• Exercise: Tipping the balance towards sustained participation and lasting benefits

      Buckley, John P.; University of Chester (2011)
      Current data from the National Audit for Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR) report that the average uptake of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), which includes exercise, is about 38%; ranging from 30% in patients following angioplasty to 68% for patients following bypass surgery. The NACR has highlighted numerous potential reasons for this lower than desired uptake, including the quality of local referral and patient recruitment processes, patient education and socio-cultural barriers to access. These problems are not exclusive to the exercise component of CR but affect the whole programme. This article will focus on the factors that CR professionals must consider in order to influence favourably the sustained longer-term participation in beneficial exercise for those patients who have taken up CR.
    • The experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease: an interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study

      Dibley, Lesley; Norton, Christine; Whitehead, Elizabeth; University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2017-12-05)
      Aim to explore experiences of stigma in people with inflammatory bowel disease. Background Diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence are common symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease. Social rules stipulate full control of bodily functions in adulthood: poor control may lead to stigmatisation, affecting patients’ adjustment to disease. Disease-related stigma is associated with poorer clinical outcomes but qualitative evidence is minimal. Design An interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study of the lived experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Forty community-dwelling adults with a self-reported diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease were recruited purposively. Participants reported feeling stigmatised or not and experiencing faecal incontinence or not. Unstructured interviews took place in participants’ homes in the United Kingdom (September 2012 – May 2013). Data were analysed using Diekelmann's interpretive method. Findings Three constitutive patterns - Being in and out of control, Relationships and social Support and Mastery and mediation - reveal the experience of disease-related stigma, occurring regardless of continence status and because of name and type of disease. Stigma recedes when mastery over disease is achieved through development of resilience - influenced by humour, perspective, mental wellbeing and upbringing (childhood socialisation about bodily functions). People travel in and out of stigma, dependent on social relationships with others including clinicians and tend to feel less stigmatised over time. Conclusion Emotional control, social support and mastery over disease are key to stigma reduction. By identifying less resilient patients, clinicians can offer appropriate support, accelerating the patient's path towards disease acceptance and stigma reduction.
    • Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: an analysis of developmental discourses in Scottish curricular documentation

      McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-03-03)
      This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation. The article interrogates the ways in which developmental discourses are evident throughout this and related documentation and how these discourses might ‘work’ to produce specific effects on practitioners and children as they are deployed and taken up in Scottish preschool education contexts. This analysis involves speculating about potential consequences for practitioners' and children's experiences and subjectivities. In conclusion, it is suggested that practitioners should critically engage with the curriculum, as uncritical acceptance of the discourses underpinning it could lead to practices that may have negative consequences. Furthermore, the article proposes that future research should investigate the ways in which the discourses privileged in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation are taken up and negotiated in Scottish preschool settings.
    • An exploration of visual search between coaches and judges in gymnastics

      Page, Jennifer L.; Lafferty, Moira E.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; University of Chester (2007-07)
      This conference paper discusses a case study of 7 coaches and 5 coach/judges who viewed ten handspring vaults whilst earing an ASL 501 eye-tracker. The results provide evidence that to suggest that coaches and coach/judges produce similar search patterns when judging performance using pre-determined criteria. This has implications for perceptual training and the development of training aids where, despite coaches and judges performing separate roles, eye patterns can be trainined in order to produce a more effective scan pattern for error detection.
    • Exploring colorectal cancer patients' perceptions of the quality of their care

      Thurston, Miranda; Perry, Catherine; Kirby, Karen; Chester College of Higher Education (Chester: Chester College of Higher Education, 2003, 2003-05)
      This report discusses the local situation in Halton with regard to colorectal cancer care by exploring how patients perceived the quality of their care.
    • Exploring hygiene compliance in the small independent restaurant sector in Abu Dhabi

