• Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy

      Basu, Andrea J.; Kennedy, Lynne; Tocque, Karen; Jones, Sharn; University of Chester; Wrexham Maelor Hospital (BioMed Central, 2014-07-04)
      Background: Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery practice. Conclusions This study provides early indications that a compact nutrition, physical activity and weight management training package improves midwives self-reported knowledge and confidence. Cascading training across the midwifery service in the Health Board and conducting further studies to elicit longer term impact on midwifery practice and patient outcomes are recommended.
    • Education and welfare in professional football academies and centres of excellence: A sociological study

      Bloyce, Daniel; Lamb, Kevin L.; Platts, Chris (University of Chester, 2012-01)
      A career as a professional footballer has long been regarded as a highly sought after occupation for many young males within the UK and, against this backdrop, since the 1970s increasing attention has come to be placed on the way young players are identified and developed within professional clubs. Particular concern has been expressed over the number of players who, having been developed by professional clubs, fail to secure a professional contract, and the ways in which clubs should help young players safeguard their futures through alternative career training. There, have, however, been very few studies that have analyzed the education and welfare provisions that are offered within professional football Academies and Centres of Excellence, and fewer still that have done this from a sociological perspective. By drawing upon the figurational sociology of Norbert Elias, concepts derived from symbolic interactionism, and existing work in the sociology of youth, the objective of this study is to examine the realities of young players' day-to-day working-lives, the experiences they have of the educational programmes they follow, and the welfare-related matters that arise within present-day Academies and CoE. Using data generated by self-completion questionnaires and focus groups with 303 players in 21 Academies and CoE in England and Wales, the findings of the study suggest that players continue to be socialized into a largely anti-academic culture that has traditionally underpinned the world of professional football, and in which the demonstration of a 'good attitude' and commitment to the more central members of players' interdependencies (especially coaches and managers) dominated all other concerns. Indeed, it was also clear that the deep-seated values players held in relation to the professional game as part of their individual and group habituses were shaped by the figurations into which they were born and had been developed during the more impressionable phases of childhood and youth. Players' welfare needs were significantly compromised by the strong degree of suspicion and obvious degree of mistrust that characterized their relationship with club management, which emanated from players' fears that confidential matters would always 'get back' to others inside the club. This was exacerbated, in almost all cases, by players' observations that they were treated as if they were 'bottom of the club' and whose welfare needs were not generally well understood by those working within Academies and CoE.
    • Education, Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Edge Hill University; University of Chester; Innland Norway University (Routledge, 2018)
      This chapter examines: (i) the policy rationale for viewing education and schools as an appropriate setting for PA promotion; (ii) the apparent role PE is expected to have in fostering lifelong participation in PA and sport; and (iii) the limits of education in promoting PA given the significance of wider social inequalities in families and the wider societies of which they are a part. It is suggested that while engaging in PE may help promote PA among young people in schools, and may strengthen their sporting predispositions and biographies, whether the content, organization and delivery of curricula promotes PA often depends on the predispositions, habits and experiences that are acquired and reproduced outside of education in childhood and family contexts characterized by varying degrees of social inequality.
    • Educational development and ICT: An introduction

      Fallows, Stephen; Bhanot, Rakesh; Chester College of Higher Education ; Coventry University (Kogan Page, 2002)
      This book chapter discusses the use of ICT in higher education with a brief history of its use and the importance of ICT in higher education.
    • The effect of bone matrix extract on bone cell activity

      Williams, John H. H.; Powell, Diane E. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2006-10)
      Bone remodelling is a complex process, which involves the coupling of bone formation to completed foci of bone resorption, the balance between these 2 processes determines if bone is lost or gained at a particular site. During bone resorption osteoclasts release growth factors sequestered in bone matrix, which are thought to initiate new bone formation. On the other hand, osteoblasts can regulate osteoclast activity through the expression of the counter-acting cytokines, RANKL and OPG. The aim of this project was to determine if factors released during bone resorption impact on the RANKL/OPG system or on osteoclasts directly to regulate bone remodelling. OPG secretion was characterized in a number of osteoblast-like cells and the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was chosen as a model for osteoblastic cell behaviour in vitro. EDTA bone extracts prepared from normal human cortical bone powder were used to treat MG-63 cells in vitro. The response to the extract was dependent on the purification procedure used. OPG production was inhibited by partially purified extracts prepared using hydrophobic interaction chromatography, C18 SPE. In comparison extracts prepared using size exclusion centrifugal filters stimulated OPG secretion in confluent MG-63 cells. Therefore bone matrix constituents were able to influence osteoclast activity directly and indirectly through the osteoblastic cells to produce the same response. The simplest mechanism for this co-ordinated response would be the presence of one factor in the extract that is able to influence both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The identity of the factor responsible for the opposing effects seen in the bone matrix extracts is at the moment unknown. The work presented in this thesis clearly demonstrated that unknown growth factors present in bone matrix influence bone remodelling.
    • The effect of carbohydrate-protein ingestion on simulated multiple-sprint sport performance

