• John Holden: an appreciation: Born 9 May 1953; died 15 July 2018.

      Cox, Steve; email: Steve.Cox@sthelensccg.nhs.uk (2018-09)
    • John Moores and the ‘professional’ baseball leagues in 1930s England

      Bloyce, Daniel; University of Chester (Routledge, 2007-03)
      This article discusses an attempt, inspired and mainly financed by John Moores, to establish baseball in England in the 1930s. ‘Professional’ leagues were set up in 1936 in Lancashire, Yorkshire and London. However, the English press, particularly the national press, failed to support the development of baseball in England.
    • ‘Just stretch it out and try to dance’: Young Irish dancers’ views and experiences of pain and injury

      Pentith, Rebecca; McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester (Graduate Journal of Sport, Exercise & Physical Education Research, 2018-11-16)
      Dancers frequently experience pain and injury due to the physical demands of performance. Previous research primarily focuses on professional dancers over the age of 18 years, and Irish dance has been largely unexplored, with research from a sociological perspective particularly lacking. To address these gaps, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the culture of Irish dance on young female dancers’ views and experiences of pain and injury. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews with eight girls (aged 11-16 years) from an Irish dance academy in the North West of England. We analysed the data by engaging in thematic analysis, and drew on Bourdieu’s concepts (habitus and capital, in particular) to explain our findings. Key themes within the data were: the values of Irish dance; trust and teamwork; and strength and weakness. The findings show that Irish dancers make sacrifices to achieve success, and the culture of Irish dance encourages them to dance through pain and injury in order to appear strong. While dancers recognise the potential consequences of injury and believe it is beneficial to take time away from training to recover, they are often encouraged (and encourage each other) to persevere through pain and injury. The findings suggest that there are some potentially harmful consequences of the Irish dance culture, as pain and injury are normalised. We suggest that coaches (and parents/guardians) should encourage young dancers to engage with self-care, and ensure they are not risking their future health and wellbeing by dancing through pain and injury.
    • Kicking against tradition: A career in women's football

      Owen, Wendy (Tempus, 2005)
      This book is the autobiography of former English international footballer Wendy Owen. It discusses the rise of women's football in England after the success of the 1966 World Cup and how women's football was slowly accepted by the FA and society in general.
    • Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor 3DL1 polymorphism defines distinct hierarchies of HLA class I recognition

      Saunders, Philippa M.; Pymm, Phillip; Pietra, Gabriella; Hughes, Victoria A.; Hitchen, Corinne; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Loiacono, Fabrizio; Widjaja, Jacqueline M.; Price, David A.; Falco, Michela; Mingari, Maria C.; Moretta, Lorenzo; McVicar, Daniel W.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Brooks, Andrew G.; Vivian, Julian P.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; Infection and Immunity Program & Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia; Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova, Genoa, 16132 Italy; IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST (National Institute for Cancer Research), Genoa, 16132 Italy; IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy; Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK; Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma ITALY; Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA (Rockefeller University Press, 2016-04-04)
      NK cells play a key role in immunity, but how HLA-I and KIR3DL1 polymorphism impacts on disease outcome remains unclear. KIR3DL1 (*001/*005/*015) tetramers were screened for reactivity against a panel of HLA-I molecules. This revealed different and distinct hierarchies of specificity for each KIR3DL1 allotype, with KIR3DL1*005 recognising the widest array of HLA-I ligands. These differences were further reflected in unctional studies utilising NK clones expressing these specific KIR3DL1 allotypes. Unexpectedly, the Ile/Thr80 dimorphism in the Bw4-motif did not categorically define strong/weak KIR3DL1 recognition. Although the KIR3DL1*001, *005 and *015 polymorphisms are remote from the KIR3DL1-HLA-I interface, the structures of these three KIR3DL1-HLA-I complexes showed that the broader HLA-I specificity of KIR3DL1*005 correlated with an altered KIR3DL1*005 interdomain positioning and increased mobility within its ligand-binding site. Collectively, we provide a generic framework for understanding the impact of KIR3DL1 polymorphism on the recognition of HLA-I allomorphs.
    • A kinematic analysis of the role of the upper-extremities during vertical jumping