      Fallows, Stephen; Bonwick, Graham A.; Idriss, Johaina (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Introduction: Food safety is widely recognised as one of the problems in the fight for improving public health. Many governments are trying to improve public health through reducing foodborne illnesses and setting the climate for implementing HACCP-based food safety management systems (FSMS). Following the global trend, Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) launched the HACCP for Catering Project (2010 – 2014), which aimed at helping foodservice businesses, licensed in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in implementing HACCP-based FSMS. Purpose: The project team recognised the limited resources and the diversity in education levels, ethnic backgrounds, and number of languages spoken among managers/supervisors and food handlers, as points of concern in the small independent restaurant (SIR) subsector. Thus, the Salamt Zadna (SZ) initiative, a simplified FSMS, was developed to train SIRs on implementing a set of safe operating procedures to improve compliance with food safety laws and regulations. Previous studies in the GCC region have mainly focused on governments’ attempts to enhance public health by developing laws, regulations, and policies, and recounting the barriers to implementing food safety controls. Methodology: This thesis took a different approach to food safety issues in the GCC region. It is comprised of two studies, which were conducted in two groups of SIRs – seven SZ participants and five non-participants – licensed in Al Ain, a major city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The first explored awareness and understanding of food safety, related laws, regulations, and policies, and attitudes towards ADFCA services and inspectors, among managers/supervisors, by interviewing them. The second examined the efficacy of SZ in improving food handlers’ food-safety behaviours by observing their conduct, and comparing between the two SIR groups. Results: The study indicated low levels of awareness and understanding of food safety, related laws, regulations, and policies, in both groups of managers/supervisors; regardless of whether or not they were SZ Cparticipants. Both groups of interviewees expressed both negative and positive attitudes towards ADFCA’s services and inspectors; sometimes by the same interviewees, within the same, or between the two groups. However, SZ participating SIRs were slightly more positive than their counterparts. Key results highlighted the low impact of SZ on changing food handlers’ behaviours, except in two areas; namely, the food handlers working in SZ-participating SIRs scored higher than the other group in handwashing and changing gloves between handling raw meats and other foods. Implications: This research adds a new dimension to the food safety profile of the UAE, since it is the first of its kind in the UAE and the region as a whole. Its originality opens the door for other researchers to increase the volume of research in this field, which would help in understanding and tackling the barriers to improving the food safety status in the country, as well as the region.
    • Exploring the impact of the Burnley Food and Fitness Aimed at Lowering Obesity (BUFFALO) project - executive summary

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2010-03)
      The BUFFALO project (Burnley Food and Fitness Aimed at Lowering Obesity) is a children’s obesity prevention project targeting Year 5 (9 to 10 year old) pupils in primary schools in Burnley. It is co-ordinated and delivered by Burnley Borough Council in partnership with East Lancashire Primary Care Trust. The BUFFALO project involves curriculum input during the normal school day for one afternoon per week in each Year 5 class for the first school term, followed by a 10 week programme of after school activities. The BUFFALO project team commissioned the Centre for Public Health Research at the University of Chester to explore the impact of the BUFFALO project using data which had been routinely collected.
    • Exploring the London 2012 Olympic legacy experiences of a non-host city: a policy based case study of those delivering sport in Birmingham before and after the Games

      Bloyce, Daniel; Lovett, Emily L. (University of Chester, 2016-11)
      In bidding to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the London bid committee promised a range of ambitious legacies. Planning for legacy pre-Games was a relatively new aspect of event planning (Leopkey & Parent, 2009). For the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) and the Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS), the sporting legacy from London 2012 was intended to be experienced across Britain. As such, a significant impact was expected on the sporting lives of people in non-host areas. To this extent it seems entirely appropriate, therefore, to examine the attempts to establish a ‘legacy’ in a city outside of London. Birmingham, one of the most populated cities in the UK, is therefore the focus of this study. The aim of this project was to investigate the legacy experiences of those delivering sport in Birmingham prior to, and soon after, the Games. This research was conducted from a figurational approach. A case study design was used to provide a detailed insight into a complex network of people and their perceptions that influence sport policy and development. The methods employed within this case study include documentary analysis of national policy documents and semi-structured interviews with key personnel in Birmingham. Interviews were conducted in the months prior to the Games and follow-up telephone interviews several months after the Games.
    • Exploring the role of the extra-curricular sphere in higher education for sustainable development in the United Kingdom

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2008-08)
      This article discusses the extra-curricular sphere as a useful area for the advancement of education for sustainable development (ESD) work in higher education (HE). A postal questionnaire survey of UK universities and an ongoing case study ascertained practice in the UK HE sphere.
    • Extra-curricular education for sustainable development (ESD) interventions in UK universities

