• UKCES: Understanding Human Centred Management

      York, Peter; Bonwick, Graham A.; Birch, Catherine S.; University of Chester (UKCES, 04/03/2016)
      The Human Centred Management project was required to solve the problem of supply chain inefficiencies brought about by unproductive human behaviours. Specifically, the project sought to used Behavioural Economics to improve the decisions made by making people aware of their illogical ‘Biases’ and ‘Heuristics’. Use of Transactional Analysis to make people more aware of their impressions and their audience to reduce antagonism in communication. Combine these methods using Behavioural Management Theory to create one unified approach which will create a 21st century solution to behavioural inefficiencies. The project primarily targeted two supply chains, led by two larger or ‘Prime’ organisations that had SME’s feeding the production process. The two supply chains underwent a number of interventions in the form of one-to-one sessions, workshops, master classes and simulations, in order to understand and influence the behavioural inefficiencies they were suffering. An Action Research methodology was used to both provide a flexible approach and also generate qualitative data. Before each intervention, questionnaire data and in some cases a behavioural health check was carried out in order to gain baseline data. Once complete the same questionnaires were completed and interviews with key participants were carried out. The interventions were a success producing a large amount of positive change and behavioural insights for analysis. Such improvements included dramatically improving the supply chain communication leading to claims of improved supply chain effectiveness over all, development of closer ties between supply chains in a geographically separated area and improved logical decision making where managers are aware of their biases and take the time to reflect on all the options. The three areas of psychology introduced proved to combine extremely well, complimenting one another’s weaker areas in order to produce the unified approach envisaged. Behavioural Economics was found to be an excellent analytical tool capable of deconstructing the root causes of behaviours. Transactional Analysis provided a suite of easily implementable and practical techniques for improving communication. Behavioural Management Theory provided a flexible approach to implementing the changes required. From the experience of the project and analysis of the data a Behavioural Framework was generated in order to allow other supply chains to benefit from this effective 21st century solution to behavioural inefficiencies.
    • UKRIGS - What is it?

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Geologists' Association, 2004)
    • Underlying cause discovered for a prior idiopathic AMI

      Godfrey, Richard; O’Hanlon, Rory; Wilson, Mathew G.; Buckley, John P.; Sharma, Sanjay; Whyte, Greg; Brunel University ; St Vincent’s University Hospital, Ireland ; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital ; Kings College Hospital, London ; Liverpool John Moores University (2011)
      The authors previously reported on an active, young male with normal coronaries who sustained an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The acute cause was a coronary thrombus; however, the cause of this thrombus and a definitive diagnosis remained elusive for 18 months until a new series of events, including symptoms of breathlessness, dizziness and collapse led to acute hospital admission. CT scan revealed numerous deep venous thromboses in the right leg and bilateral pulmonary emboli (PE). Acute pharmacological thrombolysis eliminated breathlessness and significantly reduced the risk of mortality. Clinical consensus suggests a coagulopathy, requiring indefinite treatment with Warfarin. In young individuals presenting with AMI, lifestyle, personal, family and clinical history should be considered and coronary artery disease should not be assumed until further tests have eliminated coagulopathy. In those presenting with breathlessness and a history which includes AMI, a CT scan is indicated to eliminate concerns of venous thromboembolism generally and PE specifically where untreated survival times are short.
    • Understanding family support at Sure Start Blacon (Cheshire)

      Thurston, Miranda (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 15/06/2006)
      This presentation discusses a study of Sure Start in Blacon between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2005 to discover how families engage with family support and the impact of such support.
    • Understanding mothers' engagement with antenatal parent education services: A critical analysis of a local Sure Start Service

      Pearson, Charlotte; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester (Wiley, 2006-11)
      This article discusses the findings of a local evaluation of a Sure Start parent education programme designed to improve parental engagement with antenatal services.
    • Understanding physical education

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008)
      This book discusses the nature and purpose of physical education; extra-curriculr physical education; and gender, social class, health, youth, ethnicity, disability in relation to physical education.
    • Understanding the impact of the Cheshire Children’s Fund: Findings from 11 family case studies

