• Evidence that zoo visitors influence HPA activity in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyii rufiventris)

      Davis, Nicolas; Schaffner, Colleen; Smith, Tessa E.; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2005-02)
      This article discusses the relationship between visitor numbers to a zoo and activity in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis of the animals.
    • Evolution and human behaviour: Darwinian perspectives on human nature

      Cartwright, John H.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
      This book discusses the key theoretical principles of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology and demonstrates how they explain the ways in which humans think and behave.
    • An examination of a modified Yo-Yo test to measure intermittent running performance in rugby players

      Dobbin, Nick; Moss, Samantha; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-17)
      This study examined how starting each shuttle in the prone position altered the internal, external and perceptual responses to the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Using a randomized crossover design, 17 male rugby players completed the Yo-Yo IR1 and prone Yo-Yo IR1 on two separate occasions. External loads (via microtechnology), V ̇O2, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at 160, 280 and 440 m (sub-maximal) and when the test was terminated (peak). The pre-to-post change in blood lactate concentration (∆[La]b) was determined for both tests. All data were analysed using effect sizes and magnitude-based inferences. Between-trial differences (ES  90%CL) indicated total distance was most likely lower (-1.87  0.19), whereas other measures of peak external load were likely to very likely higher during the prone Yo-Yo IR1 (0.62-1.80). Sub-maximal RPE was likely to most likely higher (0.40-0.96) and peak RPE very likely higher (0.63  0.41) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. The change in [La]b was likely higher after the prone Yo-Yo IRl. Mean HR was possibly lower at 440 m (-0.25  0.29) as was peak HR (-0.26  0.25) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. "V" ̇E, "V" ̇O2 and "V" ̇CO2 were likely to very likely higher at 280 and 440 m (ES = 0.36-1.22), while peak values were possibly to likely higher (ES = 0.23-0.37) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Adopting a prone position during the Yo-Yo IR1 increases the internal, perceptual and external responses, placing greater emphasis on metabolically demanding actions typical of rugby.
    • Examination of the Warrington Falls Management and Prevention Service

      Caiels, James; Thurston, Miranda (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2005-11)
      This report discusses the Warrington Falls Management and Prevention Service. For older people, falls have a number of significant negative physical, social and psychological consequences including self-imposed restricted mobility, fall phobia and fractures. In evaluating the Warrington Falls Management and Prevention Service, the report focuses on changes in functional performance and mobility levels among clients as a result of taking part in an exercise programme, clients' awareness of the multi-factorial risks associated with falls and the extent to which social isolation of the elderly was addressed by the service.
    • Examinations in physical education: A sociological perspective on a 'new orthodoxy'

      Green, Ken; Chester College of Higher Education (Carfax Publishing, 2001-03)
      This article discusses the rapid growth of academic examinations (GCSE and 'A'-level) in physical education (PE) from a sociological, specifically figurational, perspective. It utilises data from the author's own research in order to examine: (i) how one might explain the significant increase in GCSE and 'A'-level PE and Sports Studies sociologically; and (ii) if such growth can justifiably be said to represent the emergence of a 'new orthodoxy' or, for that matter, an orthodoxy at all-rather than merely a consensus of thought and practice among PE teachers.
    • Examinations: A 'new orthodoxy' in physical education?

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005)
      This book chapter discusses GCSE and A level examinations in physical education and claims that this has led to the arrival of a new academic Orthodoxy in physical education.
    • Exercise dependence in bodybuilders: Antecedents and reliability of measurement

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester/University of Liverpool ; Penn State University (Edizioni Minerva, 2005)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to examine social and psychological antecedents of bodybuilding dependence (life satisfaction, socio-economic status, marital status and parental status) and examine the test-retest reliability of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale (BDS). One hundred and eighty-one male bodybuilders agreed to participate in the study.
    • Exercise training and fall-risk prevention for community-dwelling elders

