• Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; University College Chester ; Washington University (Psychology Press, 2005-05)
      Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens . However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up , eat , and pluck . Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed.
    • Learning to Play: How working-class lads negotiate working-class physical education

      Green, Ken; Scattergood, Andrew J. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Adults from the middle-classes are up to three times more likely to be regularly involved in sport than those from the working-class. The reason for this participation anomaly has been consistently linked to the differing lifestyles and opportunities to which young people from working and middle-class backgrounds are exposed. More specifically, working-class children are more likely to develop narrow, class-related leisure profiles and sporting repertoires during their childhood that serve to limit the likelihood of them remaining physically active in adulthood. In relation to this, one of the key aims of physical education (PE) in mainstream schools is to develop the range of skills and knowledge for all pupils and widen their sporting repertoires in an attempt to promote long-term participation throughout their lives. However, not only has PE provision in British mainstream schools been shown to be unsuccessful in promoting working-class pupils’ sporting/ability development, some suggest that the subject may even be perpetuating the social difference that has been shown to exist in relation to sports participation between social class groups. In order to address these issues the study set out to examine the extent to which the wider social background of white, working-class ‘lads’ and the actions and attitudes of their PE teachers came to impact on the way the lads influenced and experienced their PE curriculum/lessons. It also aimed to examine the impact that school PE then had on their sporting repertoires and participation in sport/active leisure outside of school. A total of 24 days were spent in Ayrefield Community School (ACS), a purposively selected, working-class state secondary school as part of a case study design. Over 60 practical PE lessons were observed that led to differing roles being adopted and guided conversations being conducted before, during, and after these lessons. Eight focus group interviews were also conducted with specifically chosen lads as well as one with the four members of male PE staff. Additional observations were also carried out during off-site trips, external visits, and in a range of classroom-based lessons. The findings were then considered and examined in relation to the work of the sociologists Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu. The findings revealed that the pressures related to the modern education system and the social expectations linked to their working-class backgrounds caused a split between the lads at ACS in to three broad groups, namely: Problematics, Participants and Performers. These groupings came to impact on the ways that these lads engaged and achieved in school as well as the ways in which they came to negotiate and experience PE. The ‘Problematic’ group held largely negative views of education, but valued PE, especially when playing football, the ‘Participants’ were relatively successful at school yet apathetic regarding the content and delivery of their PE lessons, and a Performer group of lads emerged who engaged and achieved highly at school and participated in a range of activities in PE, but showed little intention of participating outside of school due to their pragmatic attitude to ‘learning’ in PE. Despite these differing school and PE experiences between the lads’ groups, the potential and actual impact of school PE on their sporting repertoires, skills, and interests was ultimately constrained by a range of issues. In the first instance the lads’ narrow, class-related leisure profiles and sporting repertoires linked closely to recreational participation with friends, alongside a lack of proactive parenting were significant limiting factors. In addition, the ability of some lads to constrain the actions of PE staff and peers to get what they wanted in PE rather than what they needed, and the negative views of most lads to skill development and structured PE lessons meant that PE at ACS was never likely to have a positive impact on the sporting repertoires and participation types/levels of its male pupils either currently or in their future lives.
    • "Learning to speak horse": The culture of "natural horsemanship"

      Birke, Lynda; University of Chester (Brill, 2007)
      This journal article discusses the rise of "natural horsemanship" as a definitive cultural change within the horse industry.
    • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