      Ward, Fiona; Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda (University of Chester, 2007-12)
      The Children’s Fund was created in 2000 as part of the Government’s commitment to tackle disadvantage amongst children and young people. The aim of the Fund was to facilitate the development of more extensive and better co-ordinated early intervention services for children and young people aged 5 to 13 years who were at risk of social exclusion. Cheshire Children’s Fund, the local response to this national initiative, is guided by the Children’s Fund Partnership which is made up of representatives from local voluntary and statutory organisations. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of a number of projects which had received funding from the Cheshire Children’s Fund, specifically to learn how these projects had worked with children and families where there had been a positive outcome. The objectives of the research were to identify, for each child or family, the reasons for the provision of a service, the type of service that had been provided, and the impact that it had had on their lives. The research explored the factors that enabled a positive outcome for each family: the similarities and differences between the cases were also examined to determine whether any contributing factors were present across the services. The 11 projects were selected to cover a range of themes to reflect the breadth of the Children’s Fund work in Cheshire. They provided a range of services under the headings of crime prevention, promoting inclusion, success in schools and family support.
    • Understanding university students’ time use: a mixed-methods study of their leisure lives

      Green, Ken; Wilson, Lee S. (University of Chester, 2015-06)
      This thesis explores patterns of time use among university students to further understand their leisure time as an aspect of their day-to day lives, especially with regard to their time spent drinking alcohol. Attending university can be viewed as a key aspect in the prolongation of the youth life-stage for some young people, and a key influence on how they develop their own identities and spend their leisure time. In this regard, research suggests that far from being a homogeneous group, there can be a marked difference between sub-groups of students. Residence, for example, has been shown to be a particularly significant factor influencing how students report their university experience. Furthermore, a number of studies report that rather than being fixed, young people’s leisure lives, including their time spent drinking, tend to be dynamic, context-dependent and develop in some significant ways during their university careers. However, studies that have focused on university students have tended to study aspects of their leisure in isolation. This study aimed to address this limitation by studying students’ lives ‘in the round’ in order to more adequately understand the contextual complexity of their lives and how this might shape patterns of time use on leisure in general and drinking alcohol in particular.
    • Understandings of sustainable development in a university community

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; University of Chester (Georg-Eckert Institut fur internationale Schulbuchforschung, 2008)
      This article discusses a study at a UK university on the subject of education for sustainable development through interviews with staff and students.
    • A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey

      Bolanos de la Torre, Angelica A. S.; Henderson, Terence; Nigam, Poonam S.; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; ONIRIS, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire; Ulster University; University of Chester; (Elsevier, 07/11/2014)
      The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was recently adapted to a microplate format. However, microplate-based FRAP (mFRAP) assays are affected by sample volume and composition. This work describes a calibration process for mFRAP assays which yields data free of volume effects. From the results, the molar absorptivity (ε) for the mFRAP assay was 141,698 M−1 cm−1 for gallic acid, 49,328 M−1 cm−1 for ascorbic acid, and 21,606 M−1 cm−1 for ammonium ferrous sulphate. The significance of ε (M−1 cm−1) is discussed in relation to mFRAP assay sensitivity, minimum detectable concentration, and the dimensionless FRAP-value. Gallic acid showed 6.6 mol of Fe2+ equivalents compared to 2.3 mol of Fe+2 equivalents for ascorbic acid. Application of the mFRAP assay to Manuka honey samples (rated 5+, 10+, 15+, and 18+ Unique Manuka Factor; UMF) showed that FRAP values (0.54–0.76 mmol Fe2+ per 100 g honey) were strongly correlated with UMF ratings (R2 = 0.977) and total phenols content (R2 = 0.982)whilst the UMF rating was correlated with the total phenols (R2 = 0.999). In conclusion, mFRAP assay results were successfully standardised to yield data corresponding to 1-cm spectrophotometer which is useful for quality assurance purposes. The antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey was found to be directly related to the UMF rating.
    • A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey

      Bolanos de la Torre, Angelica A. S.; Henderson, Terence; Nigam, Poonam S.; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; Ulster University (Elsevier, 07/11/2014)
      The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was recently adapted to a microplate format. However, microplate-based FRAP (mFRAP) assays are affected by sample volume and composition. This work describes a calibration process for mFRAP assays which yields data free of volume effects. From the results, the molar absorptivity (ε) for the mFRAP assay was 141,698 M−1 cm−1 for gallic acid, 49,328 M−1 cm−1 for ascorbic acid, and 21,606 M−1 cm−1 for ammonium ferrous sulphate. The significance of ε (M−1 cm−1) is discussed in relation to mFRAP assay sensitivity, minimum detectable concentration, and the dimensionless FRAP-value. Gallic acid showed 6.6 mol of Fe2+ equivalents compared to 2.3 mol of Fe+2 equivalents for ascorbic acid. Application of the mFRAP assay to Manuka honey samples (rated 5+, 10+, 15+, and 18+ Unique Manuka Factor; UMF) showed that FRAP values (0.54–0.76 mmol Fe2+ per 100 g honey) were strongly correlated with UMF ratings (R2 = 0.977) and total phenols content (R2 = 0.982)whilst the UMF rating was correlated with the total phenols (R2 = 0.999). In conclusion, mFRAP assay results were successfully standardised to yield data corresponding to 1-cm spectrophotometer which is useful for quality assurance purposes. The antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey was found to be directly related to the UMF rating
    • University Students’ Sport Participation: The Significance of Sport and Leisure Careers

