• Interspecific and intraspecific interactions between salt marsh plants: Integrating the effects of environmental factors and density on plant performance

      Huckle, Jonathan M.; Marrs, Robert H.; Potter, Jacqueline; University of Liverpool ; University of Liverpool ; Chester College of Higher Education (Nordic Ecological Society, 2002-02)
      There has been much debate about the role of plant interactions in the structure and function of vegetation communities. Here the results of a pot experiment with controlled environments are described where three environmental variables (nutrients, sediment type and waterlogging) were manipulated factorially to identify their effects on the growth and intensity of interactions occurring between Spartina anglica and Puccinellia maritima. The two species were grown in split-plot planting treatments, representing intraspecific and interspecific addition series experiments, to determine individual and interactive effects of environmental factors and plant interactions on plant biomass. Above-ground growth of both species involved interactions between the environmental and planting treatments, while below-ground, environmental factors affected the biomass irrespective of planting treatments. It was suggested that this difference in growth response is evidence that in our experiment plant interactions between the two species occur primarily at the above-ground level. The intensity of plant interactions varied in a number of ways. First, interactions between Spartina and Puccinellia were distinctly asymmetrical, Puccinellia exerting a competitive effect on Spartina, with no reciprocal effect, and with a facilitative effect of Spartina on Puccinellia in low nutrient conditions. Second, the interactions varied in intensity in different environmental conditions. Interspecific competitive effects of Puccinellia on Spartina were more intense in conditions favourable to growth of Puccinellia and reduced or non-existent in environments with more abiotic stress. Third, intraspecific competition was found to be less intense for both species than interspecific interactions. Finally, the intensity of plant interactions involving both species was more intense above ground than below ground, with a disproportionate reduction in the intensity of interspecific competition below relative to above ground in treatments with less productive sediments and greater immersion. This is interpreted as reflecting a potential mechanism by which Spartina may be able to evade competitive neighbours.
    • The intra- and inter-day reliability of the FitroDyne as a measure of multi-jointed muscle function

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (IOS Press, 2016-02-27)
      The FitroDyne has been used to assess muscle function but its reliability has not been determined during traditional multi-jointed resistance exercises. Objective: To assess the intra- and inter-day reliability of the FitroDyne during traditional resistance exercises. Methods: 14 resistance trained males completed a one repetition maximum (1RM) and three repetitions of bench press, squat and bent-over-row in 10% increments (from 20 to 80%). Replica trials were completed two and 48 hours later. The FitroDyne rotary encoder measured barbell velocity during each repetition from which power output was calculated. Results: For all loads and exercises the intra-day typical error (TE) for peak and mean power, and velocity, respectively, during bench press (8.2-53 W and 2.2-6.9 cms-1), squat (13.3-55.6 W and 2.4-7.4 cms-1), and bent-over-row (14.5-62.8 W and 4-10.5 cms-1) identified only moderate changes. Bench press yielded poor intra-day reliability at 80% 1RM only (CV% = 12.2-17.1), whereas squat and bent-over-row across all loads for peak and mean power and velocity displayed better reliability CV% = 2.4-9.0). Inter-day, the TE detected moderate changes for peak and mean power and velocity for all three exercises. Inter-day reliability was comparable to intra-day, though improved for bench press 80%1RM (CV% = 6.1-8.6). Conclusion: These data support the use of the FitroDyne at submaximal loads for monitoring moderate changes in muscle function both intra- and inter-day.
    • An introduction to drugs in sport: Addicted to winning?

      Waddington, Ivan; Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-02)
      This book discusses the use of performance enhancing drugs in elite sport. It covers a history of the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport, theories of drug use, the development of performance enhancing drugs, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and case studies on the use of performance enhancing drugs in British sports, cycling, and football.
    • An introduction to Phylogenetic Path Analysis

      Gonzalez-Voyer, A.; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Estación Biológica de Doñana, Gran Paradiso National Park (Springer Verlag, 2014)
      The questions addressed by macroevolutionary biologists are often impervious to experimental approaches, and alternative methods have to be adopted. The phy- logenetic comparative approach is a very powerful one since it combines a large number of species and thus spans long periods of evolutionary change. However, there are limits to the inferences that can be drawn from the results, in part due to the limitations of the most commonly employed analytical methods. In this chapter, we show how confirmatory path analysis can be undertaken explicitly controlling for non-independence due to shared ancestry. The phylogenetic path analysis method we present allows researchers to move beyond the estimation of direct effects and analyze the relative importance of alternative causal models including direct and indirect paths of influence among variables. We begin the chapter with a general introduction to path analysis and then present a step-by-step guide to phylogenetic path analysis using the d-separation method. We also show how the known statistical problems associated with non-independence of data points due to shared ancestry become compounded in path analysis. We finish with a discussion about the potential effects of collinearity and measurement error, and a look toward possible future developments.
    • Introduction: History, sociology and the sociology of sport: The work of Norbert Elias

      Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester ; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the 'figurational' or 'process-sociological' approach developed by Norbert Elias.
    • Investigating morphometrics, movement and oviposition in the Lissotriton and Triturus newts

      Johnson, Lisa (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      This thesis focuses on the UK pond newts, the smaller bodied species known as Lissotriton newts and the larger Triturus. The primary aims were to identify and address gaps in the current Tritus/Lissotriton literature; to provide a more complete understanding of this group as many assumptions about morphology and physiology exist untested, for example that larger/fatter females will lay more eggs. Specifically for Lissotriton helveticus, many assumptions are based on the similarly sized Lissotriton vulgaris, potentially missing any species specific differences. A further focus of the work was to provide a clearer view over the whole breeding season; using measures of condition over a season and egg-laying.
    • Investigating Non-invasive Measures of Stress in Ornamental Fish

      Wolfenden, David C. C. (University of Chester, 2014)
      The transport of ornamental marine fish may cause stress, which to date has been the subject of limited research. The present study aimed to characterise the behavioural and physiological responses to simulated transport stress in the common clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830) with the additional goal of validating non-invasive measures of water cortisol in a marine teleost for the first time. Behaviour and physiology of the animals was measured at different stages of transport (from initial capture and handling up to 72 hours transport time) and water quality measurements were taken from the transport water at key sampling points. In a second experiment biological filtration materials (“Bioballs” with denitrifying bacteria) were added to the transport bag to determine if stress was reduced when water quality was improved. The results of the study suggest that capture, handling and transport are stressful for clownfish, and the stress response appears to peak between 24 and 48 hours after the onset of the stressor. Water-borne cortisol was found to be a valid alternative to invasive methods of sampling, although only an average of 53% cortisol was recovered from sea water. Although handling and confinement appeared to be highly significant factors in eliciting the stress response water quality measurements revealed that fish are temporarily subjected to relatively high concentrations of ammonia as transport time increased, which may contribute to long-term effects on the health of the animals. This was reflected in an increased latency to feed and reduced social behaviours in fish transported for 24 hours or longer. Improving water quality did reduce the concentration of ammonia present; however, fish still exhibited elevated cortisol excretion suggesting that water quality is not the primary stressor associated with transport. Thus, the duration of transport should be restricted to a maximum of 24 hours to reduce the stress associated with this practice. A separate study investigated the potential for beauty treatment ‘fish spas’ to elicit stress in the freshwater cyprinid fish Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843). Water cortisol was measured non-invasively to determine if stress was reduced through the provision of environmental enrichment / furnishings, and whether stocking density influenced stress. Water quality was monitored to determine the effects of stocking density on environmental parameters (pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Finally, the effect of ii human hands being placed into the aquarium was investigated, to determine whether this influenced stress. Three hundred G. rufa were used in total, with groups being allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups: OP/B (optimum stocking density / barren tank – i.e. no enrichment); OP/E (optimum stocking density / enriched tank); OS/B (overstocked / barren tank); and OS/E (overstocked / enriched tank). Human hands were placed in each tank, and water samples were collected before and after for measurement of cortisol by ELISA, and to determine water quality parameters. The results revealed that overstocking tanks with G. rufa produced relatively higher baseline cortisol levels, suggesting that stocking density may have a significant effect on stress levels. The addition of furnishings into the aquarium did not reduce baseline cortisol levels in the fish prior to the introduction of human hands. However, fish maintained under enriched conditions exhibited a greater cortisol response when compared to individuals in barren tanks. It is hypothesised that the provision of enrichment reduces the available space for fish following the introduction of human hands, thereby increasing stress. Further studies are required to attempt to determine the effect of enrichment based upon the results of the present study. Feeding on human hands resulted in an elevated cortisol response from three out of the four treatment groups (with the exception of OP/B), with the results suggesting that either 1) the lower (i.e. optimal) stocking density and lack of enrichment in holding tanks is preferable for G. rufa fish welfare, or 2) the elevated cortisol reflected a response to a rewarding stimulus and is linked to increased foraging. Overall, the results of these studies have shown that water cortisol measurements are a valid means of assessing physiological stress in two species of fish in different contexts. This negates the need for invasive sampling and is an important refinement to existing protocols where fish are killed for plasma or whole body samples. The results also highlight the welfare impacts of transport and overstocking of ornamental fish providing valuable evidence that may be relevant to improving the husbandry and guidelines with respect to the ornamental fish industry.
    • Investigating the Prevalence of Anaemia in Rural Gambia, in Relation to Levels of Zinc Protoporphyrin, Haemoglobin and Haptoglobin (Phenotype and Genotype)

