• Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery to two- and three-dimensional neural stem cell cultures: magnet-assisted transfection and multifection approaches to enhance outcomes

      Pickard, Mark R.; Adams, Christopher F.; Chari, Divya M.; University of Chester; Keele University (Wiley, 2017-02-02)
      Neural stem cells (NSCs) have high translational potential in transplantation therapies for neural repair. Enhancement of their therapeutic capacity by genetic engineering is an important goal for regenerative neurology. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are major non-viral vectors for safe bioengineering of NSCs, offering critical translational benefits over viral vectors, including safety, scalability, and ease of use. This unit describes protocols for the production of suspension (neurosphere) and adherent (monolayer) murine NSC cultures. Genetic engineering of NSCs with MNPs and the application of 'magnetofection' (magnetic fields) or 'multifection' (repeat transfection) approaches to enhance gene delivery are described. Magnetofection of monolayer cultures achieves optimal transfection, but neurospheres offer key advantages for neural graft survival post-transplantation. A protocol is presented which allows the advantageous features of each approach to be combined into a single procedure for transplantation. The adaptation of these protocols for other MNP preparations is considered, with emphasis on the evaluation of procedural safety.
    • Mainstreaming prevention: Prescribing fruit and vegetables as a brief intervention in primary care

      Kearney, Matt; Bradbury, C.; Ellahi, Basma; Hodgson, M.; Thurston, Miranda (Elsevier, 2005)
      This articles discusses a project at the Castlefields Health Centre in Halton whereby primary care professionals issue a prescription for discounts on fruit and vegetables. The prescription is explicitly linked to the five-a-day message.
    • Making education for sustainable development: Inside-out and outside-in

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Ribchester, Chris; University of Chester (2007-07-10)
    • Manipulation of apoptosis in cancer cells

      Williams, John H. H.; Ireland, Elyse; Sahib, Muneera M (University of Chester, 2018-09-18)
      Conventional cancer therapies can have severe side effects, so new strategies to limit these needs to be investigated. Several anticancer agents induce the expression of tumour suppressor gene p21 in colorectal cancer cell line HT-29. Interestingly, the stress protein HSPA1A is also often elevated in tumour cells and has an anti - apoptotic activity. The main aim of this study was to examine whether a two - pronged approach, overexpressing p21 (using genetic approach and inhibition of HSPA1A using pifithrin - µ would be effective in inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. Chitosan or BSA based delivery systems were evaluated for cytotoxicity, with the intension of using it for plasmid DNA based cell transfections in this study. The interaction of HSPA1A protein in combination treatments involving UV radiation and hyperthermia at 42℃ were also evaluated to perceive the various roles of HSPA1A in arresting colorectal cancer cells. Colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and leukaemia cancer cell lines U937 were used in the study. All experiments were performed with cancer cell lines maintained in culture medium devoid of antibiotics. Cell cytotoxicity were evaluated using MTS and PI assays. The rate of apoptosis was determined using annexin V and PI staining by flow cytometry. Chitosan or BSA based microparticles or microgels were observed for size determination or morphology using scanning electron microscopy. Full length human p21 inserted plasmid DNA was a gift from Mien - Chie Hung, Addgene, USA. HT- 29 cells were subjected to p21 plasmid DNA transfection effects. Cells were treated with pifithrin - µ (15µM) prior to gene transfection to address its combined effect with p21 plasmid DNA transfection. HSPA1A and p21 protein expression studies were analysed using FITC labelled antibodies by flow cytometer. Combination studies with HSPA1A inhibitor pifithrin - µ and UV reflected enhanced cytotoxicity compared with either of the treatments independently. Hyperthermia at 42℃ induced apoptosis by MTS assay, which was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis in both the cell lines tested. Considering the cytotoxicity reflected by the chitosan or BSA delivery systems in drug free states, the p21 plasmid DNA transfection was carried out using lipofectamine 2000. Both overexpression of p21 and inhibition of HSPA1A protein with pifithrin - µ enhanced the rate of apoptosis with statistical significance of (p-<0.0001****) compared to the respected controls. The data in this thesis suggests the inhibition of HSPA1A in combination with increased p21 would be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancers.
    • Mapping and gapping services for children, young people and families in Blacon

