• The development of vegetarian omega-3 oil in water nanoemulsions suitable for integration into functional food products

      Lane, Katie E.; Li, Weili; Smith, Christopher J.; Derbyshire, Emma J.; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03-31)
      Global trends show that habitual omega-3 intakes are short of recommended guidelines, particularly among vegetarians and vegans. The potential health implications of low long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCω3PUFA) intakes coupled with concerns about sustainability of fish stocks call for innovative approaches to provide food based solutions to this problem. Nanoemulsions are systems with extremely small droplet sizes that could provide a solution while improving the bioavailability of LCω3PUFA. Oil in water nanoemulsion systems were successfully created using ultrasound with oil loads of up to 50% (w/w) using vegetarian LCω3PUFA oils (flaxseed and algae). Nanoemulsions of 50% (w/w) with mean droplet size measurements of 192 (flaxseed) and 182 nm (algae) using combinations of the emulsifiers Tween 40 and lecithin were prepared. This technique could be applied to create vegetarian LCω3PUFA nanoemulsions suitable for integration into enriched functional food products with the potential to increase LCω3PUFA intake and bioavailability
    • Development, Digestibility and Oxidation Properties of LC3PUFA Nanoemulsion and Its Effects on Sensory Profile of Food

      Zhou, QiQian (University of Chester, 2019-02)
      The long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) in human diets are mainly derived from oily fish and fish oil based supplements. Currently, the consumption of oily fish in the UK is far below the recommended level. LC3PUFA's non-fish sources such as algal oil with DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are particularly important for vegetarians, non-fish eaters, and pregnant women. In previous work, high DHA vegetative algal oil load 50% w/w was successfully used to develop an oil-in-water nanoemulsion system suitable for functional food enrichment. The aims of this study included to investigate the effect of selected emulsifiers on oil-in-water nanoemulsions of algal oil prepared using ultrasonic technology. To improve the stability and digestibility of nanoemulsions within an In vitro digestion model. To examine the oxidation stability of nanoemulsions of algal oil and bulk algal oil with composition and droplet size changes during a 5 weeks storage trial at a temperature of 4 °C, 20 °C and 40 °C respectively. To evaluate sensory properties and consumer acceptability of food products with the incorporation of resulted nanoemulsion and find out possible relationship between the sensory profile of foods and the characteristics of added nanoemulsion. Nanoemulsion of LC3PUFA algal oil was developed with selected 6% w/w emulsifiers, including Lecithin (LN), Tween 40 (TN), Tween 60, equal ratio of Tween 40 and lecithin (LTN), 50% w/w Algal oil and 44%w/w water using a homogenizer and ultrasound processor. The results show that the nanoemulsion has been stabilised with selected emulsifiers (LN, TN & LTN) and the smallest droplet size of nanoemulsion was obtained using the combination of lecithin and Tween 40 at ratio 50:50. The In vitro digestion experiments were conducted with a model of fed state gastric and duodenal digestion using method of Lin et al (2014). The results show that the omega-3 oil nanoemulsion (LE/TW 50:50) were stable over 60 min in the gastric phase, in contrast omega-3 nanoemulsion (LE 100%) was destabilised at the gastric phase in 60 min, in which the droplet size diameter was significantly larger than at the beginning of gastric phase (P ≤ 0.05). The droplet size, fatty composition and oxidised compounds were measured to compare bulk algal oil and nanoemulsions stabilised with lecithin (LN) and Tween 40 (TN) solely and in combination (LTN) over a storage period of 5 weeks at temperatures of 4, 20 and 40°C. The results show the droplet size of nanoemulsions had no significant changes for samples stored at tested temperatures over 5 weeks storage. There were no significant differences in DHA composition within the weeks and temperatures used. For the GCHS analysed results, the increase in temperature to 40 ºC and storage time had a significant effect on the development of propanal for all samples (P≤0.05). Nanoemulsions prepared with lecithin alone had significantly higher development of propanal in week 1 at both 40 ºC and 20 ºC (P≤0.05). Lecithin (sole and combination with Tween 40) had more significant increases in oxidised volatiles at 40°C, which may be due to the instability of linoleic acid found in lecithin molecules which located in the outer layer of the oil droplets. There were no significant increase in oxidised compounds from the beginning to the end of storage for all tested samples stored at 4 °C. The sensory testing was also conducted on white sauce incorporated with omega-3 nanoemulsions with selected emulsifiers and bulk algal oil. The results show that the sensory attributes and overall acceptability of foods enriched with omega-3 nanoemulsion were statistically significantly lower than that of control sample (P≤ 0.05). Overall, the smallest droplet size of nanoemulsion was achieved with combination of lecithin and Tween 40 at a ratio of 50:50 by using ultrasonic processor. The stability and digestibility of nanoemulsion with the combination of lecithin and Tween 40 was improved in an In vitro digestion approach. A storage period of 5 weeks and temperature have no significant effect on the droplet size of tested nanoemulsion samples. However, there is a significant increase of the oxidised volatiles at 40 °C for all samples. Sensory testing show the white sauce with nanoemulsion has a stronger fishy taste and less overall liking than with bulk oil, indicating the smaller drop size is more ready to spread and reach the sensors of the mouth.
    • Dickkopf-1 as a potential therapeutic target in Paget's disease of bone

