• c-Myc inhibition decreases CIP2A and reduces BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase activity in chronic myeloid leukemia.

      Lucas, Claire; Harris, Robert; Giannoudis, Athina; Clark, Richard; University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool University hospital (Ferrata Storti Foundation, 2015-05-01)
      NA
    • A call to action for climate change research on Caribbean dry forests

      Nelson, Howard, P.; Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S.; Rusk, Bonnie L.; Geary, Matthew; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester; Grenada Dove Conservation Programme, St. Georges, Grenada (Springer, 2018-04-23)
      Tropical dry forest (TDF) is globally one of the most threatened forest types. In the insular Caribbean, limited land area and high population pressure have resulted in the loss of over 60% of TDF, yet local people’s reliance on these systems for ecosystem services is high. Given the sensitivity of TDF to shifts in precipitation regimes and the vulnerability of the Caribbean to climate change, this study examined what is currently known about the impacts of climate change on TDF in the region. A systematic review (n = 89) revealed that only two studies addressed the ecological response of TDF to climate change. Compared to the rapidly increasing knowledge of the effects of climate change on other Caribbean systems and on TDF in the wider neotropics, this paucity is alarming given the value of these forests. We stress the need for long-term monitoring of climate change responses of these critical ecosystems, including phenological and hotspot analyses as priorities.
    • Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play

      Clarke, Jon; Highton, Jamie M.; Close, Graeme L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Warrington Wolves RLFC; Liverpool John Moores University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2016-11-19)
      Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play
    • Carbohydrate-protein ingestion during self-regulated simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-09)
    • Cardiac Rehabilitation Delivery Model for Low-Resource Settings: An International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation Consensus Statement

      Grace, Sherry L.; Turk-Adawi, Karam I.; Contractor, Aashish; Atrey, Alison; Campbell, Norman R. C.; Derman, Wayne; Ghisi, Gabriela L. M.; Sarkar, Bidyut K.; Yeo, Tee J.; Lopez-Jimenenez, Francisco; Buckley, John; Hu, Dayi; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; University Centre Shrewsbury (Elsevier, 2016-08-17)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic, which is largely preventable. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is demonstrated to be efficacious and cost-effective for secondary prevention in high-income countries. Given its affordability, CR should be more broadly implemented in middle-income countries as well. Hence, the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (ICCPR) convened a writing panel to recommend strategies to deliver all core CR components in low-resource settings, namely: (1) initial assessment, (2) lifestyle risk factor management (i.e., diet, tobacco, mental health), (3) medical risk factor management (lipids, blood pressure), (4) education for self-management; (5) return to work; and (6) outcome evaluation. Approaches to delivering these components in alternative, arguably lower-cost settings, such as the home, community and primary care, are provided. Recommendations on delivering each of these components where the most-responsible CR provider is a non-physician, such as an allied healthcare professional or community health care worker, are also provided.
    • A Cartesian co-ordinate system for representing the second to fifth metacarpals in the human hand

      Lewis, Stephen J.; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004)
      Purpose The use of hand radiographs has both clinical and anthropometric applications. However, a method for converting standard bony points within the metacarpus to Cartesian co-ordinates does not exist. Methods A simple method for converting standard bony points of the second to fifth metacarpals to Cartesian co-ordinates is described for the first time. Results Using a small set of measurements and treating these with equations of known voracity, this method is accurate and allows the metacarpus to be interro¬gated via a much wider range of geometrical techniques than has so far been available. Conclusions This method allows naked-eye assessments to be supported or re¬placed by metrical evaluations. It is likely to have both clinical and anthropometric uses.
    • Catherine Raisin

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (The National Federation of Women's Institutes, 2011)
      This article discusses the life and career of the geologist and educational pioneer Catherine Raison (1855-1945)
    • Catherine Raisin, a role-model professional geologist

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Blackwell, 2003-05)
      This article discusses the life and career of British geologist Catherine Raisin (1855-1945), especially her time teaching at Bedford College (where she was Head of Geography, Head of Botany, and Head of Geology, and became the first woman appointed as Vice-Principal of a college in 1898).
    • CD164 identifies CD4+ T cells highly expressing genes associated with malignancy in Sezary syndrome: the Sezary signature genes, FCRL3, Tox, and miR-214.