      Ward, Fiona; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Alford, Simon; Thurston, Miranda; Perry, Catherine; Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester (University of Chester, 2009-11)
      This research report provides a map of the services available to children and families in Blacon and explores whether there are any gaps in provision.
    • Marathon des Sables: A scientific case study

      Ryder, J. J.; Grantham, N. J.; Kellett, David; Jones, G. E.; University of Hull ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2004-01)
      The Marathon des Sables is an ultra-endurance foot race across the Sahara Desert. The event lasts 6 days, and competitors are susceptible to a variety of specific injuries, including dehydration, heat stress, and ultimately poor performance. This study involved the monitoring of a highly trained 42-year-old male competitor through a 6-month training program and immediately after the event. The monitoring sessions assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max), pulmonary function, anthropometric characteristics, body composition, resting metabolic rate, training, and nutritional status. The subject also completed a period of acclimation during the taper phase of the training program in an environmental chamber. The last pre-race VO2max of 4.5 1-min showed a decrease of 0.5 1-min. The subject's diet successfully maintained body weight during the training period, and the subject's weight increased from 67.7kg at 12.2% body fat to 71kg at 13.2% body fat during the taper. The subject sustained no chronic injuries during the training or race periods. We concluded that the intervention strategies adopted were successful in preparing the subject to successfully complete the Marathon des Sables. The athlete covered the 229km in 29hr 21min 21sec, finishing in 75th place.
    • Margarines and spreads

      Young, Niall; Wassell, Paul; University of Chester (Springer, 2010)
    • Maria Matilda Ogilvie Gordon (1864-1939): A Scottish researcher in the Alps

      Wachtler, M.; Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Burek) (The Geological Society of London, 2007)
      Maria Ogilvie Gordon was one of the most proilfic researchers ofthe late nineteenth century. Born and bred in Scotland she was the first women to obtain a D.Sc from the University of London and a Ph.D from Munich University. Much of her research was in the Tyrol in the high Alps between Austria and Italy. By 1900 she had published over 19 papers, many of them in German. However it was not until later in life that she received recognition for her work. This book chapter explores her background, context, and the work she undertook and the contribution she made to the advancement of structural geology and palaeontology in the Alps.
    • Maria Ogilvie Gordon

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (University of Edinburgh, 2018-03)
      This is a biographical entry for Maria Ogilvie Gordon
    • Maternal investment in mountain gorillas (Gorilla Beringei Beringei)

