• Social class and the emergent organised sporting habits of primary-aged children

      Wheeler, Sharon; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Edge Hill University; University of Chester; Innland University Norway (Sage, 2017-05-15)
      This paper reports on the patterns of participation in organised sports of youngsters coming towards the end of primary school, with a view to identifying emergent sporting habits in relation to social class gradients. The data for the study were generated via 90 semi-structured interviews with parents and children from 62 families. The data revealed differences in organised activity participation (both at and beyond school) between an ‘under-class’ and combined middle-class groups of children, as well as within-class gradients among the middle-class sub-groups. There were, for example, substantial differences between the under-class group and the combined middle-class group in terms of both the average number of bouts of organised sport participation and the repertoire or variety of sports engaged with. In effect, the mid- and upper-middle-class children were already sporting and cultural omnivores by the final years of primary schooling. We conclude that while the primary school organised sporting ‘offer’ may be neither a sufficient nor even a necessary contribution to the emerging sporting habits of mid- and upper-middle-class children, for under-class children it is likely to be necessary even though it may still prove, in the longer run, insufficient.
    • Social class, young people, sport and physical education

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter discusses the relationship between social class and physical education. It aims to demonstrate how social class can effect other areas of young people's lives that impact on physical education, such as leisure lifestyles.
    • Sports participation and the 'obesity/health crisis': Reflections on the case of young people in England

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004-12-01)
      There has been growing concern in recent years about the emergence of a supposed 'health crisis' - in the form of an 'obesity epidemic' - among young people, one of the maincauses of which, it is assumed, is their declining levels of involvement in sport and physical activity. This brief paper offers some critical comments on the taken-for-granted relationship between these two emergent 'crises' and argues that, in contrast to popular opinion, young people are, in fact, doing more sport and physical activity than at any other time in the past, but that this process has co-occurred, and continues to co-occur, with increasing levels of obesity and overweight. In order to begin to adequately explain these co-occurring processes, it is argued that we need to examine young people's lives in their total context, while noting, in particular, the continuing significance of broader social processes and the networks of relationships in which they are involved.
    • Tackling the "couch potato" culture amongst children and young people

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; University College Cheter (2004)
    • Understanding physical education

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-01-24)
      This book discusses the nature and purpose of physical education; extra-curriculr physical education; and gender, social class, health, youth, ethnicity, disability in relation to physical education.
    • Violence, competition and the emergence and development of modern sports: Reflections on the Stokvis-Malcolm debate

      Green, Ken; Liston, Katie; Smith, Andy; Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005-03-01)
      This article discusses the place of violence reducation in the socio-genesis of sports. It focuses on the debate between Dominic Malcolm and Ruud Stokvis.
    • “[We’re on the right track, baby], we were born that way!” Exploring sports participation in Norway

      Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken; University of Chester; Hedmark University College; Norsk Statistisk Sentralbyra (Taylor & Francis, 2013-02-25)
      Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter, this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership and young Norwegians are the quintessential sporting omnivores. Among other things, the Statistics Norway study reveals substantial increases in participation (among young people and females especially) during the period 1997–2007, a shift in the peak of participation to the late teenage years, a relatively high level of lifelong participants, a re-bound effect in the post-child rearing years and a growth in lifestyle sports. Young Norwegians grow up in a socio-economic context of relative equality between the sexes and high standards of living. An abundance of natural and artificial outdoor and indoor sporting facilities alongside a well-established voluntary sports club sector and an elementary school system that emphasizes physical exercise and recreation, as well as high levels of parental involvement, add to the favourable socio-economic conditions to create seemingly optimal circumstances for sports participation. All these reinforce the sporting and physical recreation cultures deeply embedded in Norwegian society and embodied by the very many middle-class parents in a country which, for the time being at least, remains relatively young in demographic terms. In terms of lessons to be learned for policy towards sports and physical education beyond Norway, there may be grounds for some optimism around parental involvement in children's sport as well as the potential appeal of lifestyle sports. That said, it is likely to be the greater socio-economic equalities in Scandinavian countries such as Norway that make them unrealistic benchmarks for sports participation elsewhere.
    • Young people and lifelong participation in sport and physical activity: A sociological perspective on contemporary physical education programmes in England and Wales

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Roberts, Ken (Taylor & Francis, 2005-01)
      This article discusses the key goal of physical education in preparing schoolchildren for lifelong participation in physical acitivity and which types of PE programmes and activities are more likely to achieve this aim.