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Connell, Robert (University of Chester, 2013)
      Over the last two decades, plyometric training has been extensively adopted by athletes, coaches and sport scientists with a primary aim to improve vertical jump height. The focus of these plyometric programmes has been to train the lower-extremity musculature in order to enhance jump performance. However, the lower-extremities are not the only contributing factor to vertical jump performance, as the use of an arm-swing during vertical jumping has also been shown to contribute to achieving maximum vertical jump height, yet training programmes for improving the arm-swing during the vertical jump are limited. Therefore, the primary aim of this thesis was to examine the full arm-swing mechanics during vertical jumping, and to then develop and assess the suitability of an upper-extremity plyometric programme for increasing both arm-swing kinematics and jump height. Firstly, a descriptive study was conducted to assess if an arm-swing countermovement was utilised during the vertical jump, which was deemed the prerequisite for using plyometric training to improve the arm-swing. Then an experimental study was conducted comparing vertical jumps performed with and without an arm-swing countermovement. The results showed that jumps performed with an arm-swing countermovement significantly increased mean peak shoulder angular velocity (ω) (+67.5 deg·s-1) and mean jump height (+ 6.2 cm) when compared to jumps performed using no arm-swing countermovement. During the final chapter of this thesis, a group of elite basketball players volunteered to participate in upper-extremity plyometric training aimed at increasing vertical jump height by training only the upper-extremities. Vertical jump height and full body kinematics were analysed using a 3 dimensional (3D) motion capture system, and key kinematic jump variables and various arm-swing performance measurements were collated both before and after a 4 week upper-extremity plyometric intervention. The use of upper-extremity plyometric training significantly increased the mean jump height (+ 7.2 cm), mean peak shoulder ω (+ 167.1 deg·s-1), mean peak frontal shoulder ω (+ 121 deg·s-1) and mean active range of motion at the shoulder joint (+ 5.3°), when compared to a control group. Furthermore, the use of a large active range of motion armswing during the arm-swing countermovement was shown to be the preferred arm-swing condition for increasing arm-swing kinematics. The increase in arm-swing kinematics and jump height after the 4 week upper-extremity plyometric programme was attributed to the participants’ improved ability to use the stretch-shortening cycle, elastic energy transfer system and stretch reflex system. Therefore, the use of upper-extremity plyometric exercises as part of a training regime for improving vertical jump performance should be advocated.
    • Knowledge of task end-point influences pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match-play

      Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2017-10)
      Purpose: To examine the influence of knowledge of exercise duration on pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play. Methods: Thirteen male university rugby players completed 3 simulated rugby league matches (RLMSP-i) on separate days in a random order. In a control trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 2 × 23-min bouts (separated by 20 min) of the RLMSP-i (CON). In a second trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 1 × 23-min bout of the protocol but were then asked to perform another 23-min bout (DEC). In a third trial, participants were not informed of the exercise duration and performed 2 × 23-min bouts (UN). Results: Distance covered and high-intensity running were higher in CON (4813 ± 167 m, 26 ± 4.1 m/min) than DEC (4764 ± 112 m, 25.2 ± 2.8 m/min) and UN (4744 ± 131 m, 24.4 m/min). Compared with CON, high-intensity running and peak speed were typically higher for DEC in bout 1 and lower in bout 2 of the RLMSP-i, while UN was generally lower throughout. Similarly, DEC resulted in an increased heart rate, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion than CON in bout 1, whereas these variables were lower throughout the protocol in UN. Conclusions: Pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play depend on an accurate understanding of the exercise endpoint. Applied practitioners should consider informing players of their likely exercise duration to maximize running.
    • Knowsley at Heart community NHS health checks: Behaviour change evaluation