      Benoit, Bernice M; Jariwala, Neha; O'Connor, Geraldine M; Oetjen, Landon; Whelan, Timothy M; Werth, Adrienne; Troxel, Andrea B; Sicard, Helene; Zhu, Lisa; Miller, Christopher; Takeshita, Junko; McVicar, Daniel W; Kim, Brian S; Rook, Alain H; Wysocka, Maria; University of Chester; Department of Dermatology, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia USA (SpringerLink, 2017-01)
      Sézary syndrome (SS), a leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is associated with a significantly shorter life expectancy compared to skin-restricted mycosis fungoides. Early diagnosis of SS is, therefore, key to achieving enhanced therapeutic responses. However, the lack of a biomarker(s) highly specific for malignant CD4+ T cells in SS patients has been a serious obstacle in making an early diagnosis. We recently demonstrated the high expression of CD164 on CD4+ T cells from Sézary syndrome patients with a wide range of circulating tumor burdens. To further characterize CD164 as a potential biomarker for malignant CD4+ T cells, CD164+ and CD164−CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with high-circulating tumor burden, B2 stage, and medium/low tumor burden, B1–B0 stage, were assessed for the expression of genes reported to differentiate SS from normal controls, and associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. The expression of Sézary signature genes: T plastin, GATA-3, along with FCRL3, Tox, and miR-214, was significantly higher, whereas STAT-4 was lower, in CD164+ compared with CD164−CD4+ T cells. While Tox was highly expressed in both B2 and B1–B0 patients, the expression of Sézary signature genes, FCRL3, and miR-214 was associated predominantly with advanced B2 disease. High expression of CD164 mRNA and protein was also detected in skin from CTCL patients. CD164 was co-expressed with KIR3DL2 on circulating CD4+ T cells from high tumor burden SS patients, further providing strong support for CD164 as a disease relevant surface biomarker.
    • CD271-selected mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue enhance cartilage repair and are less angiogenic than plastic adherent mesenchymal stem cells.

      Kohli, Nupur; Al-Delfi, Ibtesam R T; Snow, Martyn; Sakamoto, Takumi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Uchida, Kenzo; Johnson, William E B (2019-02-28)
      CD271 is a marker of bone marrow MSCs with enhanced differentiation capacity for bone or cartilage repair. However, the nature of CD271+ MSCs from adipose tissue (AT) is less well understood. Here, we investigated the differentiation, wound healing and angiogenic capacity of plastic adherent MSCs (PA MSCs) versus CD271+ MSCs from AT. There was no difference in the extent to which PA MSCs and CD271+ MSCs formed osteoblasts, adipocytes or chondrocytes in vitro. In contrast, CD271+ MSCs transplanted into athymic rats significantly enhanced osteochondral wound healing with reduced vascularisation in the repair tissue compared to PA MSCs and control animals; there was little histological evidence of mature articular cartilage formation in all animals. Conditioned medium from CD271+ MSC cultures was less angiogenic than PA MSC conditioned medium, and had little effect on endothelial cell migration or endothelial tubule formation in vitro. The low angiogenic activity of CD271+ MSCs and improved early stage tissue repair of osteochondral lesions when transplanted, along with a comparable differentiation capacity along mesenchymal lineages when induced, suggests that these selected cells are a better candidate than PA MSCs for the repair of cartilaginous tissue.
    • Changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three seasons in elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-11)
      This study investigated changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three consecutive seasons (under-15 to under-17 age group) in elite youth rugby league players. Each player took part in annual anthropometrical and performance assessments, comprising measurements of stature; body mass; limb lengths and circumference; skinfolds, predicted muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); 20 m speed, counter-movement jump height, vertical power and aerobic power. Lean body mass % changed (P < 0.05) between the under-15 (70.9 ± 5.9 %), under-16 (72.0 ± 5.8 %) and the under-17 age groups (74.1 ± 5.7 %). Likewise, predicted quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) also changed (P < 0.05) between each age group (under-15 = 120.9 ± 37.8 cm2; under-16 = 133.2 ± 36.0 cm2; under-17 = 154.8 ± 28.3 cm2). Concomitant changes between the under-15 and under-16 group were found for 20 m speed (3.5 ± 0.1 cf. 3.4 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.008) and predicted jumping power (3611.3 ± 327.3 W cf. 4081.5 ± 453.9 W; P = 0.003). Both lean body mass and quadriceps muscle CSA consistently, related to both 20 m sprint time and jumping power, with r-values ranging between -0.39 to –0.63 (20 m sprint time) and 0.55 to 0.75 (jumping power). Our findings demonstrate the importance of gains in lean body mass across later-adolescence that support the ability to generate horizontal speed and predicted vertical power. This information should inform the expectations and subsequent training programs of elite rugby league practitioners.
    • Changes in cervical keratinocyte gene expression associated with integration of human papillomavirus 16

