• Validation of a new hand-held electronic appetite rating system against the pen and paper method

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Green, Hilary; Virgili, Robert; Aeschlimann, Jean-Marc; Mosera, Mireille; Erkner, Alfrun; University of Chester (Almirion-Roig) : Nestlé Research Centre (Elsevier, 2009-12)
      This study describes the validation of a new electronic appetite rating system, and a statistical variance model for visual analogue scale (VAS) research. Thirty volunteers rated hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective intake, thirst and liking on 100 mm paper VAS and on 70 mm electronic VAS presented on a Dell™ Pocket PC, after consuming breakfast, in a repeated trial. The electronic method was comparable in relative accuracy and reproducibility to the paper method, with weak differences between tests (within-subject SD ≤ 14 mm). The data obtained were used to generate a model for VAS data variability.
    • Validation of urinary cortisol as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the bearded emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens)

      McCallister, Josephine M.; Smith, Tessa E.; Elwood, Robert W.; Queen's University of Belfast ; University College Chester/Queen's University of Belfast ; Queen's University of Belfast (Wiley, 2006-05)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to collect samples of cortisol levels from bearded emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens) in noninvasive manner and validate an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of cortisol in urine to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in the the bearded emperor tamarin.
    • Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester ; University of Maine (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine, 2004-04)
      Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach’s = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p<0.001) and moderate correlations were found between all BDS and MDI subscales, and between five of the eight EDQ subscales. A multivariate analysis of covariance, with univariate F tests and Tukey HSD tests, revealed that both male and female competitive bodybuilders scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on all three BDS subscales than the male and female non-competitive bodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.
    • The validity and reliability of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a treadmill-based sub-maximal perceptually regulated exercise test

      Morris, Mike; Lamb, Kevin L.; Hayton, John; Cotterrell, David; Buckley, John P.; University of Chester ; (Springer-Verlag, 2010)
      The purpose of this study was to determine for the first time whether VO2max could be predicted accurately and reliably from a treadmill-based perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) incorporating a safer and more practical upper limit of RPE 15 ("Hard") than used in previous investigations.
    • Validity of a pictorial perceived exertion scale for effort estimation and effort production during stepping exercise in adolescent children

      Yelling, Martin; Lamb, Kevin L.; Swaine, Ian; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 2002-06)
      Recent developments in the study of paediatric effort perception have continued to emphasise the importance of child-specific rating scales. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of an illustrated 1 – 10 perceived exertion scale; the Pictorial Children’s Effort Rating Table (PCERT). 4 class groups comprising 104 children; 27 boys and 29 girls, aged 12.1±0.3 years and 26 boys, 22 girls, aged 15.3±0.2 years were selected from two schools and participated in the initial development of the PCERT. Subsequently, 48 of these children, 12 boys and 12 girls from each age group were randomly selected to participate in the PCERT validation study. Exercise trials were divided into 2 phases and took place 7 to 10 days apart. During phase 1, children completed 5 x 3-minute incremental stepping exercise bouts interspersed with 2-minute recovery periods. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of exertion were recorded during the final 15 s of each exercise bout. In phase 2 the children were asked to regulate their exercising effort during 4 x 4-minute bouts of stepping so that it matched randomly prescribed PCERT levels (3, 5, 7 and 9). Analysis of data from Phase 1 yielded significant (P<0.01) relationships between perceived and objective (HR) effort measures for girls. In addition, the main effects of exercise intensity on perceived exertion and HR were significant (P<0.01); perceived exertion increased as exercise intensity increased and this was reflected in simultaneous significant rises in HR. During phase 2, HR and estimated power output (POapprox) produced at each of the four prescribed effort levels were significantly different (P<0.01). The children in this study were able to discriminate between 4 different exercise intensities and regulate their exercise intensity according to 4 prescribed levels of perceived exertion. In seeking to contribute towards children’s recommended physical activity levels and helping them understand how to self-regulate their activity, the application of the PCERT within the context of physical education is a desirable direction for future research.
    • Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Rugby Football League, Leeds (Thieme Publishing, 2016-12-08)
      Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players
    • Validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer in male youth athletes

      Till, Kevin; Morris, R.; Stokes, K.; Trewartha, G.; Twist, Craig; Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben (2017-11-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer against a criterion measure (i.e., 1,000 Hz force platform) for assessing muscle strength in male youth athletes. Twenty-two male adolescent (age 15.3 ± 0.5 years) rugby league players performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e., two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) separated by 5 minutes rest in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Mean bias, typical error of estimate (TEE) and Pearson correlation coefficient for peak force (PF) and peak force minus body weight (PFBW) from the force platform were validated against peak force from the dynamometer (DynoPF). When compared to PF and PFBW, mean bias (with 90% Confidence limits) for DynoPF was very large (-32.4 [-34.2 to -30.6] %) and moderate (-10.0 [-12.8 to -7.2] %), respectively. The TEE was moderate for both PF (8.1 [6.3 to 11.2] %) and PFBW (8.9 [7.0 to 12.4]). Correlations between DynoPF and PF (r 0.90 [0.79 to 0.95]) and PFBW (r 0.90 [0.80 to 0.95] were nearly perfect. The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimated PF and PFBW obtained using a criterion force platform. However, strong correlations between the dynamometer and force platform suggest that a dynamometer provides an appropriate alternative to assess isometric mid-thigh pull strength when a force platform is not available. Therefore, practitioners can use an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess strength in the field with youth athletes but should be aware that it underestimates peak force.
    • The validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a perceptually-regulated graded exercise test

      Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; King, Nicholas; University of Exeter ; University of Chester ; University of Exeter ; University of Wales, Bangor (Springer-Verlag, 2005)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from sub-maximal values elicited during a perceptually-regulated exercise test. We hypothesised that the strong relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and would enable to be predicted and that this would improve with practice. Ten male volunteers performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to establish followed by three sub-maximal RPE production protocols on a cycle ergometer, each separated by a period of 48 h.
    • Violence, competition and the emergence and development of modern sports: Reflections on the Stokvis-Malcolm debate

      Green, Ken; Liston, Katie; Smith, Andy; Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005)
      This article discusses the place of violence reducation in the socio-genesis of sports. It focuses on the debate between Dominic Malcolm and Ruud Stokvis.
    • Visualisation of xanthan conformation by atomic force microscopy

      Moffat, Jonathan; Morris, Victor J.; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Gunning, A. Patrick; Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company; Norwich Research Park; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-04-20)
      Direct visual evidence obtained by atomic force microscopy demonstrates that when xanthan is adsorbed from aqueous solution onto the heterogeneously charged substrate mica, its helical conformation is distorted. Following adsorption it requires annealing for several hours to restore its ordered helical state. Once the helix state reforms, the AFM images obtained showed clear resolution of the periodicity with a value of 4.7 nm consistent with the previously predicted models. In addition, the images also reveal evidence that the helix is formed by a double strand, a clarification of an ambiguity of the xanthan ultrastructure that has been outstanding for many years.
    • Visualizing multivariate analysis - An intuitive approach to high dimensional statistical extractions

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for The Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1997)
      The numerical output of multivariate statistical analyses may extend to a greater number of dimensions than can be comprehended and so may appear abstract and divorced from the original data. A need arises, therefore, for the provision of a more intuitive understanding of the results of such techniques - perhaps of a graphical nature. A simple method is to plot, what have come to be known as, Andrews' curves. A tabular procedure, using a standard computer spreadsheet, is described whereby the coefficients produced by various multivariate statistical techniques can be substituted into a simple equation to produce a smooth, wave-like curve characterising the source data. Importantly, this technique also provides a means whereby groups of curves may be compared visually to identify clusters and curves of similar or dissimilar overall shape. Similarly, "outliers" may also be spotted.
    • Vitamin D and cardiometabolic disease risk: A RCT and cross-sectional study

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Hughes, Stephen F.; Agbalalah, Tari (University of Chester, 2017-01-30)
      Given the strong evidence for a beneficial role of vitamin D in diabetes and CVD pathogenesis, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation has been advocated for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. To provide information on the effects of 5,000IU (125µg) vitamin D3 on cardiometabolic risk, a double blind, RCT in a cohort of overweight and obese UK adult males with plasma 25(OH)D concentration < 75nmol/L for a duration of 8 weeks was conducted. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first RCT to investigate the effect of 5,000IU (125µg) vitamin D3 on cardiometabolic markers in vitamin D insufficient, non-hypertensive and non-diabetic overweight and obese adult males.
    • Walking through the past

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 1997-07)
      This journal article discusses the Llangollen town walking trail which encourages people to examine the local geology.
    • Warrington Community Alcohol Service: Final evaluation report

      Mann, Frances; Alford, Simon; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2007-11)
      An evaluation of a Community Alcohol Service, delivered by a local PCT's Alcohol and Drugs Service (ADS).
    • Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

      Eckardt, Winnie; Fawcett, Katie; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester; The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (Springer, 2016-02-02)
      Weaning marks an important milestone during life history in mammals indicating nutritional independence from the mother. Age at weaning is a key measure of maternal investment and care, affecting female reproductive rates, offspring survival and ultimately the viability of a population. Factors explaining weaned age variation in the endangered mountain gorilla are not yet well understood. This study investigated the impact of group size, group type (one-male versus multi-male), offspring sex, as well as maternal age, rank, and parity on weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorilla population. The status of nutritional independence was established in 69 offspring using long-term suckling observations. A Cox-regression with mixed effects was applied to model weaned age and its relationship with covariates. Findings indicate that offspring in one-male groups are more likely to be weaned earlier than offspring in multi-male groups, which may reflect a female reproductive strategy to reduce higher risk of infanticide in one-male groups. Inferior milk production capacity and conflicting resource allocation between their own and offspring growth may explain later weaning in primiparous mothers compared to multiparous mothers. Sex-biased weaned age related to maternal condition defined by parity, rank, and maternal age will be discussed in the light of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Long-term demographic records revealed no disadvantage of early weaning for mother or offspring. Population growth and two peaks in weaned age within the Virunga population encourage future studies on the potential impact of bamboo shoots as a weaning food and other environmental factors on weaning.
    • “[We’re on the right track, baby], we were born that way!” Exploring sports participation in Norway

      Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken; University of Chester; Hedmark University College; Norsk Statistisk Sentralbyra (Taylor & Francis, 2013-02-25)
      Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter, this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership and young Norwegians are the quintessential sporting omnivores. Among other things, the Statistics Norway study reveals substantial increases in participation (among young people and females especially) during the period 1997–2007, a shift in the peak of participation to the late teenage years, a relatively high level of lifelong participants, a re-bound effect in the post-child rearing years and a growth in lifestyle sports. Young Norwegians grow up in a socio-economic context of relative equality between the sexes and high standards of living. An abundance of natural and artificial outdoor and indoor sporting facilities alongside a well-established voluntary sports club sector and an elementary school system that emphasizes physical exercise and recreation, as well as high levels of parental involvement, add to the favourable socio-economic conditions to create seemingly optimal circumstances for sports participation. All these reinforce the sporting and physical recreation cultures deeply embedded in Norwegian society and embodied by the very many middle-class parents in a country which, for the time being at least, remains relatively young in demographic terms. In terms of lessons to be learned for policy towards sports and physical education beyond Norway, there may be grounds for some optimism around parental involvement in children's sport as well as the potential appeal of lifestyle sports. That said, it is likely to be the greater socio-economic equalities in Scandinavian countries such as Norway that make them unrealistic benchmarks for sports participation elsewhere.
    • What happened to the legacy from London 2012? A sociological analysis of the processes involved in preparing for a grassroots sporting legacy from London 2012 outside of the host city

      Lovett, Emily L.; Bloyce, Daniel; Edge Hill University; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-02-01)
      Preparations for London 2012 included promises for a sporting legacy across Britain. APS data suggest that, despite a slight spike in 2012, we have not experienced the rise in participation promised. The importance of preparations for legacy were well documented but little research has examined these processes. We examine planning for sporting legacy within a non-Olympic city in England, Birmingham. 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people delivering sport in Birmingham to provide a figurational analysis of relationships involved. The change in government during the economic recession saw budget cuts and a reduction in sport development personnel. Whilst various organisations struggled financially, others wanted to link to legacy. This increase in groups involved led to confusion and the unintended outcome of ‘initiativitis’. In trying to leverage legacy, a strategic approach to managing potential opportunities with clear communication of opportunities is vital. A belief in inherent inspiration cannot be relied upon. Key words: London 2012, sport legacy, figurational sociology, Birmingham, initiativitis, school sports partnerships, policy, inherent inspiration, demonstration effect
    • What is the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on cardiorespiratory fitness in those undergoing cardiac rehabilitation? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

      Mitchell, Braden L; orcid: 0000-0002-8091-2549; Lock, Merilyn J; Davison, Kade; Parfitt, Gaynor; Buckley, John P; Eston, Roger G (2018-08-18)
      Assess the role of exercise intensity on changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with cardiac conditions attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Systematic review with meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies assessing change in CRF (reported as peak oxygen uptake; V̇O ) in patients post myocardial infarction and revascularisation, following exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Studies establishing V̇O via symptom-limited exercise test with ventilatory gas analysis and reported intensity of exercise during rehabilitation were included. Studies with mean ejection fraction <40% were excluded. 128 studies including 13 220 patients were included. Interventions were classified as moderate, moderate-to-vigorous or vigorous intensity based on published recommendations. Moderate and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity interventions were associated with a moderate increase in V̇O (standardised mean difference±95% CI=0.94±0.30 and 0.93±0.17, respectively), and vigorous-intensity exercise with a large increase (1.10±0.25). Moderate and vigorous-intensity interventions were associated with moderate improvements in V̇O (0.63±0.34 and 0.93±0.20, respectively), whereas moderate-to-vigorous-intensity interventions elicited a large effect (1.27±0.75). Large heterogeneity among studies was observed for all analyses. Subgroup analyses yielded statistically significant, but inconsistent, improvements in CRF. Engagement in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation was associated with significant improvements in both absolute and relative V̇O . Although exercise of vigorous intensity produced the greatest pooled effect for change in relative V̇O , differences in pooled effects between intensities could not be considered clinically meaningful. Prospero CRD42016035638. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • What regulates HPA activity in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus)?

      Skyner, Lindsay J.; Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Primate Society of Great Britain, 2005-06)