      Alford, Simon; Perry, Catherine; Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester (Centre for Public Health Research, University of Chester, 2010-07)
      The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the experience of the residents of Knowsley of the community NHS health checks. A qualitative research strategy was utilised. It was evident from the evaluation that NHS Knowsley had been successful in engaging people in the community NHS health check programme. The service users commented positively on the health checks. A minority of participants were unsure what steps to take after the community health check, however, the majority of participants made some form of lifestyle change as a result of attending the check.
    • Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; University College Chester ; Washington University (Psychology Press, 2005-05)
      Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens . However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up , eat , and pluck . Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed.
    • Learning to Play: How working-class lads negotiate working-class physical education

      Green, Ken; Scattergood, Andrew J. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Adults from the middle-classes are up to three times more likely to be regularly involved in sport than those from the working-class. The reason for this participation anomaly has been consistently linked to the differing lifestyles and opportunities to which young people from working and middle-class backgrounds are exposed. More specifically, working-class children are more likely to develop narrow, class-related leisure profiles and sporting repertoires during their childhood that serve to limit the likelihood of them remaining physically active in adulthood. In relation to this, one of the key aims of physical education (PE) in mainstream schools is to develop the range of skills and knowledge for all pupils and widen their sporting repertoires in an attempt to promote long-term participation throughout their lives. However, not only has PE provision in British mainstream schools been shown to be unsuccessful in promoting working-class pupils’ sporting/ability development, some suggest that the subject may even be perpetuating the social difference that has been shown to exist in relation to sports participation between social class groups. In order to address these issues the study set out to examine the extent to which the wider social background of white, working-class ‘lads’ and the actions and attitudes of their PE teachers came to impact on the way the lads influenced and experienced their PE curriculum/lessons. It also aimed to examine the impact that school PE then had on their sporting repertoires and participation in sport/active leisure outside of school. A total of 24 days were spent in Ayrefield Community School (ACS), a purposively selected, working-class state secondary school as part of a case study design. Over 60 practical PE lessons were observed that led to differing roles being adopted and guided conversations being conducted before, during, and after these lessons. Eight focus group interviews were also conducted with specifically chosen lads as well as one with the four members of male PE staff. Additional observations were also carried out during off-site trips, external visits, and in a range of classroom-based lessons. The findings were then considered and examined in relation to the work of the sociologists Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu. The findings revealed that the pressures related to the modern education system and the social expectations linked to their working-class backgrounds caused a split between the lads at ACS in to three broad groups, namely: Problematics, Participants and Performers. These groupings came to impact on the ways that these lads engaged and achieved in school as well as the ways in which they came to negotiate and experience PE. The ‘Problematic’ group held largely negative views of education, but valued PE, especially when playing football, the ‘Participants’ were relatively successful at school yet apathetic regarding the content and delivery of their PE lessons, and a Performer group of lads emerged who engaged and achieved highly at school and participated in a range of activities in PE, but showed little intention of participating outside of school due to their pragmatic attitude to ‘learning’ in PE. Despite these differing school and PE experiences between the lads’ groups, the potential and actual impact of school PE on their sporting repertoires, skills, and interests was ultimately constrained by a range of issues. In the first instance the lads’ narrow, class-related leisure profiles and sporting repertoires linked closely to recreational participation with friends, alongside a lack of proactive parenting were significant limiting factors. In addition, the ability of some lads to constrain the actions of PE staff and peers to get what they wanted in PE rather than what they needed, and the negative views of most lads to skill development and structured PE lessons meant that PE at ACS was never likely to have a positive impact on the sporting repertoires and participation types/levels of its male pupils either currently or in their future lives.
    • "Learning to speak horse": The culture of "natural horsemanship"

      Birke, Lynda; University of Chester (Brill, 2007)
      This journal article discusses the rise of "natural horsemanship" as a definitive cultural change within the horse industry.
    • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