      McCarthy, Helen S.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry / University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Ashley, 2010-01-08)
      This article discusses Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), which is a soluble inhibitor of Wnt signalling and its excessive expression contributes to bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis and multiple myeloma. New therapeutics have been developed for treatment of these conditions that target DKK-1 expression. DKK-1 is elevated in serum of patients with Paget's disease of the bone (PDB) and evidence is accumulating for a role of DKK-1 in PDB. At present there is no cure for PDB and the current treatment of choice are bisphosphonates. These treat the resorptive phase of PDB but do not prevent its return. This article offers a new perspective on the aetiology of PDB and speculate on DKK-1 as a therapeutic target.
    • Dietary approaches for patients with heart failure and diabetes

      Butler, Thomas; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane (Wiley, 2018-08-20)
    • Dietary energy density and body weight: Is there a relationship?

      Drewnowski, Adam; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marmonier, Corinne; Lluch, Anne; University of Washington : University of Washington ; Danone Research Centre, France ; Danone Research Centre, France (Blackwell, 2004-11-01)
      This article critically evaluates evidence linking dietary energy density with body weight.
    • Dietary management of heart failure: room for improvement?

      Butler, Thomas; Department of Clinical Sciences and Butrition, University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-02-06)
      There is growing awareness of the role of diet in both health and disease management. Much data are available on the cardioprotective diet in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. However, there is limited information on the role of diet in the management of heart failure (HF). Animal models of HF have provided interesting insight and potential mechanisms by which dietary manipulation may improve cardiac performance and delay the progression of the disease, and small-scale human studies have highlighted beneficial diet patterns. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data available on the role of diet in the management of human HF and to demonstrate that dietary manipulation needs to progress further than the simple recommendation of salt and fluid restriction.
    • Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Ghanaian Populations: the Research on Obesity and Diabetes in African Migrants (RODAM) Study.