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Eckardt, Winnie (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2010-02)
      Investigating maternal investment (Ml) and mother-offspring relationships during the period of infant dependency is critically important to furthering the understanding of female reproductive strategies in primates. Infant primates are completely dependent upon their mothers. The way in which a mother allocates her resources therefore is crucial for infant survival, but is balanced Against her need to invest in subsequent offspring. One approach to examining how mothers might invest in their offspring stems from the Trivers & Willard hypothesis (TWH, 1973), which predicts that mothers in good condition should bias their investment towards sons and whereas mothers in poorer condition should bias investment toward daughters. Long-term demographic records on birth sex ratio and inter-birth interval suggest that female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) do not bias investment prenatally, but they may adjust postnatal Ml according to the TWH. This study investigated Ml and mother-offspring relationships in wild mountain gorillas, using behavioural correlates of Ml, including suckling, weaned age, physical contact, "transport, and grooming to redress the lack of understanding about Ml in this species. The appropriateness of TWH was investigated, integrating different indicators of maternal condition. Important determinants of Ml and mother-offspring relationships were considered, such as offspring age, parity, presence of siblings and maternal relatives, group size and lastly, personality, which has been largely neglected in nonhuman primates. The extent, to which the offspring influenced Ml patterns, was examined using the parent-offspring conflict theory (Trivers, 1972) as a theoretical framework. During 2006-2007, 38 mother-offspring dyads were observed in the Virunga massif, resulting in 1210 hours of direct behavioural observation. Additional field data from the previous four decades were integrated into the dataset for the analysis of suckling and weaned age. Gorilla personality was assessed through the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire. Findings relating to suckling frequency, weaned age, and maternal feeding activities were consistent with the TWH: sons suckled more often than daughters when they had mothers in good condition, whereas the reverse sex-pattern occurred in offspring with mothers in poorer condition. In addition, daughters were weaned at an earlier age than sons when mothers were in better condition, although this sex-difference reduced in older mothers that were categorised as being in good condition. Maternal feeding time and feeding efficiency revealed that mothers in poorer condition spent more time ingesting food when they had daughters, whereas mothers in better .condition spent more time ingesting food when they had sons. Furthermore, group size affected lactation duration with offspring in small groups being weaned earlier than offspring in large groups. Behavioural conflicts over Ml showed that the mother and offspring influenced Ml patterns during the period of dependency. Finally, six personality dimensions were identified, of which five revealed effects maternal behaviour, such as maternal retrieval, responsiveness and rejection, although their relative importance varied between those behaviours. In general, mother and offspring personality effects were complex due to their interactions with the developmental stage of offspring. In conclusion, my thesis research has made several novel contributions to furthering the understanding of female reproductive strategies in the highly endangered mountain gorilla. I presented the first evidence using behavioural data that females bias their postnatal investment towards the sex with the greatest fitness return as predicted by the TWH. My findings are discussed in the light of alternative Ml strategies, such as the local resource competition and enhancement model. My research has highlighted the importance of integrating anthropometric and physiological measures and demographic long-term data into future Ml studies to assess direct costs and benefits of Ml. The examination of mother-offspring behavioural conflicts showed that offspring have a strong impact on the level of Ml they receive. I have also examined the personality of a wild mountain gorilla population for the first time. My findings demonstrate that personality-parenting links are evident in several respects and I have demonstrated the great potential of personality as a determinant of maternal behaviour and mother-offspring relationships.
    • Measurement of bovine IgG by indirect competitive ELISA as a means of detecting milk adulteration

      Hurley, Ian P.; Coleman, Robert C.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (American Dairy Science Association, 2004-03)
      The aim of this work was to develop an assay capable of detecting adulteration of high premium milk with milk from cheaper sources. An indirect, competitive ELISA was developed for the rapid detection of cows’ milk in the milk of goat, sheep, and buffalo. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody produced against bovine IgG. This antibody recognizes a species-specific epitope on the heavy chain of both bovine IgG1 and IgG2. A peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgG antibody was used to detect bound monoclonal antibody and subsequent enzymatic conversion of substrate resulted in clear differences in absorbance when assaying different mixtures of milks adulterated with cows’ milk. Once optimized, the ELISA was found to be highly specific. Detection limits of the assay are 1.0 µg/mL of bovine IgG, or 0.1% (vol/vol) adulteration with cows’ milk. The assay was highly reproducible (CV < 10%) and performed equally well when used to detect bovine IgG in mixtures with the 3 types of milk tested. The ELISA performance makes it suitable for development as a kit, for use in the field as a high throughput screening ELISA.
    • Measurement procedures affect the interpretation of metatarsophalangeal joint function during accelerated sprinting

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Routledge, 2012-08)
      The metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) is a significant absorber of energy in sprinting. This study examined the influence of MPJ axis choice and filter cut-off frequency on kinetic variables describing MPJ function during accelerated sprinting. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway. Three dimensional high-speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Three axis definitions for the five MPJs were compared. MPJ moments, powers and energies were calculated using different filter cut-off frequencies. The more anatomically appropriate dual axis resulted in less energy absorbed at the MPJ compared to the oblique axis which also absorbed less energy compared to the perpendicular axis. Furthermore, a low cut-off frequency (8 Hz) substantially underestimated MPJ kinematics, kinetics and the energy absorbed at the joint and lowered the estimate of energy production during push-off. It is concluded that a better understanding of MPJ function during sprinting would be obtained by using an oblique or anatomically appropriate representation of the joint together with appropriate kinematic data sampling and filtering so that high frequency movement characteristics are retained.
    • Measuring physiological stress in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): Validation of a salivary cortisol collection and assay technique

