• Effort Perception

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Eston, Roger; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of Chester; University of South Australia (Oxford University Press, 27/04/2017)
      Research addressing children's perceptions of exercise effort (their ‘perceived exertion’) has appeared steadily in the scientific literature over the last 30 years. Accepting that the established Borg adult rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was not appropriate for children, investigators set about developing child-specific scales which employed numbers, words and/or images that were more familiar and understandable. Numerous studies have examined the validity and reliability of such scales as the CERT, PCERT and OMNI amongst children aged 5 to 16, across different modes of exercise (cycling, running, stepping, resistance exercise), protocols (intermittent vs. continuous, incremental vs. non-incremental) and paradigms (estimation vs. production). Such laboratory-based research has enabled the general conclusion that children can, especially with practice, use effort perception scales to differentiate between exercise intensity levels, and to self-regulate their exercise output to match various levels indicated on them. However, inconsistencies in the methodological approaches adopted diminish the certainty of some of the interpretations made by researchers. In addition, though often mentioned, the would-be application of effort perception in physical education and activity/health promotion contexts has been relatively ignored. Accordingly, the scope for research in this applied domain is now considerable.
    • Electro Convulsive Therapy: Milestones in its history

      Jones, C; Jones, Steven; University of Chester (Mental Health Nurses Association, 2018)
      ECT is a treatment where an electrical current is passed briefly through electrodes applied to the scalp to induce generalised seizure activity. This article explores the origins and developmental milestones of ECT, examines the literature on the history of ECT and concludes with the author’s work experiences.
    • Ellesmere Port Sure Start parent satisfaction survey 2003

      Barrow, Marjorie; Rouse, Julia; Thurston, Miranda (University College Chester, 2003-11)
      This report discusses awareness of Sure Start, use of Sure Start services, satisfaction with services, and access to childcare in Ellesmere Port. Recommendations are made.
    • Embedding recovery based approaches into mental health nurse training- a reflective account

      Jones, Steven; Bifarin, Oladayo O.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare, 02/11/2018)
      Background: Mental health nursing has undoubtedly progressed as a profession but is at a hiatus that is not assisted by government policy and decreased resources. Aims: This reflective account explores some of the considerable expectations placed upon qualified nurses and the real tensions that influence care delivery standards. Methods: Reflecting on experiences gained in clinical settings, underpinned by literature on recovery, some of the expectations placed on qualified nurses in contemporary mental health service delivery are examined. Conclusion: In order to adequately inform the practices and skill set of contemporary mental health nurses, recovery models and clinical staff input should play a central role in nurse education. Education and clinical practice areas should continue to move towards each other and seize every initiative to ensure both are on the same page.
    • Emergency life support training for school children: exploring local implementation and outcomes of the Heartstart UK school programme within the context of the National Healthy School Standard

      Thurston, Miranda; May, Stephanie (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2005-11)
      This project discusses the implementation of Heartstart UK - an initiative co-ordinated by the British Heart Foundation to increase emergency life support training - in a number of schools in Cheshire.
    • Emily Dix, palaeobotanist - a promising career cut short

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Blackwell, 2005-07)
      This article discusses the life and career of British palaeobotanist Emily Dix (1904-1972).
    • Emotional and psychological impact of abortion: A critique of the literature

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; North East Wales Institute of Higher Education / Western Cheshire PCT (Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 2008-07)
      Defining women’s emotional experiences associated with abortion is a difficult task. Many circumstantial factors affect women’s emotional journeys during their abortion experience and beyond.
    • Endocrinology and Behaviour: A stress-free approach to improving animal welfare

      Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Society for Endocrinology, 2016-12)
      Following implementation of the UK Animal Procedures Scientific Act (1986) there has been a plethora of research combining endocrine titres with behavioural measures to address applied questions in the field of animal welfare science. The goal of these studies has been to measure and optimize animal welfare. An eloquent example is the reduced welfare observed in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) as indicated by high glucocorticoid (GC) levels and negative judgment bias in behavioural tests. The latter is associated with space restriction but alleviated by the provision of enrichment. Good animal welfare is essential not only from an ethical standpoint but also to ensure valid scientific outcomes. Animals with good welfare produce more reliable, biologically valid, robust, repeatable scientific data compared to their counterparts with poorer welfare. ‘Happy’ animals live longer, can be used repeatedly and need replacing less often. This leads to a ‘reduction’ of animal use and satisfaction of one of the 3Rs: the guiding principles for the use of animals in research2.
    • Endocytotic potential governs magnetic particle loading in dividing neural cells: studying modes of particle inheritance