      Boateng, Daniel; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Smeeth, Liam; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Bahendeka, Silver; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; et al. (2019-05-01)
      Sub-Saharan African populations are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although diet is an important lifestyle factor associated with CVD, evidence on the relation between dietary patterns (DPs) and CVD risk among sub-Saharan African populations is limited. We assessed the associations of DPs with estimated 10-y atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in Ghanaian adults in Ghana and Europe. Three DPs ('mixed'; 'rice, pasta, meat, and fish'; and 'roots, tubers, and plantain') were derived by principal component analysis (PCA) based on intake frequencies obtained by a self-administered Food Propensity Questionnaire in the multi-center, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study. The 10-y ASCVD risk was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) for 2976 subjects, aged 40-70 y; a risk score ≥7.5% was defined as 'elevated' ASCVD risk. The associations of DPs with 10-y ASCVD risk were determined using Poisson regression with robust variance. Stronger adherence to a 'mixed' DP was associated with a lower predicted 10-y ASCVD in urban and rural Ghana and a higher 10-y ASCVD in Europe. The observed associations were attenuated after adjustment for possible confounders with the exception of urban Ghana (prevalence ratio [PR] for Quintile 5 compared with 1: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.93, P-trend = 0.013). The 'rice, pasta, meat, and fish' DP was inversely associated with 10-y ASCVD across all study sites, with the adjusted effect being significant only in urban Ghana. A 'roots, tubers, and plantain' DP was directly associated with increased 10-y ASCVD risk. Adherence to 'mixed' and 'rice, pasta, meat, and fish' DPs appears to reduce predicted 10-y ASCVD risk in adults in urban Ghana. Further investigations are needed to understand the underlying contextual-level mechanisms that influence dietary habits and to support context-specific dietary recommendations for CVD prevention among sub-Saharan African populations. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.]
    • Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) for 4 weeks reduces post-exercise fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in trained male athletes

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Benson, Lindsay; University of Chester
      High intensity exercise in the form of eccentric contractions can lead to the formation of free radicals, stimulating an inflammatory response( 1 , 2 ). Consumption of n-3 FA may help modify inflammation and immune reactions beneficial to health by decreasing interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein( 3 ). For trained athletes to improve athletic performance, recovery from training is important and DOMS is frequently experienced following eccentric exercise, impacting negatively on strength( 4 ). The Western diet is however, characterised by a high n-6 FA consumption relative to n-3 FA, formulating ratios often in excess of 16:1( 5 ). The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of n-3 FA has been investigated by a number of clinical trials in untrained athletes, but whether this can be translated into attenuating exercise induced inflammation in trained athletes is still under investigation. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted in 22 trained male athletes who supplemented their diet with either 3000 mg/d of fish oil (gel capsules) consisting of 990 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 660 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n = 11), or 3000 mg/d olive oil placebo (n = 11), for 28d. Participants underwent 3 sets of eccentric bicep curls in their dominant arm until failure and arm circumference, number of repetitions completed and DOMS/fatigue scores via visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded at 0, 24 and 48 h after exercise, pre and post supplementation. No group performed better during the eccentric bicep test, pre and post supplementation, and at baseline, no differences were observed between groups for DOMS and fatigue. However, post supplementation, DOMS was significantly lower at 24 h (P = 0·005) and 48 h (P = 0·002) and fatigue was significantly lower at 24 h (P = 0·043) and 48 h post exercise (P < 0·001) in the n-3 FA group compared to the placebo group (Fig. 1). These findings indicate that n-3 FA supplementation has the potential to promote recovery and subsequently increase athletic performance in trained male athletes and may be a useful ergogenic aid. Possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of n-3 FA should be further investigated using specific biomarkers of inflammation.
    • Dietary vitamin D consumption, sunlight exposure, sunscreen use and parental knowledge of vitamin D sources in a cohort of children aged 1–6 years in North West England