      Haycock, David (University of Chester, 2015-04)
      There is now national and international evidence which indicates that those who have higher educational qualifications are more likely to be present-day and future sport participants than those who leave education once they reach the minimum school-leaving age. In Britain, despite significant government policy and financial investment in interventions designed to boost youth sport participation alongside other favourable trends, including a doubling in the proportion of students entering higher education (HE) since the 1980s, the rates of sport participation among the general population, including young people, have remained relatively static. This is particularly significant for, if attending HE does indeed help explain why university students are more likely to become present-day sport participants and remain sports-active into later life, then one might have expected to observe increases in participation by young people and adults over the last three decades or so. Since this has not happened, definitive conclusions about whether there is a HE effect on sport participation and, if so, what this effect/these effects are, cannot yet be drawn. The central objective of this study, therefore, was to explore this apparent paradox by analysing the development of 124 20-25-year-old undergraduate students’ present-day sport and leisure participation via a retrospective analysis of their sport and leisure careers. The study employed a cross-sectional, mixed methods, research design incorporating structured and semi-structured interviews held at two universities in England between March and July 2011. The findings indicated that the two clearest predictors of differences in the present-day sport participation and sport careers of university students were subject of study and sex, with sport students and males being the most likely participants over the life course and whilst at university. These differences first emerged during childhood, widened from age 12-13-years-old, and remained relatively set from age 16 onwards. The differences in the present-day sport participation of university students, and the richness of their overall sport careers, could thus not be attributed to a ‘HE effect’ as previous research has suggested. It was during childhood, rather than youth, when the preconditions required for constructing short- or longer-term sport (and leisure) careers were formed. The differential childhood socialization practices students’ experienced played a crucial role in the development of sporting habituses and dispositions within their unfolding networks (or figurations) which provided the foundations upon which present-day inequalities in participation were based. In this regard, the assumed contribution attending HE has previously been expected to make to students’ current and future sport participation appears to have been over-stated, and in so doing diverted attention from other processes associated with the inequalities that underlie students’ differential engagement in sport. It seemed that the context of university did little to promote overall levels of student participation, the numbers of sports they played, and the facilities they used. At best, attending HE may have simply delayed the drop-out from sport among those with already established and longer-running sport careers prior to attending university. In this regard, the present focus on raising sport participation among 14-25-year-olds by various sports organizations and facilitators would appear misguided and perhaps doomed to failure, for the evidence of this study suggests that a more appropriate focal point for policy interventions concerned with boosting longer-term participation is not with youth, but with children.
    • The Unsuitability of Energy Expenditure Derived From Microtechnology for Assessing Internal Load in Collision-Based Activities

      Highton, Jamie M.; Mullen, Thomas; Norris, Jonathan; Oxendale, Chelsea; Twist, Craig (Human Kinetics, 2016)
      This aim of this study was to examine the validity of energy expenditure derived from micro-technology when measured during a repeated effort rugby protocol. Sixteen male rugby players completed a repeated effort protocol comprising 3 sets of 6 collisions during which movement activity and energy expenditure (EEGPS) were measured using micro-technology. In addition, energy expenditure was also estimated from open circuit spirometry (EEVO2). Whilst related (r = 0.63, 90%CI 0.08-0.89), there was a systematic underestimation of energy expenditure during the protocol (-5.94 ± 0.67 kcalmin-1) for EEGPS (7.2 ± 1.0 kcalmin-1) compared to EEVO2 (13.2 ± 2.3 kcalmin-1). High-speed running distance (r = 0.50, 95%CI -0.66-0.84) was related to EEVO2, while Player Load was not (r = 0.37, 95%CI -0.81-0.68). Whilst metabolic power might provide a different measure of external load than other typically used micro-technology metrics (e.g. high-speed running, Player Load), it underestimates energy expenditure during intermittent team sports that involve collisions.
    • The use and abuse of RIGS sites

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Chester College of Higher Education (Association of UK RIGS Groups (UKRIGS), 2000)
      The classification of geological sites for conservation management purposes can lead to, what some people might regard as abuse of sites. The difference between true abuse of geologically conserved sites and percieved abuse is explored in order to encourage a holistic approach to site management and conservation. Examples are taken from RIGS sites in north Wales.
    • Use and experiences of front-line health services amongst Black and Minority Ethnic residents of Western Cheshire

