• A tabular method for performing Fourier analysis of complex biological shape

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for The Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1997)
      Whilst linear dimensions are easily measured and analysed numerically, curvilinear forms are difficult both to define and to compare and are frequently left unexplored. A method of describing curved or non-uniform shapes, which has become popular among a number of biological workers, is Fourier analysis — a numerical analytical technique with an established mathematical background. Of the three stages followed when using this technique to describe biological shape - the construction of a wave-like curve from the shape being studied, the numerical (Fourier) analysis and the use of the Fourier coefficients to perform statistical analyses - that of how the Fourier analysis is performed is largely unreported. This leaves many unclear about how to perform a technique which they may otherwise find useful. A tabular method, which allows the computational steps of Fourier analysis to be monitored throughout, is described. This procedure can be readily performed, using a computer spreadsheet or on paper. The original curve may also be reconstructed from the Fourier coefficients, allowing one to check the success and accuracy of the method and to determine the number of coefficients necessary to define the shape to the required precision.
    • Tackling the "couch potato" culture amongst children and young people

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; University College Cheter (2004)
    • A tale of two sites - how RIGS can complement SSSIs

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 2005)
      This article discusses the Dee Cliffs SSSI in Farndon and the Holt Castle quarry RIGS.
    • Targeting long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with oligonucleotides in cancer therapy

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; University of Chester; Keele University (AME Publishing Company, 2016-10)
      No abstract
    • The technical demands of amateur boxing: Effect of contest outcome, weight and ability

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04)
      As research to-date has typically considered the technical features of amateur boxing performance with respect to contest outcome only, this study examined the offensive and defensive technical demands with respect to the independent and interactive effects of contest outcome, weight class and ability. Appraising eight offensive and four defensive actions and their corresponding outcomes (successful/unsuccessful), the technical demands of competitive boxing from 84 English amateurs (age: 21.3 ± 3.1 y; body mass: 68.1 ± 11.4 kg) across 11 weight categories (48 – 91+ kg) and two standards of competition (regional and national) were notated using computerized software. Data analysis reinforced that amateur boxing produces high technical loads (e.g. ~ 25 punches and ~ 10 defences per minute) and that performance is influenced significantly by the study’s independent variables. In particular, boxing standard (ability) was positively associated with external load (frequency of offensive and defensive actions), and winning was associated with high offensive and low defensive frequencies, whereas weight class had an inconsistent impact on technical performance. It is recommended that appraisals of performance and approaches to training and competition should take heed of our observations and that future research considers the role of other independent variables, including opposition quality and ‘style’, likely to affect boxing performance.
    • Technical note: Validation of an automatic recording system to assess behavioural activity level in sheep (Ovis aries).

      McLennan, Krista M.; Skillings, Elizabeth, A.; Rebelo, Carlos J. B.; Corke, Murray J.; Pires Moreira, Maria A.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; University of Cambridge; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (Elsevier, 01/06/2015)
      The welfare of an individual can be assessed by monitoring behavioural changes, such as inactivity, that may indicate injury or disease. In this study we validated the Actiwatch Mini® activity monitor (AM) for automatic recording of behavioural activity levels of nine Texel ewes. The AM devices were attached to collars placed around the necks of the ewes. AM recordings were taken at 25 second intervals for 21 consecutive days and in addition, direct behavioural observations made on days 9 to 13. AM recordings were compared with direct behavioural observations to investigate whether different levels of behaviour activity could be distinguished by the AM. Six different behaviours were matched to the activity scores recorded by the AM which were low activity (lying ruminating, lying), medium activity (standing, standing ruminating, and grazing) and high activity behaviours (walking). There were differences in the activity scores for all three scores. However, higher levels of accuracy in distinguishing between activity levels were achieved when combining high and medium activity level behaviours. This method of capturing data provides a practical tool in studies assessing the impact of disease or injury. For example, assessing the effects of lameness on the activity level of sheep at pasture, without the presence of an observer influencing behaviour.
    • Test-retest reliability in quantitative physical education research: A commentary

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 1998-10)
      This paper highlights an important statistical development for exercise and physical education research. Traditionally, the Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients have been liberally used by researchers to quantify the test-retest reliability of many performance, behavioural, and physiologically-related measurements. The suitability of these forms of analyses has recently been challenged by British exercise scientists, who argue that they do not really address what they are meant to, that is, the level of agreement between repeated measurements or scores. As a consequence, our existing knowledge of the reliability of such measurements is questionable and deserves to be re-established with a more appropriate statistical technique. Accordingly, the 95% Limits of Agreement method is presented and offered as an essential supplement for future measurement and evaluation research.
    • The Differences in Acute Management of Asthma in Adults and Children