      Bah, Ebrima; Michelangeli, Frank (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-29)
      Abstract Objectives To find out the overlapping and correlating relationships between serum haptoglobin level, haptoglobin genotype and phenotype, blood haemoglobin level and zinc protoporphyrin (measured in washed RBCs) in association to prevalence of anaemia. It will focus on comparing all the mention components in contrast to each other. The study will also look for the frequency distribution of the major HP alleles. Methods 1278 participants were randomly selected. Blood samples collected by trained nurses. Data generation was done at the Medical research council (keneba field station) research site. Data Analysis was conducted at the university of Chester with the assistance of the computer department team. Results P = 0.000 indicating anaemia prevalence with HP 1 allele. P > 0.05 when ID, IDA and AI relates with HP genotype. Positive correlation between ZnPP and HP serum level, but negative between ZnPP and Hb. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb level. P = 0.013 between HP genotype and HP serum. P = 0.100 between HP genotype and ZnPP. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb. ZnPP shared a positive correlation with HP serum level, and a negative correlation with Hb level. The correlation significant = 0.01 level (2-tailed) P = 0.01. The correlation between HP genotype and HP serum level was significant with P = 0.013, but the correlation between HP genotype and ZnPP was not significant with P = 0.100. Conclusions HP genotype had association with anaemia prevalence and more occurrence was observed in carriers of the type ‘1’ allele. It had no association with ID, IDA and AI. HP genotype had association with HP serum level and Hb level but had no association with ZnPP level. ZnPP level was observed to have had association with HP serum level, Hb level and IDA; but had no association with ID and AI in the region. Funding Sources All the resources used in this study were from MRC Keneba (International Nutrition Group) which is supported by funds from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement (Hennig et al., 2015).
    • Investigating the role of heatshock on diabetic wound healing

      Contractor, Taha (University of Chester, 2017-05)
      The increasing occurrence of diabetes in the general population as a result of over nutrition and increasingly inactive lifestyle has led to an obesity epidemic which is set to grow over time. With an ever increasing obese population type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications are set to become the major causes of human mortality. Chronic non healing wounds are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. They are predominantly caused by macrophage dysfunction and a lack of migration of fibroblasts into the wound. This study aimed to investigate diabetic wound healing through development of an artificial scratch assay. An in vitro scratch assay developed in WS1 cells. The effect of heat shock treatments from 39°C to 45° was tested to determine if cell migration increased; however, no significant difference was seen. Mitomycin C was used to determine if wound closure occurred as a result of cell proliferation and migration or migration alone. 10μg/ml of mitomycin C inhibited cell division by 79.9% without exhibiting cytotoxicity over a 12h period. The effect of hyperglycaemia and heat shock was also tested and showed no significant difference when compared to control conditions, suggesting that fibroblast migration in vivo is hindered through other factors such as debridement or macrophage dysfunction in the wound. GLUT4 is present in insulin sensitive organs (liver, adipose and muscle) and is the major glucose transporter responsible for the clearance of glucose from the blood after a meal, thus playing a central role in glucose homeostasis. Monocytes are precursors to macrophages and can easily be isolated from whole blood. They have also been shown to express GLUT4 in response to insulin and could be used as model to assess inflammation in diabetes. A glucose uptake assay was developed in U937 cells using a fluorescent glucose analogue, 2NBDG. 2NBDG fluorescence was shown to be competitively inhibited by increasing concentrations of glucose suggesting that 2NBDG enters the cell through glucose transporters. 2NBDG uptake was also assessed at different pH and in presence of membrane fluidizers (DMSO, benzyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol). Extremes of pH significantly reduced cell viability and only at pH 4 was 2NBDG fluorescence significantly reduced. Treatment with DMSO showed that at high concentrations (≤ 1.56%) cell viability was reduced with a concurrent reduction in 2NBDG fluorescence. The effect of benzyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol was foundto be insignificant at the concentrations and time points tested. The presence of GLUT4 was also determined by flow cytometry and Western blotting and found to be situated in the cytoplasmic region of the cell. This study indicates that monocytes and macrophages could be a potential therapeutic target to improve diabetic wound healing as they are a source of growth factors and cytokines that can bring about resolution of inflammation and it is their dysfunction in diabetic wounds that causes poor clinical outcomes.
    • An investigation into the numerical determinants of secondary sex ratio