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Aitken, Amanda; University of Chester
      Hospital admission for children with rickets in England has dramatically increased, from <1 child per 100,000 in the early 1990's to 4·78 (4·58–4·99) per 100 000 between 2007 and 2011( 1 ). The re-emergence of rickets thus suggests poor vitamin D status( 2 ). Additionally, there has been a plethora of publications associating low vitamin D status with many adverse health outcomes other than the classical role of vitamin D in the development, maintenance and function of a healthy skeleton( 3 ). Vitamin D is a fat lipophilic steroid pro hormone obtained from few foods in the diet. However, the majority (90–95%) of vitamin D is synthesised from exposure of bare skin to sunlight( 4 ), and casual sunlight exposure has been considered adequate for the majority of the population. Consequently, there is no reference nutrient intake (RNI) for ages 4–65 yrs( 5 ). With modern indoor lifestyles, cautious sun screen usage and changes in food habits, sunlight exposure may no longer be sufficient to maintain adequate vitamin D status. To avoid vitamin D deficiency, supplementation and fortification may need to play a more prominent role in everyday lives( 6 ). The aim of the present study was to investigate vitamin D dietary intake in children, parents’ knowledge of vitamin D sources, children's outdoor habits and sun screen application practices. A retrospective, cross sectional study approach was utilised. Parents of children (n = 42) aged between 1 and 6 yrs completed a semi-validated food frequency questionnaire, a sources of vitamin D knowledge questionnaire, and a sunlight exposure and sunscreen use questionnaire, in Adlington, N.W. England (latitude 55oN) during May 2013. Children's mean (±SD) dietary vitamin D intake was 4·4 ± 2·5 μg/d, significantly lower than 7μg/d (P = < 0·001, for comparison 7μg/d, the RNI for ages 3 months-4 yrs was used). As expected, children taking supplements had a significantly higher mean (±SD) vitamin D intake (8·49 ± 1·78 μg/d) compared to those that did not supplement (3·34 ± 1·23 μg/d, P < 0·001). The greatest contribution to dietary vitamin D intake from food was from butter and spreads (0·028μg/d), followed by cakes, biscuits & scones (0·023μg/d). Parents' knowledge of food sources was poor, with a mean (±SD) incorrect response of 76% ±11·2. Contrastingly, 93% correctly identified sunlight exposure as a potential source of vitamin D. Eighty nine percent of participants played outdoors daily for 1 hour or more, 81% used sunscreen with an SPF ≥30 and only 2% rarely applied sunscreen. This study revealed that children's diet in the NW England is lacking sufficient vitamin D content, in line with larger surveys( 7 , 8 ). Parents' knowledge regarding vitamin D dietary sources was poor but 93% of parents knew that sunlight was the non-dietary source of vitamin D. Outdoor play indicated sufficient exposure time to produce endogenous vitamin D but sunscreen usage may have potentially diminished epidermal UVB exposures. Further research is needed using biomarkers to confirm vitamin D insufficiency, and public health strategies should be implemented to promote existing recommendations regarding supplementation and consumption of vitamin D rich foods. Additionally, guidelines for safe sun exposure and sunscreen use are required.
    • Dietary vitamin D supplementation improves haematological status following consumption of an iron-fortified cereal: an 8-week randomised controlled trial

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Ahmad Fuzi, Salma F.; University of Chester
      Vitamin D, a secosteroid, has recently been implicated in the stimulation of erythroid precursors and ultimately the rate of erythropoiesis. However, there are a paucity of randomised controlled trials (RCT), investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation iron status, especially in populations at risk of iron deficiency. An eight-week, double-blind RCT was carried out in 50 female (mean age (± SD): 27 ± 9 years), iron-deficient (plasma ferritin concentration < 20 μg/L) participants, randomised to consume an iron-fortified cereal containing 9 mg of iron, with either a vitamin D supplement (1,500 international units (IU)/day, 38 μg/day) or placebo. The effect of dietary vitamin D supplementation on haematological indicators was investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 4-weeks and 8-week timepoints for measurement of iron and vitamin D status biomarkers. The effect of intervention was analysed with a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA using IBM SPSS statistical software (Version 21, IBM Corporation, New York, USA). Significant increases were observed in two haematological parameters: haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention in the vitamin D group, but not in the placebo group. The increase from baseline to post-intervention in haemoglobin concentration in the vitamin D group (135 ± 11 to 138 ± 10 g/L) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (131 ± 15 to 128 ± 13 g/L) (P ≤ 0.05). The increase in haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention was also significantly higher in the vitamin D group (42.0 ± 3.0 to 43.8 49 ± 3.4%) compared to the placebo group (41.2 ± 4.3 to 40.7 ± 3.6%) (P ≤ 0.05). Despite non-significant changes in plasma ferritin concentration, this study demonstrates that dietary supplementation with 1,500IU vitamin D, consumed daily with an iron-fortified cereal led to improvement in haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit levels in women with low iron stores. Further long-term studies are required, however, these findings suggest a potential role for improvement of vitamin D status as an adjunct therapy for recovery of iron status in iron-deficient populations.
    • Differences in the vertical and horizontal force-velocity profile between academy and senior professional rugby league players, and the implications for strength and speed training.