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Environmental Education Association of South Africa, 2007)
    • Extra-curricular education for sustainable development interventions in higher education

      Degg, Martin; Burek, Cynthia V.; Ribchester, Chris; Potter, Jacqueline; Lipscombe, Bryan P. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2009-12)
      Universities are seen to have a central role in the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), partly through their teaching and research activities. However, the critique of Higher Education's (HE) contribution to sustainable development thus far points to the limitations of a discipline driven, curriculum content and solely student focused response. Within this context, extra-curricular interventions, for example, running awareness campaigns, creating groups and organising events, appear to have potential to advance ESD in HE. However, there has been little investigation or published work in this area. Ideas of non formal and informal education; constructivist theories of learning; concepts of free choice, tacit and social learning, and the notions of whole systems thinking and sustainable education all point to roles for interventions in the extra-curricular sphere. This thesis explores the use of extra-curricular interventions in HE through an empirical investigation in the UK. A 2006 postal survey of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) records the extent and type of interventions in use and opinions about their utility. A case study, developed through action research, reports the use and impact of extra-curricular ESD-related interventions at one HEI over an academic year (2006-07). In this case study, regular contact with a group of staff and students over the year is used to map changes in their thoughts and actions relating to sustainable development, and to record the influences attributed to these changes. Importantly, extra-curricular ESD-related interventions are found to be commonly used in UK HE, and to have a prominent position in ESD work despite their limited visibility in the literature. Their utility is confirmed as they are seen to provide experiences that contribute to student and staff learning, as well as institutional change. The evidence collected supports their roles as: disciplinary bridge', community bridge; socialisation scaffold, and social learning arena. They appear to have a useful developmental role in mobilising and motivating members of the campus community. As peripheral activities, however, extra-curricular interventions may be prone to erratic implementation through being under-resourced. They can extend participation in BSD although will not reach everyone. They are best viewed as a complementary part of BSD and linked to a process of curricular and pedagogic renewal. In addition to confirming the extent, utility and limitations of extra-curricular ESD practice, the research contributes a model to map understandings of sustainable development. This model points to a core environmental understanding to which extra layers and strands of thinking can be added. It also confirms the importance of non formal and informal influences in shaping people's conceptions of sustainable development.
    • Extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales: Reflections on the 'state of play'

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005)
      This book chapter offers an outline of the state of extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales and discusses why extra-curricular physical education remains relatively conventional in content and form.
    • Extraction, identification and biological activities of saponins in sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei

      Khattaba, Rafat A.; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnasera, Yaser S.; Alih, Imran; Taibah University; Suez Canal University; Jizan University; Alarish University; University of Chester; Sunderland University; Kunsan National University; Central University, New Delhi (Bentham Science, 2018-04-01)
      Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt.
    • Factors affecting the anthropometric and physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players: a multi-club study.

      Dobbin, Nick; Moss, Samantha; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2018-12)
      Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the anthropometric and physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players. Methods: One hundred and ninety-seven elite academy rugby league players (age = 17.3 ± 1.0 years) from five Super League clubs completed measures of anthropometric and physical characteristics during a competitive season. The interaction between, and influence of contextual factors on characteristics was assessed using linear mixed modelling. Results: Associations were observed between several anthropometric and physical characteristics. All physical characteristics improved during preseason and continued to improve until mid-season where thereafter 10 m sprint (η2 = 0.20 cf. 0.25), CMJ (η2 = 0.28 cf. 0.30) and prone Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR) (η2 = 0.22 cf. 0.54) performance declined. Second (η2 = 0.17) and third (η2 = 0.16) years were heavier than first years, whilst third years had slower 10 m sprint times (η2 = 0.22). Large positional variability was observed for body mass, 20 m sprint time, medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, and prone Yo-Yo IR1. Compared to bottom-ranked teams, top demonstrated superior 20 m (η2 = -0.22) and prone Yo-Yo IR1 (η2 = 0.26) performance whilst middle-ranked teams reported higher CMJ height (η2 = 0.26) and prone Yo-Yo IR1 distance (η2 = 0.20), but slower 20 m sprint times (η2 = 0.20). Conclusion: These findings offer practitioners designing training programmes for academy rugby league players insight into the relationships between anthropometric and physical characteristics and how they are influenced by playing year, league ranking, position and season phase.
    • Factors affecting the quality of Acacia senegal gums

      Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Hamouda, Yasir (University of Chester, 2017-04)
      Gum arabic is a natural gummy exudate from acacia trees and exhibits natural built-in variations commonly associated with hydrocolloids. This study is concerned with the determination of factors which could influence its properties and functionality. These factors include origin (location, soil type, rainfall), different collections, age of the trees and storage condition. Previous studies acknowledged the influence of some of these factors but somehow lack providing definitive answers to questions being asked by the end user and required for the development of Gum arabic industry in Sudan. Local knowledge as well as the various stages of gum collection and processing were reviewed in order to provide a clear background and the justification for the experimental design. In this study samples were collected from six plantations located in the west and east regions in Sudan. Samples were collected from trees of different age (5, 10, 15 and 20 years old) and also from different picking interval (1-4). Each sample was divided into three portions (UK, Khartoum and Port Sudan) and stored for 5 years in order to determine the effect of the respective location. Various analytical parameters (% loss on drying, Optical rotation, % protein, intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution) were measured to fully characterise the gum samples and to determine their functionality (emulsification). The results obtained for all samples were consistent with those previously reported in the literature (see Chapter 4). The only exception, identified in a number of samples from the western region, is the high proportion (~30%) of high molecular weight fraction termed arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP). The results clearly demonstrated significant variations between plantations located in western region compared with the eastern region. However, the variations between the plantations within the same region are statistically not significant. High values of % protein, viscosity, Mw and % AGP were obtained from the 1st pick, from both regions, and then significantly decreased thereafter to the fourth pick. Samples from west region in Sudan, from 1st and 2nd pick and from tree age (15) years gave the highest viscosity, molecular weight, % AGP and superior emulsification performance compared to other samples from different tree ages. The regression statistical analysis for the physiochemical properties correlation with emulsification performance demonstrated the role of % AGP to be the most influential factor followed by viscosity. The major finding of this study is the effect of storage condition on the properties and functionality of Acacia senegal. An increase in the molecular weight for all stored samples (for 5 years) irrespective of region was evident and statically significant. However, this increase was more prominent for samples from the western region compared to the eastern region. The AGP fraction was increased by the storage treatment up to 40% in Port-Sudan, 20% in Khartoum-Sudan and 15% in UK. The result clearly demonstrated that the temperature and humidity are the crucial factors to induce the natural maturation process in acacia gums. Statistical analysis (linear regression) suggested statistically significant models and equations to predict and explain the variations in the physiochemical and functional properties based on the environmental factors, picking set and age of the tree.
    • Factors modifying welfare in captive lioned-tailed mazaques (Macaca silenus)

      Smith, Tessa E.; Skyner, Lindsay J. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2006-07)
      The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) is endangered due to habitat destruction with less than 3500 individuals remaining in isolated fragments of South-West India. Lion-tailed macaques do not reproduce readily in captivity and captive breeding may be relied upon for future conservation. Poor welfare can have negative effects on reproduction so it is important that lion-tailed macaque welfare is examined in captive groups. The aims of this thesis were to understand certain aspects of lion-tailed macaque welfare (behaviour and HPA physiology) in captive populations, with the view to making suggestions for management to promote the species' welfare and reproduction. Behaviour (188 hours), urine (n=133) and faecal samples (n=294) were collected from 38 lion-tailed macaques housed in four groups at the North of England Zoological Society (Chester Zoo), Bristol Zoological Gardens, Assiniboine Park Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park. The study successfully developed and validated assays to detect cortisol in lion-tailed macaque urine and faeces. The assays were then subsequently used to explore behaviour and HPA activity in these endangered primates. The institution in which the individuals were housed and basic life history parameters (age and sex) were explored to further understand the interplay between behaviour and physiology. Social relationships were assessed by measuring proximity (inter-individual distances and time spent in "arms-reach"). Finally the effect of visitors on behaviour, HPA activity and enclosure use was explored. There was significant variation between institutions in behaviour and HPA activity but not proximity. The age of lion-tailed macaques modified their behaviour, but not their HPA activity or proximity. The sex of lion-tailed macaques did not modify behaviour, HPA activity or proximity. The effect of visitors on lion-tailed macaques in the current study is not clear and confirms previous research on the visitor effect on captive primates. It can be concluded from this research that lion-tailed macaques are sensitive to the environment in which they are housed, indicating factors which may have negative effects on their captive breeding rates and ability to cope with habitat fragmentation for population's in-situ. The study has highlighted the need for each captive and wild group of lion-tailed macaques to be considered and monitored separately with regard to welfare and breeding.
    • Farmers’ Interest in Agricultural Technology and Organic Farming: Implications for AD Adoption and Sustainable Agriculture in the UK

