NSC cultures. Genetic engineering of NSCs with MNPs and the application of 'magnetofection' (magnetic fields) or 'multifection' (repeat transfection) approaches to enhance gene delivery are described. Magnetofection of monolayer cultures achieves optimal transfection, but neurospheres offer key advantages for neural graft survival post-transplantation. A protocol is presented which allows the advantageous features of each approach to be combined into a single procedure for transplantation. The adaptation of these protocols for other MNP preparations is considered, with emphasis on the evaluation of procedural safety.
    • Mainstreaming prevention: Prescribing fruit and vegetables as a brief intervention in primary care

      Kearney, Matt; Bradbury, C.; Ellahi, Basma; Hodgson, M.; Thurston, Miranda (Elsevier, 2005)
      This articles discusses a project at the Castlefields Health Centre in Halton whereby primary care professionals issue a prescription for discounts on fruit and vegetables. The prescription is explicitly linked to the five-a-day message.
    • Making education for sustainable development: Inside-out and outside-in

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Ribchester, Chris; University of Chester (2007-07-10)
    • Mangrove and mudflat food webs are segregated across four trophic levels, yet connected by highly mobile top predators

      Marley, Guy; Lawrence, Andrew; Phillip, Dawn; Hayden, Brian; Canadian Rivers Institute
      Seascape connectivity is crucial for healthy, resilient ecosystems and fisheries. Yet, our understanding of connectivity in turbid mangrove-lined estuaries—some of the world’s most productive ecosystems—is limited to macrotidal systems, and rarely incorporates highly mobile top predators. We analysed δ13C and δ15N isotope values of 7 primary producers, 24 invertebrate taxa, 13 fishes, 4 birds and 1 reptile to reveal trophic interactions within and between a mangrove and adjacent mudflat in a microtidal system of the Gulf of Paria, Orinoco River estuary. Primary producers, invertebrates and fishes collected within the mangrove were significantly depleted in 13C and 15N compared to those collected on the mudflat. Stable isotope mixing models showed that mangrove-derived carbon was predominantly assimilated by invertebrates (78 ± 5% SE) and fishes (88 ± 11%) sampled in the mangrove. In contrast, invertebrates and fishes sampled in the mudflat derived <21% of their carbon from mangrove sources. Instead, microphytobenthos and phytoplankton underpinned the mudflat food web. Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber and yellow-crowned night heron Nyctanassa violacea were also highly associated with mangrove carbon sources. However, osprey Pandion haliaetus, snowy egret Egretta thula and spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus obtained carbon from both mangrove and mudflat sources, effectively integrating the food webs. The present study demonstrates simultaneous aspects of food web segregation and connectivity, as well as the importance of surveying the entire food web across a range of tidal systems when investigating seascape connectivity.