      Dobbin, N; Cushman, S; Clarke, J; Batsford, J; Twist, C; Manchester Metropolitan University; Reasheath College; England RFU; Salford Red Devils Rugby League Football Club; University of Chester
      BACKGROUND: This study compared the vertical and horizontal force-velocity (FV) profile of academy and senior rugby league players. METHODS: Nineteen senior and twenty academy players from one professional club participated in this study. The vertical FV profile was determined using a series of loaded squat jumps (0.4 to 80 kg) with jump height recorded. The horizontal FV profile involved a 30-m over-ground sprint with split times recorded at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 m. Theoretical maximal force (F0), velocity (V0) and power (Pmax), optimal F0 and V0, and activity specific variables (e.g. vertical FV imbalance) were determined. RESULTS: Absolute F0 and Pmax from the vertical and horizontal profile were moderately different between groups (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.64-1.20, P <0.001-0.026), whilst for V0, differences were small (SMD = 0.33-0.41, P = 0.149-0.283). Differences in relative F0, Pmax and optimal F0 during both assessments were trivial to moderate (SMD = 0.03-0.82, P = 0.021-0.907). CONCLUSION: These results highlight senior and academy players present with different FV profiles and highlight some potential developmental opportunities for senior and academy rugby league players that sport scientists, strength and conditioning and rugby coaches can implement when designing programmes and considering long-term athlete development.
    • Direct and indirect causal effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits in Alpine ibex

      Brambilla, Alice; Biebach, Iris; Bassano, Bruno; Bogliani, Giuseppe; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Università di Pavia, Italy; University of Zurich, Switzerland; Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy; University of Chester, UK (The Royal Society, 2015-01-07)
      Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are a useful tool to investigate the effects of inbreeding in wild populations, but are not informative in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) in a free-ranging population (which suffered a severe bottleneck at the end of the eighteenth century) and used confirmatory path analysis to disentangle the causal relationships between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in 149 male individuals born between 1985 and 2009. We found that standardized multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH), calculated from 37 microsatellite loci, was related to body mass and horn growth, which are known to be important fitness-related traits, and to faecal egg counts (FECs) of nematode eggs, a proxy of parasite resistance. Then, using confirmatory path analysis, we were able to show that the effect of MLH on horn growth was not direct but mediated by body mass and FEC. HFCs do not necessarily imply direct genetic effects on fitness-related traits, which instead can be mediated by other traits in complex and unexpected ways.
    • Disability and inclusion policy towards physical education and youth sport

      Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-08)
      This book chapter discusses UK governmental policy relating to social inclusion in sport, particuarly using of physical education and youth sport to promote the inclusion of young people with disabilities and/or special educational needs in mainstream schools.
    • Disability, sport and society: An introduction

      Thomas, Nigel; Smith, Andy; Staffordshire University; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-05)
      This book discusses key themes in disability sport including disability theory and policy, the development of disability sport, disability sports in schools, elite disability sport (including the Paralymics), and media involvement in disability sport.
    • Discovery of a Novel CIP2A Variant (NOCIVA) with clinical relevance in predicting TKI resistance in myeloid leukemias