      Tickle, Jacqueline A.; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Polyak, Boris; Pickard, Mark R.; Chari, Divya M.; Keele University, United Kingdom; Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA (Future Medicine, 2016-02)
      AIM: To achieve high and sustained magnetic particle loading in a proliferative and endocytotically active neural transplant population (astrocytes) through tailored magnetite content in polymeric iron oxide particles. MATERIALS & METHODS: MPs of varying magnetite content were applied to primary-derived rat cortical astrocytes ± static/oscillating magnetic fields to assess labeling efficiency and safety. RESULTS: Higher magnetite content particles display high but safe accumulation in astrocytes, with longer-term label retention versus lower/no magnetite content particles. Magnetic fields enhanced loading extent. Dynamic live cell imaging of dividing labeled astrocytes demonstrated that particle distribution into daughter cells is predominantly 'asymmetric'. CONCLUSION: These findings could inform protocols to achieve efficient MP loading into neural transplant cells, with significant implications for post-transplantation tracking/localization.
    • Energy expenditure, metabolic power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running

      Oxendale, Chelsea; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Elsevier, 21/03/2017)
      Objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare measures of energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry and micro-technology, as well as high power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running. Design: Repeated measures Methods: Twelve university standard team sport players completed a linear and multi-directional running condition. Estimated energy expenditure, as well as time at high speed (> 14.4 km.h-1) and high power (> 20 W.kg-1) were quantified using a 10 Hz micro-technology device and compared with energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry. Results: Measured energy expenditure was higher during the multi-directional condition (9.0 ± 2.0 cf. 5.9 ± 1.4 kcal.min-1), whereas estimated energy expenditure was higher during the linear condition (8.7 ± 2.1 cf. 6.5 ± 1.5 kcal.min-1). Whilst measures of energy expenditure were strongly related (r > 0.89, p < 0.001), metabolic power underestimated energy expenditure by 52% (95% LoA: 20-93%) and 34% (95% LoA: 12-59%) during the multi-directional and linear condition, respectively. Time at high power was 41% (95% LoA: 4-92%) greater than time at high speed during the multi-directional condition, whereas time at high power was 5% (95% LoA: -17-9%) lower than time at high speed during the linear condition. Conclusions: Estimated energy expenditure and time at high metabolic power can reflect changes in internal load. However, micro-technology cannot be used to determine the energy cost of intermittent running.
    • Energy intake and expenditure assessed ‘in-season’ in an elite European rugby union squad.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L. (2015-06)
      Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg-1 body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg-1 body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.
    • Engaging parents and carers with Sure Start New Steps

      Perry, Catherine; Samuels, Tanya (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-01)
      This project report discusses the extent to which families in Halton are aware of the Sure Start New Steps programme. Concerns had been raised about the strategies used to inform parents and carers about Sure Start New Steps and how systematically and effectively its activities were introduced and promoted by health professionals and others working with the eligible population.
    • England's first soil trail

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 2005)
      This article discusses the creation of a soil trail in Delamere Forest in Cheshire. The trail has eight different acid types in a small area and is used as a teaching resource by forensic biology students at University College Chester.
    • Enhanced growth-inhibitory effect of microemulsified curcumin formulation in human prostate cancer LNCaP Cells