      Ash, Hayley; Smith, Tessa E.; Knight, Simon; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; University of Stirling; University of Chester; Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl); University of Wisconsin (Elsevier, 2017-12-15)
      Cortisol levels are often used as a physiological measure of the stress response in captive primates, with non-invasive measures of this being an important step in welfare assessment. We report a method of collecting saliva samples voluntarily from unrestrained captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique previously unused in this species. Saliva samples were collected from marmosets housed in pairs in a UK laboratory. The assay showed parallelism, precision, accuracy and sensitivity, meeting the criteria typically used to investigate the effectiveness of new analytical techniques. Use of Salimetrics® Oral Swabs considerably increased the amount of cortisol recovered in comparison with previous studies using cotton buds. However, while use of banana on the swabs can encourage chewing, it may influence results. Although increases in cortisol levels have traditionally been interpreted as an indicator of stress in primates, there are many factors that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with some studies showing decreases in cortisol levels post-stressor. Following a likely stressful event (capture for weighing), we also found cortisol levels significantly decreased, possibly due to social buffering or ‘blunting’ of the HPA axis. Order of weighing also had an effect. The method therefore provided an effective non-invasive means of assessing acute changes in cortisol level that may be more useful than previous methods, improving our ability to study physiological aspects of welfare in primates. We discuss methodological considerations, as well as implications of using cortisol as a measure of stress.
    • Measuring the secretion of heat shock proteins from cells

      Ireland, H. Elyse; Leoni, Francesca; Altaie, Ala; Birch, Catherine S.; Coleman, Robert C.; Hunter-Lavin, Claire; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2007)
      This article outlines procedures, using Hsp70 as the example, to: ensure the status of cells (viable, apoptotic or necrotic); identify the heat shock protein secreted; and quantify the secreted protein. Hsp70 has previously been quantified by ELISA, but newer methods are now being adopted, such as BIAcore and bead-based assays for use by FACS. These methods have the advantages of being more sensitive and requiring less sample than ELISA. The BIAcore has the potential to analyse Hsp70 ligands and provide affinity constants.
    • Mechanism related to the lateral rectus muscle capable of retracting the outer canthus of the eye

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Tasker, H. N.; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of Wales College of Cardiff (BMJ Publishing Group, 1994)
      This article discusses a case report of a fibromembranous slip arising from the belly of the left lateral rectus muscle which was discovered in a male subject.
    • Menopause, sexuality and culture: Is there a universal experience?

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; Deeside Community Hospital (Taylor & Francis, 2003-05)
      Menopause is a universal phenomenon, but do all women experience a universal event? The aim of this article is to identify common trends or patterns occurring exclusively within certain different cultures, and whether these have an effect on how menopause is experienced or perceived by those women. This paper will first consider the physiological changes that occur during menopause and will then look at psychosocial influences that may affect women's perception and experience of menopause.
    • Mental practice, motor performance, and the late CNV