      Chavasse, Richard; Scott, Stephen (Frontiers Media S.A., 11/03/2019)
      Acute asthma or wheeze is a common presentation to emergency services for both adults and children. Although there are phenotypic differences between asthma syndromes, the management of acute symptoms follow similar lines. This article looks at the similarities and differences in approaches for children and adults. Some of these may be age dependent, such as the physiological parameters used to define the severity of the attack or the use of age appropriate inhaler devices. Other differences may reflect the availability of evidence. In other areas there is conflicting evidence between adult and pediatric studies such as a temporary increase in dose of inhaled corticosteroids during an acute attack. Overall there are more similarities than differences.
    • The Importance of Metrology and Standardization of Nanomaterials for Food Industry and Regulatory Authorities in Europe

      Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Chaudhry, Qasim (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 20/01/2017)
    • The importance of perturbations in elite squash: An analysis of their ability to successfully predict rally outcome

      Roddy, Ryan; Lamb, Kevin L.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the presence of perturbations within elite squash through the analysis of critical incidents responsible for successful rally outcome.
    • The World Anti-Doping Agency at 20: progress and challenges

      Houlihan, Barrie; Vidar Hanstad, Dag; Loland, Sigmund; Waddington, Ivan (Informa UK Limited, 06/06/2019)
    • Theorising lifestyle drift in health promotion: explaining community and voluntary sector engagement practices in disadvantaged areas

      Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Sheffield, Hedmark University College, University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 24/07/2017)
      The past two decades have seen an increasing role for the UK community and voluntary sector (CVS) in health promotion in disadvantaged areas, largely based on assumptions on the part of funders that CVS providers are better able to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ population groups in services than statutory providers. However, there is limited empirical research exploring CVS provider practices in this field. Using ethnographic data this paper examines the experiences of a network of CVS providers seeking to engage residents in health promoting community services in a disadvantaged region in the North of England. The paper shows how CVS providers engaged in apparently contradictory practices, fluctuating between an empathically informed response to complex resident circumstances and (in the context of meeting externally set targets) behavioural lifestyle approaches to health promotion. Drawing on concepts from figurational sociology, the paper explains how lifestyle drift occurs in health promotion as a result of the complex web of relations (with funders, commissioners and residents) in which CVS providers are embedded. Despite the fact that research has revealed the impact of targets on the work of the CVS before, this paper demonstrates more specifically the way in which monitoring processes within CVS contracts can draw providers into the neoliberal lifestyle discourse so prevalent in health promotion.
    • Thermal niche predicts recent changes in range size for bird species

      Scridel, D.; Bogliani, G.; Pedrini, P.; Iemma, A.; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Brambilla, M.; Museo delle Scienze, Trento; University of Pavia, University of Chester, Fondzione Lombardia per l'Ambiente (Inter-Research Science Center (IR), 30/08/2017)
      Species’ distributions are strongly affected by climate, and climate change is affecting species and populations. Thermal niches are widely used as proxies for estimating thermal sensitivity of species, and have been frequently related to community composition, population trends and latitudinal/elevational shifts in distribution. To our knowledge, no work has yet explored the relationship between thermal niche and change in range size (changes in the number of occupied spatial units over time) in birds. In this study, we related a 30 yr change in range size to species thermal index (STI: average temperature at occurrence sites) and to other factors (i.e. birds’ associated habitats, body mass, hunting status) potentially affecting bird populations/range size. We analysed trends of breeding bird range in Italy for a suite of poorly studied cold-adapted animals potentially sensitive to global warming, and for a related group of control species taxonomically similar and with comparable mass but mainly occurring at lower/warmer sites. We found a strong positive correlation between change in range size and STI, confirming that recent climatic warming has favoured species of warmer climates and adversely affected species occupying colder areas. A model including STI and birds’ associated habitats was not so strongly supported, with forest species performing better than alpine open habitat and agricultural ones. In line with previous works highlighting effects of recent climate change on community composition, species’ population trends and poleward/upward distributional shifts, we found STI to be the most important predictor of change in range size variation in breeding birds.
    • A Three-Season Analysis of Positional Demands in Elite English Rugby Union