      De Ravin, Suk S.; Wu, Xiaolin; Moir, Susan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Kwatemaa, Nana; Littel, Patricia; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Su, Ling; Marquesen, Martha; Hilligoss, Dianne; Lee, Janet; Buckner, Clarissa M.; Zarember, Kol A.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; McVicar, Daniel W.; Kuhns, Douglas; Throm, Robert E.; Zhou, Sheng; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Hanson, I. Celine; Cowan, Mort J.; Kang, Elizabeth; Hadigan, Coleen; Meagher, Michael; Gray, John T.; Sorrentino, Brian P.; Malech, Harry L.; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research; Laboratory of Immunoregulation; St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital; National Cancer Institute-Frederick; Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Texas Children’s Hospital; Benioff Children's Hospital and University of California San Francisco; Audentes Therapeutics (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2016-04-20)
      X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a profound deficiency of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell immunity caused by mutations inIL2RGencoding the common chain (gammac) of several interleukin receptors. Gamma-retroviral (gammaRV) gene therapy of SCID-X1 infants without conditioning restores T cell immunity without B or NK cell correction, but similar treatment fails in older SCID-X1 children. We used a lentiviral gene therapy approach to treat five SCID-X1 patients with persistent immune dysfunction despite haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant in infancy. Follow-up data from two older patients demonstrate that lentiviral vector gammac transduced autologous HSC gene therapy after nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning achieves selective expansion of gene-marked T, NK, and B cells, which is associated with sustained restoration of humoral responses to immunization and clinical improvement at 2 to 3 years after treatment. Similar gene marking levels have been achieved in three younger patients, albeit with only 6 to 9 months of follow-up. Lentiviral gene therapy with reduced-intensity conditioning appears safe and can restore humoral immune function to posthaploidentical transplant older patients with SCID-X1.
    • The life and works of Emily Dix, 1904-1972

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Cleal, C. (Geological Society, 2005)
      This book chapter discusses the life and career of the British palaeobotanist Emily Dix (1904-1972).
    • ‘Life in the Travelling Circus’: A Sociological Analysis of the Lives of Touring Professional Golfers

      Fry, John (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      As sports become more professionalised and international in scope athletes increasingly migrate from one country to another. These individuals are required to adjust and adapt quickly when moving internationally. Literature on sports migration, however, tends to focus on routes and pathways rather than the effects of movement on the athletes themselves. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore how the frequent workplace circulation inherent in the lives of highly skilled migrants affects their social selves. Using professional golf as a case study, this project includes an analysis of family issues, relationships between players, pay and conditions, and technical approaches to playing golf. Interviews were conducted with 20 male professional golfers and analysed from a figurational standpoint. As golf tournaments are increasingly staged in a myriad of different countries players are required to spend longer periods of time away from home and experience intense feelings of loneliness and isolation. It is argued that golfers are not isolated in terms of people who they have around them while on tour, but rather in terms of lack of contact with people who they have positive meaningful feelings towards, such as their family and friends. To help reduce this loneliness, golfers develop behaviours that foster temporary we-group alliances with other players they perceive to be similar to themselves. People in such groups are friends, characterised by bonds of togetherness, while also enemies showing evidence of conflicts as they are in direct competition for a share of the overall prize money. Indeed the monetary rewards available for top golfers continues to increase, however, such recompense is only available to small numbers and the majority fare poorly. It is argued that the prize money breakdown fosters internalised behaviour constraints whereby many players ‘gamble’ on pursuing golf as their main source of income despite the odds against them. This habitus is strengthened given the significant financial investments many players have made to fulfil their childhood dreams, which further blurs their ability to see the reality of their lives. The result is many golfers are constrained to develop networks with sponsors for financial reasons which leaves some with conflicting choices between regular income, and adhering to restrictive contractual agreements, or the freedom to choose between different brands. As such, overall the results of this study highlight the importance of considering the cultural and social adaptations required in the life of a transient migrant.
    • ‘Life in the Travelling Circus’: A Study of Loneliness, Work Stress, and Money Issues in Touring Professional Golf

      Fry, John; Bloyce, Daniel; Myerscough College; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2017-06)
      This article examines the effects of globalization on the well-being of migrant professional athletes. Interviews with 20 touring professional golfers reveal that players experience many of the personal problems – such as loneliness, isolation, low decision latitude, low social support, and effort-reward imbalance – which have been identified as “strong predictors of mental ill-health” (Leka & Jain, 2010, p. 65). Feelings of loneliness and isolation developed as players were regularly apart from family and friends, and spent most of their time with other golfers whom they had somewhat superficial relationships with. These feelings coupled with, for many, uncertain income generated through golf added further to their work-related anxieties. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering how workplace anxieties and vulnerabilities impact on athlete migrants’ health and well-being.
    • The link between knowledge and visual fixation in gymnastics coaching and judging: A case study approach