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Glenn, Janine; Chester College of Higher Education (2000)
      Data from the North Wales parishes of Hawarden and Northop were found previously to show seasonality for birth rate. In keeping with values reported in other studies, the annual secondary sex ratio of 105.3% was found. This sex ratio was also found to vary throughout the year in a cyclical way with a peak occuring in late summer. When male and female birth rates were investigated separately, it was found that females showed a more pronounced cyclicity than males with the peaks for both sexes occuring in the spring. A significant negative correlation between sex ratio at birth and mean day lenght (hours between sunrise and sunset) of the putative month of conception was observed. Sex ratio is a useful but derived parameter and has no independant existence upon which natural selection can be said to exert a direct influence. Therefore, the behaviour of the determinants of sex ratio should not be overlooked.
    • An investigation of canine mesenchymal stem cells and their secretome in the context of spinal cord injury

      Johnson, Eustace; Wood, Chelsea R (University of Chester, 2020-05-26)
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition that has devastating effects on both humans and animals alike. Damage inflicted causes loss of neural tissue and secondary inflammatory mechanisms produce an inhibitory environment that results in partial or complete loss of motor and sensory functions. Additionally, SCI can cause multisystem issues such as organ failures, infections, muscle atrophy and decrease in mental health. Coupled with emotional and financial burdens, these effects can reduce quality of life. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are known to have immunomodulatory, angiogenic and paracrine activity, all of which are beneficial to wound healing following SCI. Pre-clinical studies have shown encouraging results of MSC therapy for SCI, however replication of results has been difficult to achieve in the clinic. Dogs also suffer from SCI and show the same heterogenous nature and pathophysiology of SCI as humans. This provides a good potential clinical model for MSC therapies for SCI, as well as providing benefit in the veterinary clinic. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to assess if canine MSC (cMSC) and cMSC secretome (conditioned medium; CM) could potentially be used for treatment of SCI in veterinary clinics, simultaneously providing model data that could be translated into the human clinic. It was first required to confirm efficacy of cMSC when used to treat other conditions in dogs, such as arthritis, along with safety of autologous transplantation. Characterisation of both cMSC phenotype and paracrine (angiogenic and neurogenic) activity was confirmed using ISCT criteria and the established cell lines EA.hy926 and SH-SY5Y. Further examination showed that exposure to certain elements of the injured spinal cord, such as CSPG which are found within the inhibitory glial scar, exerted some effects on cMSC and cMSC angiogenic and neurogenic paracrine activity. To finish, the study aimed to assess the effect of cMSC CM on an ex vivo model of the spinal cord, a multicellular environment and it was found that cMSC CM increased astrocyte reactivity but reduced neuronal maturation and growth, suggesting that cMSC paracrine activity depends in part on the spinal cord microenvironment. Overall, this study has shown that cMSC, in particular cMSC CM, could be used as complete or partial treatment for SCI in dogs.
    • An investigation of the test-retest reliability of an ultrasound densitometer