      Sykes, Kevin; Ling, Wai Mun; University College Chester (Weston Medical Publishing, 2004)
      Purpose: To investigate how a group of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese elderly persons with a history of falling can benefit from an eight-week home-based program of exercise. Methods: From an initial group of 69 volunteers, 40 participants (mean age = 80 ± 4.5years) with a history of falling were selected and randomly assigned into Group 1—the exercise group (n = 20) and Group 2—the control group (n = 20). Following an introductory talk and exercise instruction session, Group 1 engaged in a daily 45-minute home-based exercise session, plus a 30-minute walk twice per week, for eight weeks. Measurements, taken at baseline and after eight weeks, included strength of hip flexors and knee extensors, mobility, dynamic balance, and functional reach. Participants were requested to complete a daily activity diary. Physiotherapists followed up by phone in the first, second, fourth, and sixth week, with regard to the exercise program, health status, motivation, and advice if necessary. Results: Twenty-seven participants successfully completed the eight-week program (Group 1 = 5; Group 2 = 12). There was no difference between the groups in any outcome measure at baseline. However, following the eight-week intervention, Group 1 demonstrated significant improvements in strength of hip flexors and knee extensors (p < 0.000). Performance in Functional Reach (p = 0.008), Time to Get-up and Go (p = 0.034), and Berg Balance Scale (p = 0.022) test scores improved markedly. There was no significant change in any outcome measures in Group 2. Conclusion: Participation in a home-based exercise program is an effective intervention to enhance strength, gait, and balance and to reduce the functional declines associated with aging in the elderly. Lower-limb strength, gait, and balance training exercises should be a major component within a fall-risk reduction program for the elderly.
    • Exercise, or exercise and diet for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kite, Chris; Lahart, Ian; Afzal, Islam; Broom, David; Randeva, Harpal; Kyrou, Ioannis; Brown, James (2019-02-12)
      Background: Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and (iii) exercise combined with diet, and also exercise combined with diet, compared to (i) control or usual care and (ii) diet alone. Methods: Relevant databases were searched (June 2017) with no time limit for trial inclusion. Eligible trials employed a randomised or quasi-randomised design to measure the chronic effects of exercise, or exercise and diet in women with PCOS. Results: Searches returned 2390 articles; of those, 27 papers from 18 trials were included. Results are presented as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Compared with control, exercise had a statistical effect on change from baseline fasting insulin (MD − 2.44 μIU/mL, 95% CIs − 4.24 to − 0.64; very low-quality evidence), HOMA-IR (− 0.57, − 0.99 to − 0.14; very low-quality evidence), total cholesterol (− 5.88 mg/dL, − 9.92 to − 1.83; low-quality evidence), LDL cholesterol (− 7.39 mg/dL, − 9.83 to − 4.95; low-quality evidence), and triglycerides (− 4.78 mg/dL, − 7.52 to − 2.05; low-quality evidence). Exercise also improved VO2 max (3.84 ml/kg/min, 2.87 to 4.81), waist circumference (− 2.62 cm, − 4.13 to − 1.11), and body fat percentage (− 1.39%, − 2.61 to − 0.18) when compared with usual care. No effect was found for change value systolic/ diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol (all low-quality evidence), or waist-to-hip ratio. Many favourable change score findings were supported by post-intervention value analyses: fasting insulin (− 2.11 μIU/mL, − 3.49 to − 0.73), total cholesterol (− 6.66 mg/dL, − 11.14 to − 2.17), LDL cholesterol (− 6.91 mg/dL, − 12.02 to − 1.80), and VO2 max (5.01 ml/kg/min, 3.48 to 6.54). Statistically lower BMI (− 1.02 kg/m2, − 1.81 to − 0.23) and resting heart rate (− 3.26 beats/min − 4.93 to − 1.59) were also revealed in post-intervention analysis. Subgroup analyses revealed the greatest improvements in overweight/obese participants, and more outcomes improved when interventions were supervised, aerobic in nature, or of a shorter duration. Based on limited data, we found no differences for any outcome between the effects of exercise and diet combined, and diet alone. It was not possible to compare exercise vs diet or exercise and diet combined vs diet. Conclusion: Statistically beneficial effects of exercise were found for a range of metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiorespiratory fitness-related outcomes. However, caution should be adopted when interpreting these findings since many outcomes present modest effects and wide CIs, and statistical effects in many analyses are sensitive to the addition/removal of individual trials. Future work should focus on rigorously designed, well-reported trials that make comparisons involving both exercise and diet. Systematic review registration: This systematic review was prospectively registered on the Prospero International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42017062576)
    • Exercise-induced muscle damage: what is it, what causes it and what are the nutritional solutions?