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-04)
    • The effect of dietary components on non-haem iron absorption in healthy and iron-deficient women

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Ahmad Fuzi, Salma F. (University of Chester, 2017-02)
      Two clinical trials investigating the effect of modulating two dietary components, tea containing polyphenols and vitamin D aimed at improving non-haem iron absorption and iron status recovery, were carried out in a cohort of healthy and iron deficient UK women, respectively. Tea has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of non-haem iron absorption but it remains unclear whether the timing of tea consumption relative to a meal influences iron bioavailability, with limited published evidence, especially in human trials. The aim of the first study was to investigate the effect of tea consumption on non-haem iron absorption and to assess the effect of time interval of tea consumption on non-haem iron absorption relative to an iron-containing meal, in a cohort of healthy female participants using a stable iron isotope (57Fe).
    • The effect of experiential anchoring on the reproducibility of exercise regulation in adolescent children

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Eaves, Simon J.; Hartshorn, James E. O. (Routledge, 2004-02)
      This article discusses a study of 41 children which was undertaken to discover whether experimental anchoring would enhance the reproducibility (test-retest reliability) of adolescent children in their ability to self-regulate their exercise output on the basis of their effort perceptions.
    • The effect of imagery modality on golf putting performance

      Smith, Dave; Holmes, Paul; University College Chester ; Manchester Metropolitan University (North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2004-09)
      This study examined the effect of various imagery modalities on golf putting performance. Forty experienced male golfers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. A “written script” group received a personalized, response proposition-laden script. Participants in the audio and video groups either listened to an audiotape or watched an internal-perspective videotape of themselves putting. Control participants spent an equivalent amount of time reading golf literature. Each participant completed a 15-ball putting task twice a week for 6 weeks and also performed his imagery or reading daily during this period. Pretests revealed no significant differences in performance. Posttests, however, showed that the video and audio groups performed significantly better than the written script and control groups. This indicates that the form in which an imagery intervention is delivered can have a significant impact on its performance effectiveness
    • Effect of Methotrexate and Tea Polyphenols on the Viability and Oxidative Stress in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

      Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; Kelly, Theresa; University of Ulster (SCIENCEDOMAIN International, 2015-03-24)
      Aim: To determine the effect of tea polyphenols and methotrexate on viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a naturally resistant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Methodology: MDA-MB-231 cells were selected as a model for methotrexate resistant breast cancer. Drug tests were performed over 72 hours at concentrations 0-100 µM. Pre-treatments were with quercetin (QE) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for 5 hours followed by methotrexate. Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay or resazurin fluorescence assay. ROS was determined using the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Intracellular GSH was measured using the monochlorobimane assay. Results: Methotrexate was cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 35±4 µM. The IC50 value was 68±9.4 µM with QE and 83±16 µM for EGCG. The pre-treatment with QE and EGCG lowered the IC50 for methotrexate by 28% (P =0.009) and 16% (P=0.2027). Intracellular ROS concentrations increased after treatment with methotrexate, QE or EGCG singly and ROS decreased with combination treatment compared with the response for methotrexate only. There were no significant changes in intracellular GSH. Conclusion: Pretreatment with tea polyphenols partially sensitized breast cancer cells towards methotrexate and decreases intracellular ROS. More research is needed to optimize the sensitizing effect of tea phenols on the breast cancer cell response to methotrexate.
    • Effect of pH on the Radical Quenching Capacity of Tea Infusions Using the ABTS•+ Assay