      Makela, Eleonora; Pavic, Karolina; Varila, Taru M; Salmenniemi, Urpu; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nagelli, Srikar G; Ammunét, Tea; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Clark, Richard E; Elo, Laura L; et al.
      Purpose: Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein that inhibits the tumor suppressor PP2A-B56a. However, CIP2A mRNA variants remain uncharacterized. Here, we report the discovery of a CIP2Asplicing variant, NOCIVA (NOvel CIp2a VAriant). Experimental Design: Characterization of CIP2A variants was performed by both 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends from cancer cells. The function of NOCIVA was assessed by structural and molecular biology approaches. Its clinical relevance was studied in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient cohort and two independent chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cohorts. Results: NOCIVA contains CIP2A exons 1-13 fused to 349 nucleotides from CIP2A intron 13. Intriguingly, the first 39 nucleotides of the NOCIVA-specific sequence are in the coding frame with exon 13 of CIP2A and code for a 13 amino acid peptide tail nonhomologous to any known human protein sequence. Therefore, NOCIVA translates to a unique human protein. NOCIVA retains the capacity to bind to B56a, but whereas CIP2A is predominantly a cytoplasmic protein, NOCIVA translocates to the nucleus. Indicative of prevalent alternative splicing from CIP2A to NOCIVA in myeloid malignancies, AML and CML patient samples overexpress NOCIVA but not CIP2A mRNA. In AML, a high NOCIVA/CIP2A mRNA expression ratio is a marker for adverse overall survival. In CML, high NOCIVA expression is associated with inferior event-free survival among imatinib-treated patients, but not among patients treated with dasatinib or nilotinib. Conclusions: We discovered novel variant of the oncoprotein CIP2A and its clinical relevance in predicting tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy resistance in myeloid leukemias.
    • The discriminant validity of standardised testing battery and its ability to differentiate anthropometric and physical characteristics between youth, academy and senior professional rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Moss, Samantha L.; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2019-01-31)
      Purpose: To assess a standardised testing battery’s ability to differentiate anthropometric and physical qualities between youth, academy and senior rugby league players, and determine the discriminant validity of the battery. Methods: A total of 729 rugby league players from multiple clubs within England categorised as youth (n = 235), academy (n = 362) and senior (n = 132) players completed a standardised testing battery that included the assessment of anthropometric and physical characteristics during preseason. Data was analysed using magnitude-based inferences and discriminant analysis. Results: Academy players were most likely taller and heavier than youth players (effect size (ES) = 0.64 to 1.21), with possibly to most likely superior CMJ, medicine ball throw and prone Yo-Yo IR1 performance (ES = 0.23 to 1.00). Senior players were likely to most likely taller and heavier (ES = 0.32 to 1.84), with possibly to most likely superior 10 and 20 m sprint times, CMJ, CoD, medicine ball throw and prone Yo-Yo IR1 compared to youth and academy (ES = -0.60 to 2.06). The magnitude of difference appeared to be influenced by playing position. For the most part, the battery possessed discriminant validity with an accuracy of 72.2%. Conclusion: The standardised testing battery differentiates anthropometric and physical qualities of youth, academy and senior players as a group and, in most instances, within positional groups. Furthermore, the battery is able to discriminate between playing standards with good accuracy and might be included in future assessments and rugby league talent identification.
    • Disease risk analysis – A tool for policy making when evidence is lacking: Import of rabies-susceptible zoo mammals as a model.