      Alazawi, William; Pett, Mark; Arch, Barbara N.; Scott, Laurie; Freeman, Tom; Stanley, Margaret A.; Coleman, Nicholas; Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, MRC/Hutchison Research Centre, Cambridge ; Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge ; Institute of Public Health, Cambridge ; Medical Research Council Human Genome Mapping Resource Centre, Cambridge ; Medical Research Council Human Genome Mapping Resource Centre, Cambridge ; Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge ; Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, MRC/Hutchison Research Centre, Cambridge/Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge (American Association for Cancer Research, 2002-12-01)
      Episomal integration is a critical event in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oncogenesis, although little information is currently available concerning the effect of integration on the host transcriptome. Expression microarrays were used to investigate the effect of integration of HPV16 on gene expression in cervical keratinocytes, using the unique cell line model W12. W12 was generated from a cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion "naturally" infected with HPV16 and at low passage contains approximately 100 HPV16 episomes/cell. With passage in vitro, integration of viral episomes is associated with the development of phenotypic and genomic abnormalities resembling those seen in cervical neoplastic progression in vivo. The Affymetrix U95A oligonucleotide array that contains probes for 12,600 human transcripts was used and 85 genes from a range of host cell pathways that show changes in expression levels after integration of HPV16 were identified. A range of genes not previously described as being involved in cervical neoplastic progression were identified. Interestingly, integration is associated with up-regulation of numerous IFN-responsive genes, in comparison with a baseline of episomally infected cells. These genes include p48, a component of the primary regulator of the IFN response pathway, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3. The physical state of high-risk HPV may substantially influence the response to IFN in infected keratinocytes.
    • Changes in locomotive rates during senior elite rugby league matches

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011)
      The aim of this study was to quantify the changes in locomotive rates across the duration of senior elite rugby league matches.
    • Changing patterns of drug use in British sport from the 1960s

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      The objective of this paper is systematically to examine evidence relating to the prevalence and the changing patterns of drug use in British sport in the period from the 1960s to the present. There are four major sources of information about the prevalence of drug use among athletes: investigative journalism, including the writings and testimonials of athletes and others involved in sport; formal investigations, which may have legal or quasi-legal powers; surveys; and results from drug testing. The methodological problems associated with these sources of data are discussed. It is concluded that the data suggest that since the 1960s there has been a substantial increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs by British athletes. More particularly the data suggest that, in athletics, the use of drugs has spread from the heavy throwing events to many other track and field events, and that it has spread from athletics and weightlifting - the sports in which drugs were most frequently used in the 1960s - to many other sports. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has also spread down from the elite to much lower levels, while the use of drugs is now widespread among non-competitive recreational athletes in other sport-related contexts such as gymnasiums.
    • Chapter Ten: Handling and Restraint of Small Ruminants

      McLennan, Krista; Chapman, Stella; University of Chester; University Centre Hartpury (Wiley, 2018-01-01)
      Sheep (Ovis aries) were one of the first mammals to be domesticated by humans; however the exact timeline of events has been unclear. The use of mitochondrial DNA testing has recently made it possible to trace back the ancestry of many animals including cattle, horses, pigs and goats and evidence suggests that the number of wild progenitors for these species is limited; however, with the sheep this is not the case and it is thought that a large number of wild ancestral species and subspecies exist (Hiendleder et al. 2002). Archaeological findings have traced the sheep back to 11000 and 9000 BC in Mesopotamia, with the most common hypothesis being that Ovis aries descended from the Asiatic (Ovis orientalis) species of mouflon. Many studies have looked at the ancestry of sheep and there has been conflicting evidence with regards to the numbers of ancestors. It is now thought that three major groups of Eurasian wild sheep (mouflon, urial and argali) are the ancestors of the domestic sheep and it is these groups that are believed to have contributed to specific breeds (Hiendleder et al. 2002).
    • Chapter Twelve: Handling and Restraint of South American Camelids