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Owen, David G. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 18/10/1998)
      Army recruits undertake a rapidly increasing amount of exercise in their initial basic training period. Injuries due physical training forces many recruits out of the Army and costs the Ministry of Defence millions of pounds. Stress fractures are one of the most commonly diagnosed injuries amongst Army recruits. Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for stress fractures. A technique which can measure bone mineral density is Ultrasound Densitometry (US). This study will address a gap in the research by assessing the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the two US measurements, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the velocity of sound (VOS). Ninety eight white male recruits, median aged 18 (I.Q. range 1yr) were measured at the calcanea of the non-dominant foot. A repeated measures design was used, BUA and VOS were measured in 55 subjects by both researcher 'A1 and 'B' for inter-observer (inter-BUA & inter-VOS), and 43 subjects were measured for BUA and VOS twice by researcher 'A' for the intra-observer analysis (intra-BUA & intra-VOS). The results from this study found that a coefficient of variation (CV) analysis was not appropriate for assessing measurement error, this was due to the homoscedasity of the data. An alternative method the '95% limits of agreement' found that only VOS was reliable. The '95% limits of agreement1 results (bias ±1.96 x s) were 0.74 ±22.77 m/s for intra-VOS and 4.85 ±23.44 m/s for inter-VOS, the variance in scores were judged to be acceptable, f-test confirmed this with a non-significant difference between measurements (t=0.83, p=0.477; t=0.42, p=0.677, respectively). The '95% limits of agreement1 results for BUA were -0.22±11.56 dB/MHz (inter-BUA) and -1.39 ±11.11 dB/MHz (intra-BUA). These results represent an unacceptable variability in the range of scores obtained. This is highlighted when expressed as a proportion of the mean measurement: inter-BUA ±11.41% and intra-BUA ± 11.91%. However, the West's for inter- and intra-BUA indicate no significant difference (t = -0.07, p = 0.091; t = 1.60, p = 0.116). This insignificance may be the result of the inappropriateness of a statistical method that reliance on a comparison of means. The CV results for BUA indicate that both inter- and intra-BUA are reliable (4.08% & 4.38%, respectively), even though as already stated that the BUA measurements are not deemed reliable when analysed by the '95% limits of agreement'. The results of this study suggest that VOS measurements are reliable and that BUA measurements are non-reliable. As both BUA and VOS would have been used to assess those at risk of suffering stress fractures it was essential that both were found to be reliable. Thus US's appropriateness in individual diagnosis is questioned. This study has also highlighted how the use of an inappropriate statistical method, in this case the CV, can effect the interpretation of data and cause false claims over e.g. reliability.
    • An investigation to determine the nutritional adequacy and individuals experience of a very low fat diet used to treat type V hypertriglyceridaemia

      Whitfield-Brown, Louisa M.; Hamer, O.; Ellahi, Basma; Burden, Sorrel; Durrington, Paul; University of Chester ; Manchester Royal Infirmary ; University of Chester ; Manchester Royal Infirmary ; University of Manchester (Wiley, 2009-05-15)
      This article discusses a study of eight patients with type V hypertriglyceridaemia on a low fat diet. The nutritional adequact of the diet and the barriers and enablers to adherence were analysed.
    • Involvement and detachment in researching sexuality: Reflections on the process of semistructured interviewing

      Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-01-01)
      This article discusses the utility of the concept of involvement-detachment for involved in the study of the lifeworlds of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people where one of the researchers was a lesbian. The processes of semistructured interviewing and the benefits of teamwork in research are discussed.
    • Involvement of recreational anglers in the eradication of alien brook trout from high altitude lakes

      Tiberti, Rocco; Ottino, Michelle; Brighenti, Stefano; Iacobuzio, Rocco; Rolla, Matteo; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Bassano, Bruno; Gran Paradiso National Park, University of Pavia, Università degli studi di Trento, Fondazione E. Mach, Università degli Studi di Milano, Swansea University, University of Chester (Gran Paradiso National Park Agency, 2017)
      Stocking programmes for recreational angling are primarily responsible for the spread and ecological impact of introduced sh in high-altitude, originally shless lakes. In 2013, the Gran Paradiso National Park started an eradication campaign of brook trout by intensive gill-netting. Local anglers were invited to attend two angling sessions to start the eradication before gill-netting in an experimental lake, as part of an education action devoted to these critical stakeholders. The angling sessions turned out to be a valuable help for the eradication campaign and the aim of this study is to report on the outcomes of these angling sessions. Angling techniques were highly size-selective, removing a substantial part of the adult population and of the sh biomass, but their contribution to the eradication of small sh (<15cm) was irrelevant. Therefore, angling cannot completely eradicate age-structured populations. However, there is scope to use angling sessions as a support for eradication campaigns and as an emergency measure for recent sh introduc- tions. Similar actions should be considered whenever a sh eradication programme is planned. These ndings, however, do not imply a general endorsement for angling within protected areas.
    • Is cortisol a reliable indicator of primate well-being?

      Skyner, Lindsay J.; Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Primate Society of Great Britain, 2006-06)
    • Is Wounding Aggression in Zoo-housed Chimpanzees and Ring-tailed Lemurs related to Zoo Visitor Numbers?

      Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky; Formella, Isabel; Ward, Samantha J.; Tokarski, Marina; Brunger, Dave; Brice, Sara; Hill, Sonya P.; University of Bolton; Taronga Zoo; South Lakes Wild Animal Park; Nottingham Trent University; Chester Zoo; University of Chester (Wiley, 2016-02-29)
      Chimpanzees in laboratory colonies experience more wounds on week days than on weekends, which has been attributed to the increased number of people present during the week; thus the presence of more people was interpreted as stressful. If this were also true for primates in zoos, where high human presence is a regular feature, this would clearly be of concern. Here we examine wounding rates in two primate species (chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta) at three different zoos, to determine whether they correlate with mean number of visitors to the zoo. Wounding data were obtained from zoo electronic record keeping system (ZIMS™). The pattern of wounds did not correlate with mean gate numbers for those days for either species in any group. We conclude that there is no evidence that high visitor numbers result in increased woundings in these two species when housed in zoos.
    • Isn’t it good, Norwegian wood? Lifestyle and adventure sports participation among Norwegian youth

      Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; University of Chester; Hedmark University College; Norsk Statistisk Sentralbyra (Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-19)
      Based primarily on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter (Vaage, 2009) supplemented by a little qualitative data, this paper explores Norwegian youngsters’ (and, to a lesser extent, adults’) engagement with conventional and lifestyle sports via an examination of recent trends. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership among young people and young Norwegians are the quintessential sporting omnivores. Nevertheless, among the age group where regular participation peaks in Norway (16-19-year-olds) the popularity of games declined over the decade 1997-2007 while participation in lifestyle sports continued to increase (Vaage, 2009). It seems that the particular mix of conventional and lifestyle sports that Norwegian youngsters favour has shifted within a generation, with lifestyle activities more prominent in 2007 than they had been even a decade earlier. The changes in participation in a particular area of sporting participation strongly associated with Norwegian culture – friluftsliv (outdoor life) – may well represent a shift among Norwegian youth towards sports and physical activities that offer alternative forms, as well as types, of participation to conventional sports. They may also represent alternative motivations to those traditionally associated with sport and, for that matter, friluftsliv. The paper draws upon these findings in order to tentatively hypothesize developments in youth leisure-sport in Norway.
    • Isoform-specific Ras signaling is growth factor dependent

      Hood, Fiona E.; Klinger, Bertram; Newlaczyl, Anna U.; Sieber, Anja; Dorel, Mathurin; Oliver, Simon P.; Coulson, Judy M.; Bluthgen, Nils; Prior, Ian A.; University of Liverpool; Universitätsmedizin Berlin; University of Chester (ASCB, 2019-04-11)
      HRAS, NRAS and KRAS isoforms are almost identical proteins that are ubiquitously expressed and activate a common set of effectors. In vivo studies have revealed that they are not biologically redundant; however, the isoform-specificity of Ras signaling remains poorly understood. Using a novel panel of isogenic SW48 cell lines endogenously expressing wild type or G12V mutated activated Ras isoforms we have performed a detailed characterization of endogenous isoform-specific mutant Ras signaling. We find that despite displaying significant Ras activation, the downstream outputs of oncogenic Ras mutants are minimal in the absence of growth factor inputs. The lack of mutant KRAS-induced effector activation observed in SW48 cells appears to be representative of a broad panel of colon cancer cell lines harboring mutant KRAS. For MAP kinase pathway activation in KRAS mutant cells, the requirement for co-incident growth factor stimulation occurs at an early point in the Raf activation cycle. Finally, we find that Ras isoform-specific signaling was highly context dependent and did not conform to the dogma derived from ectopic expression studies.
    • ‘It’s alpha omega for succeeding and thriving’: Parents, children and sporting cultivation in Norway

      Johansen, Patrick F.; Green, Ken; Innland University Norway; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-13)
      It has become increasingly apparent, internationally, that childhood is a crucial life-stage in the formation of predispositions towards sports participation and that parents are increasingly investing in the sporting capital of their children via a process of ‘concerted cultivation’. It is surprising, therefore, that parents’ involvement in the development of their children’s sporting interests has received so little attention in Norway, given that sport is a significant pastime for Norwegians and participation has been steadily increasing – among youngsters, in particular – over the past several decades. Through a qualitative case study of a combined primary and secondary school in a small Norwegian city, this study sought to add to recent explorations of the role of parents in children’s sporting involvement in Norway. As expected, it was evident that sport becomes taken for granted and internalized very early on in Norwegian children’s lives. Less expected was the recognition that children’s nascent sporting interests were often generated by sports clubs via early years schooling and, therefore, that parents played only one (albeit very important) part in the formation of their youngsters’ early sporting habits. Thus, parents, sports clubs and early years schooling appeared to form something akin to a ‘sporting trinity’ in youngsters’ nascent sporting careers. These findings may have implications for policy-makers looking towards Norway for the ‘recipe’ for sports participation.