      Smith, Dave; Collins, Dave; University College Chester ; University of Edinburgh (North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2004-09)
      The aim of these two studies was to examine the application of Lang’s (1979, 1985) bioinformational theory to the mental practice (MP) of a strength task, the maximal voluntary contraction of the abductor digiti minimi, and the MP of a computerized barrier knockdown task. Study 1 divided 18 males into three groups: a physical practice (PP) group; a stimulus and response proposition mental practice (SRP) group; and a stimulus proposition mental practice (SP) group. Each participant either physically or mentally practiced 40 contractions twice a week for 3 weeks, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded during testing sessions. All three groups significantly increased abduction strength, but there were no significant between-group differences in the mag-nitude of the improvements. In addition, late contingent negative variation (CNV) waves were apparent prior to both real and imagined movements in all conditions. Study 2 allocated 24 participants to PP, SRP, SP, and control groups. Participants performed 120 imaginary or actual barrier knockdown trials, with EEGs recorded as in Study 1. A Group x Test ANOVA for movement time revealed that the PP and SRP groups improved to a significantly greater degree than the SP and control groups. Also, the late CNV was observed prior to real and imagined movement in the SRP group, but not prior to imagined movement in the SP group. These results support bioinformational theory with respect to cognitively oriented motor tasks, but not strength tasks.
    • Metabolic demands and replenishment of muscle glycogen after a rugby league match simulation protocol.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Hannon, Marcus P.; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C.; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G.; Cooper, Robert G.; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L. (2017-02-22)
      Objectives: The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Design: Fifteen (mean ± SD: age 20.9 ± 2.9 y, body-mass 87.3 ± 14.1 kg, height 177.4 ± 6.0 cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6 g•kg•day-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes ± 90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: PlayerLoad (8.0 ± 0.7 AU•min-1) and %HRpeak (83 ± 4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272 ± 97 cf. 416 ± 162 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283 ± 68 cf. 361 ± 144 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9 ± 25.4% (0.75 ± 0.19) post-simulation for all players. Conclusions: The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy.
    • Metabolic demands of elite rugby competition after 36 hours of a high (6 g·kg-1) or low (3 g·kg-1) carbohydrate diet: implications for dietary recommendations.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Morehen, James C.; Haigh, Julian; Clarke, Jon; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Cotton, Caroline; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Sharma, Asheesh; Impey, Samuel G.; MacLaren, Don P. M.; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Liverpool John Moores University; Widnes Vikings Rugby; Glyndwr University; University of Chester; Aintree University Hospital; Royal Liverpool Hospital; University of Liverpool (Elsevier, 2016-04-22)
      Objectives: Although the physical demands of Rugby League (RL) match-play are well-known, the fuel sources supporting energy-production are poorly understood. We therefore assessed muscle glycogen utilisation and plasma metabolite responses to RL match-play after a relatively high (HCHO) or relatively low CHO (LCHO) diet. Design: Sixteen (mean ± SD age; 18 ± 1 years, body-mass; 88 ± 12 kg, height 180 ± 8 cm) professional players completed a RL match after 36-h consuming a non-isocaloric high carbohydrate (n = 8; 6 g kg day−1) or low carbohydrate (n = 8; 3 g kg day−1) diet. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained pre- and post-match, alongside external and internal loads quantified using Global Positioning System technology and heart rate, respectively. Data were analysed using effects sizes ±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Differences in pre-match muscle glycogen between high and low carbohydrate conditions (449 ± 51 and 444 ± 81 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were unclear. High (243 ± 43 mmol kg−1 d.w.) and low carbohydrate groups (298 ± 130 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were most and very likely reduced post-match, respectively. For both groups, differences in pre-match NEFA and glycerol were unclear, with a most likely increase in NEFA and glycerol post-match. NEFA was likely lower in the high compared with low carbohydrate group post-match (0.95 ± 0.39 mmol l−1 and 1.45 ± 0.51 mmol l−1, respectively), whereas differences between the 2 groups for glycerol were unclear (98.1 ± 33.6 mmol l−1 and 123.1 ± 39.6 mmol l−1) in the high and low carbohydrate groups, respectively. Conclusions: Professional RL players can utilise ∼40% of their muscle glycogen during a competitive match regardless of their carbohydrate consumption in the preceding 36-h.
    • Metacarpophalangeal pattern profile analysis of a sample drawn from a North Wales population

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Taylor & Francis, 2001)
      Sexual dimorphism and population differences were investigated using metacarpophalangeal pattern profile (MCPP) analysis. Although it is an anthropmetric technique, MCPP analysis is more frequently used in genetic syndrome analysis and has been under-used in the study of human groups. The present analysis used a series of hand radiographics from Gwynedd, North Wales, to make comparisons, first, between the sexes within the sample and then with previously reported data from Japan. The Welsh sexes showed MCPP analyses that indicated size and shape differences but certain similarities in shape were also evident. Differences with the Japanese data were more marked. MCPP anlysis is a potentially useful anthropmetric technique but requires further statistical development.