      Dubey, Vaibhav; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; University of Chester, University of Ulster (Sciencedomain international, 01/01/2015)
      Aim: To assess the effect of curcumin microemulsified with non-ionic surfactant surfynol 465 W or dispersed using edible oils on prostate LNCaP cancer cell viability and glutathione status. Methodology: LNCaP cells were treated for 72-144 hr with curcumin dissolved with fish or corn oil and microemulsified using non-ionic surfactant surfynol 465 W; alternatively LNCaP cells were treated with curcumin directly dispersed in fish or corn oil (0-50 μM) for 24 -72-144 hr. Cell viability was determined using resazurin (Vision blueTM) fluorescence assay. Glutathione status was determined by monochlorobimane (MCB) assay. Results: Treatment with 0-34 μM of microemulsified curcumin produced moderate cytotoxic effect on LNCaP cells, no 50% reduction of cell viability was observed graphically. However, when LNCaP cells were treated with curcumin dispersed with corn oil the concentration or 50% reduction of cell viability (IC50) was 12-45 μM. Similarly for cells treated with curcumin dispersed with fish oil, the IC50 was between 20-40 μM. Cytotoxic doses of curcumin dispersed with corn or fish oil increased GST status in cells by 272-656% (p =<0.01). Conclusion: Microemulsified curcumin formulation prepared using fish or corn oil and surfynol 465 W surfactant had an inhibitory effect on viability of LNCaP cells as did direct dispersion of curcumin in fish or corn oil coupled with the ability for inducing intracellular GST status in LNCaP cells.
    • The erectile dysfunction revolution

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; Deeside Community Hospital (Scutari Projects, 2001-04)
      Erectile dysfunction affects approximately one in ten men at some point in their lives. This article describes its causes and the treatments available, and examines the effect it can have on those who experience the condition.
    • ESD - The Extra-curricular dimention

      Lipscombe, Bryan P. (The Environment Association for Universities and Colleges, 18/04/2007)
    • Established-outsider relations between males and females in male-associated sports in Ireland

      Liston, Katie; University College Chester (The European Association for Sociology of Sport, 2005)
      This paper introduces readers to the field of male-associated sports in the Republic of Ireland with specific reference to power relations between the sexes. It situates a present-day social phenomenon, i.e. Irish females’ increasing involvement in traditional male-associated sports such as Gaelic football, rugby and soccer, within the context of social processes in which more or less independent groups have become more interdependent. Qualitative data from twelve in-depth interviews with high performance female athletes are situated within a sociological analysis of the emergence and development of these sports for women. These are used to support the argument that the relatively slight shift in the balance of power in favour of females has led to feelings of emancipation amongst females and resistance amongst males, though this resistance is gradually becoming weaker. Elias’ theory of “established-outsider” relations is used to suggest that females who participate in these sports can be described as an ‘outsider’ group, one that has lacked the organizational resources and networks of mutual assistance needed to shift significantly the uneven balance of power between the sexes. Moreover, typical of outsiders in their relations with the ‘established’, dominant stereotypical views of females remain embedded in the personality structures of ‘outsiders’.
    • Established-outsider relations between males and females in sports in Ireland

      Liston, Katie; University College Chester (Sociological Association of Ireland, 2005)
    • Establishing a learning mentor service within a cluster of primary schools: Learning from evaluation

      Davies, Sarah; Thurston, Miranda; University College Chester (The National Association for Pastoral Care in Education, 2005)
      This paper describes a learning mentor service commissioned by the Children's Fund that has been established in a cluster of primary schools, offering a possible model for the provision of pastoral care to support children at risk of underachieving. In particular, it explores issues relevant to the implementation of the service, namely communication, co-ordination and time, and identifies benefits and outcomes of the service, as perceived by the various stakeholders. Evaluation of this service, on which the paper reports, highlights the importance of developing a clear quality care pathway, and putting systems in place to obtain information regarding the outcomes of the service.
    • Establishing the reach of Cheshire Children's Fund: April 2006 - March 2007

      Alford, Simon; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester, Centre for Public Health Research (University of Chester, 2008-01)
      Monitoring and evaluation is a significant and obligatory element of Children’s Fund projects nationwide, with statutory returns made to the Department for Children, Schools and Families. The aim of the additional monitoring work commissioned by Cheshire Children’s Fund and carried out by the Centre for Public Health Research was to provide a more detailed picture of the children who had been referred to services, and for what reasons. This was made possible through the development of a system to track individuals and capture routine service data.