      Owens, Daniel J; Twist, Craig; Cobley, James; Howatson, Glyn; Close, Graeme; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Northumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-15)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterised by symptoms that present both immediately and for up to 14 days after the initial exercise bout. The main consequence of EIMD for the athlete is the loss of skeletal muscle function and soreness. As such, numerous nutrients and functional foods have been examined for their potential to ameliorate the effects of EIMD and accelerate recovery, which is the purpose of many nutritional strategies for the athlete. However, the trade-off between recovery and adaptation is rarely considered. For example, many nutritional interventions described in this review target oxidative stress and inflammation, both thought to contribute to EIMD but are also crucial for the recovery and adaptation process. This calls into question whether long term administration of supplements and functional foods used to target EIMD is indeed best practice. This rapidly growing area of sports nutrition will benefit from careful consideration of the potential hormetic effect of long term use of nutritional aids that ameliorate muscle damage. This review provides a concise overview of what EIMD is, its causes and consequences and critically evaluates potential nutritional strategies to ameliorate EIMD. We present a pragmatic practical summary that can be adopted by practitioners and direct future research, with the purpose of pushing the field to better consider the fine balance between recovery and adaptation and the potential that nutritional interventions have in modulating this balance.
    • Exercise: Tipping the balance towards sustained participation and lasting benefits

      Buckley, John P.; University of Chester (2011)
      Current data from the National Audit for Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR) report that the average uptake of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), which includes exercise, is about 38%; ranging from 30% in patients following angioplasty to 68% for patients following bypass surgery. The NACR has highlighted numerous potential reasons for this lower than desired uptake, including the quality of local referral and patient recruitment processes, patient education and socio-cultural barriers to access. These problems are not exclusive to the exercise component of CR but affect the whole programme. This article will focus on the factors that CR professionals must consider in order to influence favourably the sustained longer-term participation in beneficial exercise for those patients who have taken up CR.
    • The experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease: an interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study

      Dibley, Lesley; Norton, Christine; Whitehead, Elizabeth; University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2017-12-05)
      Aim to explore experiences of stigma in people with inflammatory bowel disease. Background Diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence are common symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease. Social rules stipulate full control of bodily functions in adulthood: poor control may lead to stigmatisation, affecting patients’ adjustment to disease. Disease-related stigma is associated with poorer clinical outcomes but qualitative evidence is minimal. Design An interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study of the lived experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Forty community-dwelling adults with a self-reported diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease were recruited purposively. Participants reported feeling stigmatised or not and experiencing faecal incontinence or not. Unstructured interviews took place in participants’ homes in the United Kingdom (September 2012 – May 2013). Data were analysed using Diekelmann's interpretive method. Findings Three constitutive patterns - Being in and out of control, Relationships and social Support and Mastery and mediation - reveal the experience of disease-related stigma, occurring regardless of continence status and because of name and type of disease. Stigma recedes when mastery over disease is achieved through development of resilience - influenced by humour, perspective, mental wellbeing and upbringing (childhood socialisation about bodily functions). People travel in and out of stigma, dependent on social relationships with others including clinicians and tend to feel less stigmatised over time. Conclusion Emotional control, social support and mastery over disease are key to stigma reduction. By identifying less resilient patients, clinicians can offer appropriate support, accelerating the patient's path towards disease acceptance and stigma reduction.
    • Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: an analysis of developmental discourses in Scottish curricular documentation

      McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-03-03)
      This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation. The article interrogates the ways in which developmental discourses are evident throughout this and related documentation and how these discourses might ‘work’ to produce specific effects on practitioners and children as they are deployed and taken up in Scottish preschool education contexts. This analysis involves speculating about potential consequences for practitioners' and children's experiences and subjectivities. In conclusion, it is suggested that practitioners should critically engage with the curriculum, as uncritical acceptance of the discourses underpinning it could lead to practices that may have negative consequences. Furthermore, the article proposes that future research should investigate the ways in which the discourses privileged in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation are taken up and negotiated in Scottish preschool settings.
    • An exploration of visual search between coaches and judges in gymnastics

      Page, Jennifer L.; Lafferty, Moira E.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; University of Chester (2007-07)
      This conference paper discusses a case study of 7 coaches and 5 coach/judges who viewed ten handspring vaults whilst earing an ASL 501 eye-tracker. The results provide evidence that to suggest that coaches and coach/judges produce similar search patterns when judging performance using pre-determined criteria. This has implications for perceptual training and the development of training aids where, despite coaches and judges performing separate roles, eye patterns can be trainined in order to produce a more effective scan pattern for error detection.
    • Exploring colorectal cancer patients' perceptions of the quality of their care

      Thurston, Miranda; Perry, Catherine; Kirby, Karen; Chester College of Higher Education (Chester: Chester College of Higher Education, 2003, 2003-05)
      This report discusses the local situation in Halton with regard to colorectal cancer care by exploring how patients perceived the quality of their care.
    • Exploring hygiene compliance in the small independent restaurant sector in Abu Dhabi