      Finnigan, Nicola A. (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      This thesis presents novel findings relating to the position-specific locomotive and performance-related characteristics of elite (club) level rugby union players in England using data gathered via global positioning systems and time-motion analysis over three seasons (2010 – 2013). In terms of sample size, this investigation represents one of the largest conducted and therefore provides information that is more representative than any published thus far. Moreover, the findings reported in the first study (of this thesis) directly challenge the practice adopted previously by researchers in this field of not considering the running capabilities of individual players when calculating their locomotive activities. The consequence of this is that for certain measures (involving speed zones), the values reported herein are a more appropriate reflection of elite players’ movement patterns than has been previously reported. For example, it emerged that had previous approaches been used, the average distances covered by players in a match would have been either under- or over-estimated by up to ~ 80% in high intensity running (HIR), and 86% in sprinting. In adopting subsequently the use of speed categories defined in relative terms, position-related differences were observed in locomotion. Namely, as a group, the backs covered the greatest distances, with the scrum half position covering the most (6,542 m) and the tighthead prop the least (4,326 m). The outside backs were found to “sprint” the most, albeit up to ten times less than previously reported. Similarly, position-specific performance behaviours were identified, with the forwards participating in ~ 40% more static exertions than the backs, the second row involved in the most rucks (~ 34% of team total) and the back row the most tackles (12 per match). Among the backs, different demands prevailed; the scrum half executed most passes (over 50% of team total), whereas the inside backs engaged in most tackles (8 per match) and the outside backs carried the ball the most (7 times per match). When broken down into 5-minute periods of play, notable changes in demands were evident. For instance, reductions in total distances (~ 7%), and distances at HIR (~ 16%) occurred in 5 the second half compared to the first, implying that the onset of fatigue and/or the employment of pacing strategies. Moreover, reductions in HIR following the most intense periods of play were seen (when compared to the average) for the inside (~ 23%) and outside backs (~ 20%), as was the number of static exertions for the front row (~ 21%), back row (~ 24%) and outside backs (~ 45%), suggesting the occurrence of ‘transient fatigue’ during a match. Collectively the current research provides a comprehensive overview of key physical demands of English Premiership rugby union. Not only does it provide ‘typical’ position-related data, but also provides some insight into the most intense scenarios for elements of locomotive movement and static exertions, which together could assist practitioners/coaches in devising individualised training programmes to prepare players optimally for competition.
    • A three-season comparison of match performances among selected and unselected elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 28/02/2014)
      This study compared technical actions, movements, heart rates and perceptual responses of selected and unselected youth rugby league players during matches (under-15 to under-17). The players’ movements and heart rates were assessed using 5 Hz Global Positioning Systems (GPS), while their technical actions were analysed using video analysis. The maturity of each player was predicted before each season for statistical control. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between selected and unselected players in the under-15 or the under-17 age groups for any variables. However, in the under-16 group, the selected players (57.1 ± 11.9 min) played for longer than the unselected players (44.1 ± 12.3 min; P = 0.017; ES = 1.08 ± CI = 0.87), and covered more distance (5,181.0 ± 1063.5 m cf. 3942.6 ± 1,108.6m, respectively; P = 0.012; ES = 1.14 ± CI = 0.88) and high intensity distance (1,808.8 ± 369.3 m cf. 1,380.5 ± 367.7 m, respectively; P = 0.011; ES = 1.16 ± CI = 0.88). Although successful carries per minute was higher in the selected under-15 group, there were no other differences (P > 0.05) in match performance relative to playing minutes between groups. Controlling for maturity, the less mature, unselected players from the under-16 group performed more high-intensity running (P < 0.05). Our findings question the use of match- related measurements in differentiating between selected and unselected players, showing that later maturing players were unselected, even when performing greater high-intensity running during matches.
    • Time to take responsibility for collections

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (English Nature, 2003)
      This journal article discusses how geological collections can be preserved.
    • To Infinity and Beyond: The Use of GPS Devices within the Football Codes

      Malone, James; Barrett, Stephen; Barnes, Chris; Twist, Craig; Drust, Barry; Liverpool Hope University; Hull City FC; CB Sports Performance; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University
      The quantification of external load through global positioning systems (GPS) is now commonplace across the different football codes. Despite this acceptance amongst sports science practitioners, confusion still remains around which are the most appropriate metrics to use when monitoring their athletes. In addition, the translation of the message between the data gathered and the athletes and coaches can often be lost. The aim of this commentary is to provide discussion and recommendations when using GPS for athlete monitoring.
    • Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers

      Hughes, Stephen F.; Hendricks, Beverly D.; Edwards, David R.; Maclean, Kirsty M.; Bastawrous, Salah S.; Middleton, Jim F.; University of Chester; North Wales (Central) NHS Trust; Keele University (BioMed Central, 19/01/2010)
      BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively. METHODS: During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1) and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H(2)O(2 )and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured as markers of endothelial activation. RESULTS: The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H(2)O(2 )production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery. CONCLUSION: In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1-3 postoperatively. It is proposed that by allowing orthopaedic surgeons access to alternative laboratory markers such as CD11b, H(2)O(2 )and elastase, CD62L, vWF and sICAM-1, an accurate assessment of the extent of inflammation due to surgery per se could be made. Ultimately, the leukocyte and endothelial markers assessed during this investigation may have a role in monitoring potential infectious complications that can occur during the postoperative period.