      De Ravin, Suk S.; Wu, Xiaolin; Moir, Susan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Kwatemaa, Nana; Littel, Patricia; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Su, Ling; Marquesen, Martha; Hilligoss, Dianne; Lee, Janet; Buckner, Clarissa M.; Zarember, Kol A.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; McVicar, Daniel W.; Kuhns, Douglas; Throm, Robert E.; Zhou, Sheng; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Hanson, I. Celine; Cowan, Mort J.; Kang, Elizabeth; Hadigan, Coleen; Meagher, Michael; Gray, John T.; Sorrentino, Brian P.; Malech, Harry L.; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research; Laboratory of Immunoregulation; St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital; National Cancer Institute-Frederick; Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Texas Children’s Hospital; Benioff Children's Hospital and University of California San Francisco; Audentes Therapeutics (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2016-04-20)
      X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a profound deficiency of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell immunity caused by mutations inIL2RGencoding the common chain (gammac) of several interleukin receptors. Gamma-retroviral (gammaRV) gene therapy of SCID-X1 infants without conditioning restores T cell immunity without B or NK cell correction, but similar treatment fails in older SCID-X1 children. We used a lentiviral gene therapy approach to treat five SCID-X1 patients with persistent immune dysfunction despite haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant in infancy. Follow-up data from two older patients demonstrate that lentiviral vector gammac transduced autologous HSC gene therapy after nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning achieves selective expansion of gene-marked T, NK, and B cells, which is associated with sustained restoration of humoral responses to immunization and clinical improvement at 2 to 3 years after treatment. Similar gene marking levels have been achieved in three younger patients, albeit with only 6 to 9 months of follow-up. Lentiviral gene therapy with reduced-intensity conditioning appears safe and can restore humoral immune function to posthaploidentical transplant older patients with SCID-X1.
    • The life and works of Emily Dix, 1904-1972

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Cleal, C. (Geological Society, 2005)
      This book chapter discusses the life and career of the British palaeobotanist Emily Dix (1904-1972).
    • ‘Life in the Travelling Circus’: A Sociological Analysis of the Lives of Touring Professional Golfers

      Fry, John (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      As sports become more professionalised and international in scope athletes increasingly migrate from one country to another. These individuals are required to adjust and adapt quickly when moving internationally. Literature on sports migration, however, tends to focus on routes and pathways rather than the effects of movement on the athletes themselves. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore how the frequent workplace circulation inherent in the lives of highly skilled migrants affects their social selves. Using professional golf as a case study, this project includes an analysis of family issues, relationships between players, pay and conditions, and technical approaches to playing golf. Interviews were conducted with 20 male professional golfers and analysed from a figurational standpoint. As golf tournaments are increasingly staged in a myriad of different countries players are required to spend longer periods of time away from home and experience intense feelings of loneliness and isolation. It is argued that golfers are not isolated in terms of people who they have around them while on tour, but rather in terms of lack of contact with people who they have positive meaningful feelings towards, such as their family and friends. To help reduce this loneliness, golfers develop behaviours that foster temporary we-group alliances with other players they perceive to be similar to themselves. People in such groups are friends, characterised by bonds of togetherness, while also enemies showing evidence of conflicts as they are in direct competition for a share of the overall prize money. Indeed the monetary rewards available for top golfers continues to increase, however, such recompense is only available to small numbers and the majority fare poorly. It is argued that the prize money breakdown fosters internalised behaviour constraints whereby many players ‘gamble’ on pursuing golf as their main source of income despite the odds against them. This habitus is strengthened given the significant financial investments many players have made to fulfil their childhood dreams, which further blurs their ability to see the reality of their lives. The result is many golfers are constrained to develop networks with sponsors for financial reasons which leaves some with conflicting choices between regular income, and adhering to restrictive contractual agreements, or the freedom to choose between different brands. As such, overall the results of this study highlight the importance of considering the cultural and social adaptations required in the life of a transient migrant.
    • ‘Life in the Travelling Circus’: A Study of Loneliness, Work Stress, and Money Issues in Touring Professional Golf

      Fry, John; Bloyce, Daniel; Myerscough College; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2017-06)
      This article examines the effects of globalization on the well-being of migrant professional athletes. Interviews with 20 touring professional golfers reveal that players experience many of the personal problems – such as loneliness, isolation, low decision latitude, low social support, and effort-reward imbalance – which have been identified as “strong predictors of mental ill-health” (Leka & Jain, 2010, p. 65). Feelings of loneliness and isolation developed as players were regularly apart from family and friends, and spent most of their time with other golfers whom they had somewhat superficial relationships with. These feelings coupled with, for many, uncertain income generated through golf added further to their work-related anxieties. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering how workplace anxieties and vulnerabilities impact on athlete migrants’ health and well-being.
    • The link between knowledge and visual fixation in gymnastics coaching and judging: A case study approach