      Fallows, Stephen; Bonwick, Graham A.; Idriss, Johaina (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Introduction: Food safety is widely recognised as one of the problems in the fight for improving public health. Many governments are trying to improve public health through reducing foodborne illnesses and setting the climate for implementing HACCP-based food safety management systems (FSMS). Following the global trend, Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) launched the HACCP for Catering Project (2010 – 2014), which aimed at helping foodservice businesses, licensed in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in implementing HACCP-based FSMS. Purpose: The project team recognised the limited resources and the diversity in education levels, ethnic backgrounds, and number of languages spoken among managers/supervisors and food handlers, as points of concern in the small independent restaurant (SIR) subsector. Thus, the Salamt Zadna (SZ) initiative, a simplified FSMS, was developed to train SIRs on implementing a set of safe operating procedures to improve compliance with food safety laws and regulations. Previous studies in the GCC region have mainly focused on governments’ attempts to enhance public health by developing laws, regulations, and policies, and recounting the barriers to implementing food safety controls. Methodology: This thesis took a different approach to food safety issues in the GCC region. It is comprised of two studies, which were conducted in two groups of SIRs – seven SZ participants and five non-participants – licensed in Al Ain, a major city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The first explored awareness and understanding of food safety, related laws, regulations, and policies, and attitudes towards ADFCA services and inspectors, among managers/supervisors, by interviewing them. The second examined the efficacy of SZ in improving food handlers’ food-safety behaviours by observing their conduct, and comparing between the two SIR groups. Results: The study indicated low levels of awareness and understanding of food safety, related laws, regulations, and policies, in both groups of managers/supervisors; regardless of whether or not they were SZ Cparticipants. Both groups of interviewees expressed both negative and positive attitudes towards ADFCA’s services and inspectors; sometimes by the same interviewees, within the same, or between the two groups. However, SZ participating SIRs were slightly more positive than their counterparts. Key results highlighted the low impact of SZ on changing food handlers’ behaviours, except in two areas; namely, the food handlers working in SZ-participating SIRs scored higher than the other group in handwashing and changing gloves between handling raw meats and other foods. Implications: This research adds a new dimension to the food safety profile of the UAE, since it is the first of its kind in the UAE and the region as a whole. Its originality opens the door for other researchers to increase the volume of research in this field, which would help in understanding and tackling the barriers to improving the food safety status in the country, as well as the region.
    • Exploring the impact of the Burnley Food and Fitness Aimed at Lowering Obesity (BUFFALO) project - executive summary

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2010-03)
      The BUFFALO project (Burnley Food and Fitness Aimed at Lowering Obesity) is a children’s obesity prevention project targeting Year 5 (9 to 10 year old) pupils in primary schools in Burnley. It is co-ordinated and delivered by Burnley Borough Council in partnership with East Lancashire Primary Care Trust. The BUFFALO project involves curriculum input during the normal school day for one afternoon per week in each Year 5 class for the first school term, followed by a 10 week programme of after school activities. The BUFFALO project team commissioned the Centre for Public Health Research at the University of Chester to explore the impact of the BUFFALO project using data which had been routinely collected.
    • Exploring the London 2012 Olympic legacy experiences of a non-host city: a policy based case study of those delivering sport in Birmingham before and after the Games

      Bloyce, Daniel; Lovett, Emily L. (University of Chester, 2016-11)
      In bidding to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the London bid committee promised a range of ambitious legacies. Planning for legacy pre-Games was a relatively new aspect of event planning (Leopkey & Parent, 2009). For the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) and the Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS), the sporting legacy from London 2012 was intended to be experienced across Britain. As such, a significant impact was expected on the sporting lives of people in non-host areas. To this extent it seems entirely appropriate, therefore, to examine the attempts to establish a ‘legacy’ in a city outside of London. Birmingham, one of the most populated cities in the UK, is therefore the focus of this study. The aim of this project was to investigate the legacy experiences of those delivering sport in Birmingham prior to, and soon after, the Games. This research was conducted from a figurational approach. A case study design was used to provide a detailed insight into a complex network of people and their perceptions that influence sport policy and development. The methods employed within this case study include documentary analysis of national policy documents and semi-structured interviews with key personnel in Birmingham. Interviews were conducted in the months prior to the Games and follow-up telephone interviews several months after the Games.
    • Exploring the role of the extra-curricular sphere in higher education for sustainable development in the United Kingdom

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2008-08)
      This article discusses the extra-curricular sphere as a useful area for the advancement of education for sustainable development (ESD) work in higher education (HE). A postal questionnaire survey of UK universities and an ongoing case study ascertained practice in the UK HE sphere.
    • Extra-curricular education for sustainable development (ESD) interventions in UK universities

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Environmental Education Association of South Africa, 2007)