      Chan, Yuk Man; Cheng, Nga Kwan; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; University of Chester, University of Ulster (Sciencedomain International, 2016-06-22)
      Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the impact of pH on the free radical quenching activity of tea infusions using a modified 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay and three antioxidant compounds as reference. Study Design: In-vitro method. Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Life and Health Science, School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, UK. From Sept 2014 and May 2016. Methodology: Free radical quenching capacity of tea (Earl grey, black tea, Ceylon tea, & green tea) infusions were investigated using persulfate activated ABTS with acetate buffer (pH 4.5) or phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.0) as solvent. Tests were performed using 96-well microplates, 20 µl of sample and 280 µl of ABTS reagent, and calibrated using ascorbic acid, trolox or gallic acid as reference antioxidants. Results: Gallic acid free radical quenching was pH dependent and unsuitable as reference. The free radical quenching capacity of trolox and ascorbic acid was not significantly different at pH 4.5 and pH 7.0. The radical quenching capacity of tea infusions expressed as Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) or Ascorbic Acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (AAEAC) was greater by 50-300% at pH 7 compared to pH 4.5. Conclusion: The modified ABTS assay is suitable for examining the influence of pH on free radical quenching ability of tea samples. Gallic acid was not a suitable reference compound. The radical quenching capacity of tea infusions increases with rising pH.
    • The effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on muscle function and performance following simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2010-09)
    • The effects of a cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4 km time trial performance

      Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2017-03-25)
      Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65.3 +/- 5.6 ml[middle dot]kg-1[middle dot]min-1) performed two 4 km cycling time trials following a 5-minute recovery after a warm-up at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 6.5-minutes (MW), and a warm-up with conditioning contractions (CW) consisting of 5 minutes at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max then 3 x 10-seconds at 70% of peak power interspersed with 30-seconds recovery. Blood lactate concentrations were measured before and after time trial. Expired gases were analysed along with time, power output (PO), and peak forces over each 500 m split. Following CW, mean completion time was reduced (1.7 +/- 3.5 s p > 0.05), PO increased (5.1 +/- 10.5 W p > 0.05) as did peak force per pedal stroke (5.7 +/- 11 N p > 0.05) when compared to MW. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 increased (1.4 +/- 1.6 ml[middle dot]kg-1[middle dot]min-1 p < 0.05) following CW, whilst RER decreased (0.05 +/- 0.02 p < 0.05). Physiological and performance differences following CW were greatest over the first 1500 m of the trials. The results suggest a PAP-inducing warm-up alters V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics and can lead to performance improvements in short endurance cycling but work and recovery durations should be optimised for each athlete.
    • The effects of a high carbohydrate diet on cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) during a period of increase exercise workload amongst Olympic and ironman triathletes

      Costa, Ricardo J. S.; Jones, G. E.; Coleman, Robert C.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Williams, John H. H. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2005)
      This article discusses a study of the effects of a 6-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet on salivary cortisol and IgA during a period of increased exercise workload with thirty-two competitively trained male triathletes.
    • Effects of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and methotrexate on breast cancer cell viability.

      Dosunmu, Yewande; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; University of Chester, University of Ulster (Sciencedomain international, 2017-10-28)
      Aims: To examine the effects of ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and methotrexate (MTX) combined treatments on (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Study Design: In-vitro method. Place and Duration of Study: Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, United Kingdom. September 2016-2017 Methodology: Cytotoxicity tests were performed with MTX (0.01- 1000 µmol/l) alone or in combination with AA or DHA, for 72 h. Cell viability was measured by 3-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Intracellular ROS was measured by 2’,7’-dichlorofluroscein diacetate assay. Results: Treatments of MDA-MB231 cells with single agents, showed dose dependent response with 50% inhibition of cell viability (IC50) of 110.5-201.4 µmol/l (MTX), 2237-5703 µmol/l (AA) or 2474 µmol/l (DHA). Combination studies showed clear synergisms for MTX (~10 µmol/l) and DHA or AA (1100 µmol/l) but weak or no interactions at other concentrations. Three days combination treatment of DHA showed decrease of ROS, which was reversed by MTX (>10 µmol/l). Conclusions: Co-treatment of methotrexate with AA or DHA showed synergism (C1<1.0) and enhanced cytotoxicity of the anti-folate towards MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Intracellular ROS decreased with AA and DHA treatment, which might be useful for reducing MTX-related oxidative stress.
    • The effects of Bodymax high-repetition resistance training on measures of body composition and muscular strength in active adult women