      Page, Jennifer L.; Lafferty, Moira E.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; University of Chester (2007-09)
      Whilst little information exists to explain how coaches and judges process observed movement into performance scores, it wouls seem logical to suggest that a relationship exists between attention and knowledge. This study examines the relationship between these phenomena by examining whether a relationship exists between visual fixation data and knowledge in gymnastic judging scenarios, using a two-phase case study design.
    • Lipid remodelling in the reef-building honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, reflects acclimation and local adaptation to temperature

      Muir, Anna P.; Nunes, Flavia L. D.; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Pernet, Fabrice; University of Chester; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-10-20)
      Acclimation and adaptation, which are key to species survival in a changing climate, can be observed in terms of membrane lipid composition. Remodelling membrane lipids, via homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), counteracts membrane dysfunction due to temperature in poikilotherms. In order to assess the potential for acclimation and adaptation in the honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, a reefbuilding polychaete that supports high biodiversity, we carried out common-garden experiments using individuals from along its latitudinal range. Individuals were exposed to a stepwise temperature increase from 15 °C to 25 °C and membrane lipid composition assessed. Our results suggest that S. alveolata was able to acclimate to higher temperatures, as observed by a decrease in unsaturation index and 20:5n-3. However, over the long-term at 25 °C, lipid composition patterns are not consistent with HVA expectations and suggest a stress response. Furthermore, unsaturation index of individuals from the two coldest sites were higher than those from the two warmest sites, with individuals from the thermally intermediate site being in-between, likely reflecting local adaptation to temperature. Therefore, lipid remodelling appears limited at the highest temperatures in S. alveolata, suggesting that individuals inhabiting warm environments may be close to their upper thermal tolerance limits and at risk in a changing climate.
    • Literature and science: Social impact and interaction

      Cartwright, John H.; Baker, Brian; University of Chester (ABC-CLIO, 2005)
      This book discusses the complex relationship between science and literature from Dante and Chaucer through to the twenty-first century. It focuses on science and literature in medieval times, the Elizabethan Renaissance, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, nineteenth-century British and American literature and science, themes in science fiction, and the twentieth-century.
    • Llandudno trail questionnaire and workshop

      Tilson, Elaine; Burek, Cynthia V.; Underwood, John; Legg, Colin; University College Chester (Association of UK RIGS Groups, 2004)
      This book chapter discusses the development and production of a geologically focused brochure based on Llandudno.
    • Local adaptation with high gene flow: temperature parameters drive adaptation to altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

      Muir, Anna P.; Biek, Roman; Thomas, R.; Mable, Barbara K.; University of Chester; University of Glasgow; Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (Wiley, 2014-01-20)
      Both environmental and genetic influences can result in phenotypic variation. Quantifying the relative contributions of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to phenotypes is key to understanding the effect of environmental variation on populations. Identifying the selective pressures that drive divergence is an important, but often lacking, next step. High gene flow between high- and low-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) breeding sites has previously been demonstrated in Scotland. The aim of this study was to assess whether local adaptation occurs in the face of high gene flow and to identify potential environmental selection pressures that drive adaptation. Phenotypic variation in larval traits was quantified in R. temporaria from paired high- and low-altitude sites using three common temperature treatments. Local adaptation was assessed using QST -FST analyses, and quantitative phenotypic divergence was related to environmental parameters using Mantel tests. Although evidence of local adaptation was found for all traits measured, only variation in larval period and growth rate was consistent with adaptation to altitude. Moreover, this was only evident in the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites. This variation was correlated with mean summer and winter temperatures, suggesting that temperature parameters are potentially strong selective pressures maintaining local adaptation, despite high gene flow.
    • The local evaluation of Halton's Healthy Living programme annual reach report, August 2004 - July 2005

      Alford, Simon; Samuels, Tanya; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2005-10)
      This project report discusses an evaluation of the services of Halton's Healthy Living Centre, which aims to promote good health, reduce health inequalities, and improve the health of the most disadvantaged in Halton.
    • The local evaluation of Halton's Healthy Living Programme annual reach report, August 2005 - July 2006