      Duruiheoma, Franklin I.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Alexander, Roy; University of Chester (Macrothink Institute, 2015)
      We identify the factors that attract UK farmers towards a given technology, their interest in agricultural technology and their practice of organic farming. The implications of this on the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) in the UK and sustainable agriculture are also discussed. Farmers were contacted by means of online survey, aided by yellow pages directory, Natural England directory, Twitter and electronic mail. A total of 283 farmers participated in the survey. The Chi square test was used to check for relationships between the variables measured at 95% confidence level (p<.05). Relationship strength was measured by means of Cramer’s V and Phi values. The results showed several significant relationships among variables, including relationship between interests in agricultural technology and gender, level of education, and farm size; between knowledge of what AD is and gender, level of education and farm size; between interest in AD and age; between willingness to invest in AD if it improved soil properties and farm ownership; and between organic farming practice and age, farm type and farm size. Results also showed a significant presence of female farmers, young farmers (< 30 years old), high level of education among UK farmers, and low level of organic farming practice. Areas for future research and recommendations based on the results are presented in the conclusion.
    • Farmers’ perception of soil: Implications for soil conservation and sustainable agriculture in the UK

      Duruiheoma, Franklin I.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Alexander, Roy; University of Chester (European Centre for Research, Training and Development (ECRTD), UK., 2015-09-01)
      We identify UK farmers' perception of soil, awareness of soil in terms of how they describe it, their awareness of its benefits other than for crop production,their familiarity with soil conservation and their opinions on soil protection and the value of organic fertilizers. Data were collected with the aid of social media using both Twitter and electronic mail to deistribute a survey link to farmers,UK yellow pages, Natural England directory and Twitter were used to search for farms. Data were analysed using SPSS and Wordle. Results showed that farmers' describe soils in abstract, scientific, physical attribute and functional terms. Awareness of soil benefits other than crop production was significantly related to age, and farm ownership. Educational level was significantly related to familiarity with soil conservation and opinion on whether soil should be protected like other natural resources. The implications of these results for soil conservation and sustainable agriculture are discussed and used as the basis for policy recommendations.
    • Female clustering in cockroach aggregations – a case of social niche construction?

      Stanley, Christina; Preziosi, Richard F.; Liddiard Williams, H.; University of Chester, University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2018)
      Individuals in groups can suffer costs through interactions with adversarial or unknown conspecifics. Social niche construction allows individuals to buffer such potential costs by only engaging in preferred associations. This may be particularly beneficial in insect aggregations, which are often large and highly fluid. However, little is known regarding the structuring of such aggregations. Here we use social network analyses to test for fine-scale social structure in resting aggregations of the sub-social cockroach Diploptera punctata and to explore the social pressures that contribute towards such structure. We showed that females were significantly more gregarious than males and formed the core of the proximity network, thus demonstrating a higher level of social integration. This fine-scale structure is likely to result from females displacing males; females initiated most displacements whilst males received the majority. We explain this behaviour in terms of social niche construction by showing that females received significantly fewer approaches and investigations at more female-biased local sex ratios. We therefore suggest that female social clustering occurs in this, and presumably other, species to reduce potential costs associated with male harassment. This demonstrates how social niche construction can lead to higher level social structure; we suggest this approach could be used across a range of species in order to improve our understanding of the evolution of sociality.
    • The first female Fellows and the status of women in the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Geological Society, 2009)