      Ward, Fiona; Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Cleary, Paul; University of Chester; Western Cheshire PCT (University of Chester, 2008-06)
      This small-scale study was designed to explore the use and experiences of front-line health services within the Western Cheshire Primary Care Trust area amongst residents belonging to black and minority ethnic groups. A qualitative approach was adopted for the study as the aim was to explore perceptions and capture experiences.
    • Use of GMHAT/PC in old age population in India

      Krishna, M.; Ramya, M.; Sharma, Vimal; Jones, Steven; University of Chester (Indian Psychiatric society, 2017)
      Book chapter
    • Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments

      Fitzgerald, Collette; Stanley, Karen; Andrew, Sarah M.; Jones, Keith; Lancaster University (American Society for Microbiology, 2001-04)
      Although campylobacters have been isolated from a wide range of animal hosts, the association between campylobacters isolated from humans and animals in the farm environment is unclear. Flagellin gene typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from animals (cattle, sheep, and turkey) in farm environments and sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis in the same geographical area. Forty-eight combined fla types were seen among the 315 Campylobacter isolates studied. Six were found in isolates from all four hosts and represented 50% of the total number of isolates. Seventy-one different SmaI PFGE macrorestriction profiles (mrps) were observed, with 86% of isolates assigned to one of 29 different mrps. Fifty-seven isolates from diverse hosts, times, and sources had an identical SmaI mrp and combined fla type. Conversely, a number of genotypes were unique to a particular host. Molecular evidence is provided which suggests a link between campylobacters in the farm environment with those causing disease in the community.
    • The Use of Qualitative Risk Analysis Methods to Facilitate Decision Making in the Management of Health and Welfare in Wildlife

      Hill, Sonya; Smith, Tessa; Hartley, Matthew (University of Chester, 08/10/2018)
      This thesis is composed of a series of papers, all of which have been published in peer reviewed publications. The papers use the recognised process of qualitative risk assessment in a range of scenarios in the field of wildlife health and welfare in both in situ and ex situ environments. Chapter 1 discusses the challenges faced regarding availability of empirical data in field of wildlife and zoological health and welfare and justifies the exploration of techniques to assist with decision making. The development of risk analysis and its integration with risk management and risk communication to become risk assessment is described before being put into the specific context of wildlife and zoological disease. Chapters 2 and 3 consider two scenarios where disease risk assessment is well established as a tool, importation across national borders and in conservation interventions. Chapter 2 develops the standard import risk assessment approach to include multiple species and multiple diseases. Chapter 3 reviews developments made over the last 25 years and proposes best practice approaches to implement. Chapter 4 describes how the risk assessments formulated as described in Chapter 3 are used for licensing purposes emphasising the importance of risk management and communication. This theme is continued in Chapter 6 where the integration of risk assessment and evidence based decision making is considered in the broad context of a strategic approach to wildlife health bringing together the outcomes and processes described in Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5. The papers in Chapters 2,5 and 8 are focused on how risk analysis aids in development of disease control approaches and policy. The evidence base is composed primarily of peer-reviewed literature supported by expert review of the finalised assessment. Chapter 7 uses risk assessment in an applied scenario, taking the recognised process and modifying it to structure an active disease investigation demonstrating the versatility of the technique. Chapter 9 takes this a step further by again adapting the methodology which, has historically been used primarily for infectious diseases, to consider reproduction and assess risks to welfare rather than purely health. The paper in Chapter 9 builds on the methodology by combining existing peer-reviewed literature with data collected specifically for the purpose of feeding into the assessment and utilising a stakeholder and expert opinion elicitation workshop to obtain data too. These process are proposed and described in Chapter 3. The final chapter critically reviews risk assessment, highlighting three key areas of potential weakness and proposing approaches to address these criticisms. The value of the approach in wildlife and zoological health and welfare as demonstrated by this series of papers is described
    • The use of radiography in osteological measurement

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999)
      Radiographs provide a means of obtaining permanent images of objects. These images may be readily and repeatedly copied, disseminated or used in a variety of ways without the need further to disturb the original material. Although measurements are frequently taken from such images for metrical analysis, it must be remembered that these images are only representations of the original object. To obtain accurate data, one must be aware of the sources of error inherent in the image-forming process so that radiographs can be used in the appropriate way. This paper outlines the factors involved in the production of radiographic images and applies this to the generation of accurate metrical data.
    • Use of sandwich IgG ELISA for the detection and quantification of adulteration of milk and soft cheese

      Hurley, Ian P.; Coleman, Robert C.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2006-07)
      The aim of the article was to develop an assay capable of detecting adulteration of soft goat, sheep and buffalo milk cheese with bovine milk from cheaper sources.