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2006-11)
      This project report evaluates the Halton Healthy Living Programme, of which there are four key strands - arts, complementary therapy, food and physical activity.
    • The local evaluation of Knutsford’s Healthy Living Network: January 2006 – December 2006

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2007-06)
      This was an exploratory study designed to evaluate the Knutsford Healthy Living Network (KHLN), one of many Healthy Living Centres (HLC) in the UK. The HLC initiative aims to ensure people can achieve their optimum state of health and well-being. The project report aims to establish the reach of KHLN services by monitoring the level of service usage using a database designed to capture service activity.
    • Local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) and the community – The Cheshire region LGAP

      Potter, Jacqueline; University of Chester (English Nature, 2005)
    • Local geodiversity action plans - setting to context for geological conservation

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; University of Chester (English Nature, 2006)
      This booklet discusses local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) can be established to safeguard and manage the geological resources. A number of case studies are included and recommendations are made.
    • Local geodiversity action plans - sharing good practice workshop, Peterborough, 3 December 2003

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 2004)
      This booklet discusses a workshop held in Peterborough in 2003 to examine good practice in the development of local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs). Six cases studies from Cheshire, County Durham and North Pennines, Leicestershire and Rutland, Staffordshire, Tees Valley, and Warwickshire.
    • Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships

      Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Sheffield ; Hedmark University College, Norway ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-04-01)
      Area-based initiatives (ABIs) have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in ABIs, little empirical work has explored relations between ABI providers and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This paper addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an ABI. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an ABI targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that, although effective delivery of ABIs is premised on a high level of coordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of cooperation. In particular, the interdependency of ABI providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here ‘organisational pull’) constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. ‘Local’ status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policy makers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. Keywords: partnership, collaboration, community services, area-based initiatives, organisational pull, figurational sociology
    • Localisation of heat shock proteins in haematological malignancies

      Williams, John H. H.; Hoyle, Christine; Dempsey, Nina C. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2009-08)
      Although a number of HSPs have been shown to be up-regulated in a wide range of human cancers, the full significance of this remains to be determined. The localisation of HSPs seems to be critical in determining their role in cancer cell survival; High intracellular levels (iHsp) appear to be advantageous to the tumour cell, inhibiting key steps in apoptosis, while in some circumstances, surface expression (sHsp) appears to be detrimental to the cell, aiding immune recognition by various effector cells. Consequently, clarifying the importance of HSP cellular location in the cancer setting may lead to the development of novel therapies based upon manipulation of HSP localisation. This thesis had two major aims; (1) to investigate the cellular localisation of HSPs in leukocytes from patients with both myelocytic and lymphocytic malignancies in order to establish relationships between apoptosis and stage of disease (2) to study the synergistic effect of four chemotherapeutic drugs with membrane fluidising agents, compounds which have the potential to modulate HSP localisation. Hsp90 and Hsp27 expression was shown to be restricted to the inside of peripheral blood leukocytes, while Hsp72 was localised both intracellularly and on the cell surface. In CLL, iHsp90 and iHsp27 levels were found to be significantly higher than in control subjects, while surface and intracellular Hsp72 was shown to be expressed either at very high levels or at very low levels. Furthermore, iHsp90 levels were found to be associated with stage of disease, while iHsp27 levels were shown to negatively correlate with levels of apoptosis. CLL patients with stable disease were found to express higher levels of iHsp72 than patients with progressive disease. However, in AML and MDS, levels of all HSPs in peripheral blood were found to be similar to those seen in control subjects, but disease patients showed a much wider range of expression. In AML, levels of sHsp72 positively correlated in all cell types, an observation not made in MDS patients or control subjects. HSP localisation was shown to be affected by membrane fluidising agents, with a movement of Hsp72 and Hsp60 to the cell surface. This effect was not due to proteotoxicity and supports data implicating the cell membrane in the regulation of HSP responses. This manipulation of HSP localisation and the increase in membrane fluidity resulted in increased sensitivity of CLL cells to three chemotherapeutic agents and points to the possibility that manipulation of membrane fluidity, may have significant value in the development of new treatment regimes.