      O'Connor, Tracey E.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2003-08)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a light, high-repetition resistance-training program on skinfold thicknesses and muscular strength in women. Thirty-nine active women (mean age 38.64 +/- 4.97 years) were randomly placed into a resistance-training group (RT; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 19). The RT group performed a resistance-training program called Bodymax for 1 hour, 3 d.wk(-1), which incorporated the use of variable free weights and high repetitions in a group setting. The CG group continued its customary aerobic training for 1 hour 3 d.wk(-1). Five skinfold and 7 muscular strength measures were determined pretraining and after 12 weeks of training. Sum of skinfolds decreased (-17 mm; p < 0.004) and muscular strength increased (+57.4 kg; p < 0.004) in the RT group. Effect sizes for individual skinfold sites and strength measures were "medium" and "high," respectively. Bodymax is an effective resistance-training program for reducing skinfold thickness and increasing muscular strength in active women. Therefore, women with a similar or lower-activity status should consider incorporating such training into their regular fitness programs.
    • Effects of dissociated glucocorticoids on OPG and RANKL in osteoblastic cells

      Humphrey, E. L.; Williams, John H. H.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; University College Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (Elsevier, 2006-05)
      This article demonstrates that dexamethasone, prednisolone, deflazacort and the dissociated glucocorticoids, RU24858, RU40066, RU24782, AL438-F1 and ZK216348 significantly inhibit osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in two human osteoblastic cell lines (MG63 and hFOB).
    • The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on endurance performance

      Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Burt, Dean G. (University of Chester, 2013)
      It is well documented that engaging in resistance exercise can lead to further improvements in endurance performance. Whilst, not fully understood, it is speculated that increased motor unit recruitment, improved muscle coordination and enhanced utilisation of stored elastic energy after resistance-based exercise improves exercise economy. Nevertheless, while prolonged exposure to resistance training improves endurance performance in the long-term, a consequence of such training when unaccustomed is the appearance of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Exercise-induced muscle damage is well known to affect athletic performance requiring muscular strength and power; however, its effects on markers of endurance exercise are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of EIMD on endurance performance, with an emphasis on the physiological (oxygen uptake; , minute ventilation; ), metabolic (blood lactate; [La]), perceptual (rating of perceived exertion; RPE) and kinematic (stride length; SL, stride frequency; SF) responses during sub-maximal endurance exercise.
    • The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance

      Twist, Craig; Eston, Roger; University College Chester ; University of Exeter (Spring-Verlag, 2009-05-18)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a common occurrence following activities with a high eccentric component. Alterations to the torque-velocity relationship following EIMD would appear to have serious implications for athletic performance, particularly as they relate to impairment of maximal intensity exercise. However, this has been studied infrequently. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EIMD on maximal intermittent sprint performance. Ten male participants (age 22.4±3.2 years, height 178.6±5.2 cm, mass 80.6±10.7 kg) performed 10×6 s cycle ergometer sprints, interspersed with 24 s recovery against a load corresponding to 0.10 kp/kg and 10×10 m sprints from a standing start, each with 12 s active (walking) recovery. All variables were measured immediately before and at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h following a plyometric exercise protocol comprising of 10×10 maximal counter movement jumps. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant changes over time (all P<0.05) for perceived soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), peak power output (PPO), sprint time and rate of fatigue. Soreness was significantly higher (P<0.01) than baseline values at all time intervals (3.1, 4.9, 5.5 and 3.2 at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively). CK was significantly elevated (P<0.05) at 24 h (239 IU/l) and 48 h (245 IU/l) compared to baseline (151 IU/l). PPO was significantly lower (P<0.05) than baseline (1,054 W) at all time intervals (888, 946, 852 and 895 W, at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively). The rate of fatigue over the ten cycling sprints was reduced compared to baseline, with the greatest reduction of 48% occurring at 48 h (P<0.01). This was largely attributed to the lower PPO in the initial repetitions, resulting in a lower starting point for the rate of fatigue. Values returned to normal at 72 h. Sprint times over 10 m were higher (P<0.05) at 30 min, 24 h and 48 h compared to baseline (1.96 s) with values corresponding to 2.01, 2.02 and 2.01 at 30 min, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Values returned to baseline by 72 h. The results provide further evidence that, following a plyometric, muscle-damaging exercise protocol, the ability of the muscle to generate power is reduced for at least 3 days. This is also manifested by a small, but statistically significant reduction in very short-term (?2 s) intermittent sprint running performance. These findings have implications for appropriate training strategies in multiple sprint sports.