      McLennan, Krista M; Chapman, Stella; University of Chester; University Centre Hartpury (Wiley, 2018-01-01)
      Members of the camelid family evolved to live in arid and mountainous areas. This chapter will focus on what are known as the New World species of camelid, whose habitat mainly covers the Andes regions of South America. Four camelids can be found in South America, namely: Guanacos (Lama guanicoe), vicunas (Lama vicugna), llamas (Lama guanicoe glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The two wild forms, the guanaco and the vicuna diverged from a common ancestor approximately two million years ago; an event unrelated to domestication. Due to hybridisation the exact process of domestication has been controversial; however, recent genetic analysis has suggested that the alpaca is the domesticated form of the vicuna and the llama is the domesticated form of the guanaco (Kadwell et al. 2001). Domestication is thought to have taken place some 6000 years ago (Wheeler, 1995) when a predominant herding economy based on llama and alpaca was established at Telarmachay (a region of the Peruvian Andes). Archaeological evidence suggests that both llamas and alpacas were part of a sacrificial rite in South American culture and were key to the expansion of the Inca Empire some 500 years ago (Bonacic, 2011). Physically (apart from size) there is little difference between the llama and alpaca, which is a result of deliberate hybridisation between the two species over the past 35 years. Whilst the alpaca and llama still play an important role in their countries of origin, they are also viewed worldwide as: pets, exotic animals, livestock, zoo animals and wild animals.
    • Characterising the salt-marsh resource using multi-spectral remote sensing: A case study of the Dee estuary in north-west England

      Huckle, Jonathan M.; Marrs, Robert H.; Potter, Jacqueline; University College Chester (2004)
    • Characterization of a weakly expressed KIR2DL1 variant reveals a novel upstream promoter that controls KIR expression

      Wright, Paul W.; Li, Honchuan; Huehn, Andrew; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Stephen K.; Basic Science Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Lab of Experimental Immunology, Frederick National Lab, Frederick, MD, USA. Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA. Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-10)
      Members of the human KIR (killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) class I major histocompatibility complex receptor gene family contain multiple promoters that determine the variegated expression of KIR on natural killer cells. In order to identify novel genetic alterations associated with decreased KIR expression, a group of donors was characterized for KIR gene content, transcripts and protein expression. An individual with a single copy of the KIR2DL1 gene but a very low level of gene expression was identified. The low expression phenotype was associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that created a binding site for the inhibitory ZEB1 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1) transcription factor adjacent to a c-Myc binding site previously implicated in distal promoter activity. Individuals possessing this SNP had a substantial decrease in distal KIR2DL1 transcripts initiating from a novel intermediate promoter located 230 bp upstream of the proximal promoter start site. Surprisingly, there was no decrease in transcription from the KIR2DL1 proximal promoter. Reduced intermediate promoter activity revealed the existence of alternatively spliced KIR2DL1 transcripts containing premature termination codons that initiated from the proximal KIR2DL1 promoter. Altogether, these results indicate that distal transcripts are necessary for KIR2DL1 protein expression and are required for proper processing of sense transcripts from the bidirectional proximal promoter.
    • Characterization of Nitric Oxide Modulatory Activities of Alkaline-Extracted and Enzymatic-Modified Arabinoxylans from Corn Bran in Cultured Human Monocytes

      Zhang, Zhengxiao; Smith, Christopher J.; Li, Weili; Ashworth, Jason J.; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester (American Chemical Society, 2016-10-10)
      The ingestion of foods and food-derived substances that may mediate the immune system is widely studied. Evidence suggests cereal arabinoxylans (AXs) have immunomodulatory activities that may impart health benefits in terms of immune enhancement. This study extracted AXs from corn bran using alkali and developed a modification process using three endoxylanases to obtain fractions of lower molecular weight ranges. In vitro studies showed extracted and modified AXs significantly (P < 0.05) elevated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by the human U937 monocytic cell line (ranging from 53.7 ± 1.1 to 62.9 ± 1.2 μM per million viable cells) at all concentrations tested (5–1000 μg/mL), indicative of immune enhancement compared to an untreated control (43.7 ± 1.9 μM per million viable cells). The study suggested the dose range and Mw distribution of AXs are key determinants of immune-modulatory activity. AXs in the low Mw range (0.1–10 KDa) were the most effective at inducing NO secretion by U937 macrophages at low AX concentration ranges (5–50 μg/mL), with NO production peaking at 62.9 ± 1.2 μM per million viable cells with 5 μg/mL of AX (P = 0.0009). In contrast, AXs in the high Mw range (100–794 kDa) were most effective at inducing NO at high AX concentration ranges (500–1000 μg/mL) with NO production reaching a maximum of 62.7 ± 1.3 μM per million viable cells at 1000 μg/mL of AX (P = 0.0011). The findings suggest that dietary AXs from corn bran may heighten innate immune responses in the absence of infection or disease.
    • Cheshire Children's Fund learning mentor service: An evaluation

      Davies, Sarah; Thurston, Miranda; Killey, Mona; University College Chester (University College Chester, 2004-11)
      This report describes a learning mentor service based in a number of Chester primary schools and assesses whether the service is benefiting users, meeting Children's Fund objectives, and how the service is performing.