      Hartley, Matt; Roberts, Helen; Zoo and Wildlife Solution Ltd and Animal Plant and Health Agency (American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 2015-09-01)
      Disease control management relies on the development of policy supported by an evidence base. The evidence base for disease in zoo animals is often absent or incomplete. Resources for disease research in these species are limited and so in order to develop effective policies, novel approaches to extrapolating knowledge and dealing with uncertainty need to be developed. This paper demonstrates how qualitative risk analysis techniques can be used to aide decision-making in circumstances where there is a lack of specific evidence using the import of rabies susceptible zoo mammals into the United Kingdom as a model.
    • Distinguishing dengue fever from other infections on the basis of simple clinical and laboratory features: Application of logistic regression analysis

      Chadwick, David; Arch, Barbara N.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Paton, Nicholas; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore/ Department of Infection and Travel Medicine, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough ; University of Liverpool ; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (Elsevier, 2006-02)
      The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory features of dengue fever and other common febrile illnesses in Singapore.
    • Distribution, status and recent population dynamics of Alpine ibex Capra ibex in Europe

      Brambillla, Alice; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Nelli, Luca; Bassano, Bruno; University of Zurich, University of Chester, University of Glasgow, Gran Paradiso National PArk (Wiley, 2020-04-20)
      1. Despite its recent successful and well-documented reintroduction history, a comprehensive and current update of the distribution and status of the Alpine ibex Capra ibex is lacking. As some concerns persist about its conservation, a status update appears essential for future conservation and management strategies on a large scale. 2. We provide an exhaustive update of the geographic range of the species, alongside estimates of its current abundance and population trends from 2004 to 2015. 3. We gathered census and distribution data for all the Alpine ibex colonies from management authorities and research groups that monitor them in different countries, and from the literature and publicly available reports. We produced a distribution map, reported the number of individuals observed in the most recent censuses, and estimated global, national, and local population trends using Bayesian hierarchical models. 4. Our model estimated that there were a total of 55297 Alpine ibex in the Alps in 2015 (lower 95% Credible Interval [CrI]: 51157; upper 95% CrI: 62710). The total number of individuals appears to have increased slightly over the last 10 years from the 47000-51000 estimated in previous reports. Positive population trends were observed in Switzerland and Italy, while no trend was apparent in France. For Austria, Germany, and Slovenia, there were insufficient data to estimate a trend. The slopes of the colonies’ trends were positively correlated with the year of colony foundation. 5. The geographic range of the Alpine ibex does not seem to have increased in size in recent years, although the accuracy of the spatial data varies among countries. 6. The periodic and standardised collection of census data for all colonies and a common policy of data-sharing at a European level appear essential for monitoring the global trend of this species and for planning balanced conservation and management actions.
    • Do mothers prefer helpers or smaller litters? Birth sex-ratio and litter size adjustment in cotton-top tamarins

      Boulton, Rebecca A.; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester (Wiley & Sons, 2015-01-08)
      Sex allocation theory has been a remarkably productive field in behavioural ecology with empirical evidence regularly supporting quantitative theoretical predictions. Across mammals in general and primates in particular however, support for the various hypotheses has been more equivocal. Population level sex ratio biases have often been interpreted as supportive, but evidence for small scale facultative adjustment has rarely been found. The helper repayment (HR) also named the local resource enhancement (LRE) hypothesis predicts that, in cooperatively breeding species, mothers invest more in the sex which assists with rearing future offspring, and that this bias will be more pronounced in mothers who require extra assistance (i.e. due to inexperience or a lack of available alloparents). We tested these hypotheses in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) utilising the international studbook and birth records obtained through a questionnaire from ISIS registered institutions. Infant sex, litter size, mother’s age, parity and group composition (presence of non-reproductive subordinate males and females) were determined from these records. The HR hypothesis was supported over the entire population, which was significantly biased towards males (the ‘helpful’ sex). We found little support for helper repayment at the individual level, as primiparous females and those in groups without alloparents did not exhibit more extreme tendencies to produce male infants. Primiparous females were, however, more likely to produce singleton litters. Singleton births were more likely to be male, which suggests that there may be an interaction between litter size adjustment and sex allocation. This may be interpreted as supportive of the HR hypothesis, but alternative explanations at both the proximate and ultimate levels are possible. These possibilities warrant further consideration when attempting to understand the ambiguous results of primate sex ratio studies so far.