      Page, Jennifer L.; Lafferty, Moira E.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; University of Chester (2007-09)
      Whilst little information exists to explain how coaches and judges process observed movement into performance scores, it wouls seem logical to suggest that a relationship exists between attention and knowledge. This study examines the relationship between these phenomena by examining whether a relationship exists between visual fixation data and knowledge in gymnastic judging scenarios, using a two-phase case study design.
    • Lipid remodelling in the reef-building honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, reflects acclimation and local adaptation to temperature

      Muir, Anna P.; Nunes, Flavia L. D.; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Pernet, Fabrice; University of Chester; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-10-20)
      Acclimation and adaptation, which are key to species survival in a changing climate, can be observed in terms of membrane lipid composition. Remodelling membrane lipids, via homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), counteracts membrane dysfunction due to temperature in poikilotherms. In order to assess the potential for acclimation and adaptation in the honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, a reefbuilding polychaete that supports high biodiversity, we carried out common-garden experiments using individuals from along its latitudinal range. Individuals were exposed to a stepwise temperature increase from 15 °C to 25 °C and membrane lipid composition assessed. Our results suggest that S. alveolata was able to acclimate to higher temperatures, as observed by a decrease in unsaturation index and 20:5n-3. However, over the long-term at 25 °C, lipid composition patterns are not consistent with HVA expectations and suggest a stress response. Furthermore, unsaturation index of individuals from the two coldest sites were higher than those from the two warmest sites, with individuals from the thermally intermediate site being in-between, likely reflecting local adaptation to temperature. Therefore, lipid remodelling appears limited at the highest temperatures in S. alveolata, suggesting that individuals inhabiting warm environments may be close to their upper thermal tolerance limits and at risk in a changing climate.
    • Literature and science: Social impact and interaction

      Cartwright, John H.; Baker, Brian; University of Chester (ABC-CLIO, 2005)
      This book discusses the complex relationship between science and literature from Dante and Chaucer through to the twenty-first century. It focuses on science and literature in medieval times, the Elizabethan Renaissance, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, nineteenth-century British and American literature and science, themes in science fiction, and the twentieth-century.
    • Llandudno trail questionnaire and workshop

      Tilson, Elaine; Burek, Cynthia V.; Underwood, John; Legg, Colin; University College Chester (Association of UK RIGS Groups, 2004)
      This book chapter discusses the development and production of a geologically focused brochure based on Llandudno.
    • Local adaptation with high gene flow: temperature parameters drive adaptation to altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

      Muir, Anna P.; Biek, Roman; Thomas, R.; Mable, Barbara K.; University of Chester; University of Glasgow; Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (Wiley, 2014-01-20)
      Both environmental and genetic influences can result in phenotypic variation. Quantifying the relative contributions of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to phenotypes is key to understanding the effect of environmental variation on populations. Identifying the selective pressures that drive divergence is an important, but often lacking, next step. High gene flow between high- and low-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) breeding sites has previously been demonstrated in Scotland. The aim of this study was to assess whether local adaptation occurs in the face of high gene flow and to identify potential environmental selection pressures that drive adaptation. Phenotypic variation in larval traits was quantified in R. temporaria from paired high- and low-altitude sites using three common temperature treatments. Local adaptation was assessed using QST -FST analyses, and quantitative phenotypic divergence was related to environmental parameters using Mantel tests. Although evidence of local adaptation was found for all traits measured, only variation in larval period and growth rate was consistent with adaptation to altitude. Moreover, this was only evident in the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites. This variation was correlated with mean summer and winter temperatures, suggesting that temperature parameters are potentially strong selective pressures maintaining local adaptation, despite high gene flow.