• The BACPR standards and core components for cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation 2012

      Jones, Jenni; Buckley, John P.; Furze, Gill; Doherty, Patrick; Speck, Linda; Connolly, Susan; Hinton, Sally; British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation ; University of Chester ; British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation ; British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 2012)
      This booklet sets out the seven core standards that patients, health care professionals, and commissioners should expect from a high quality cardiac rehabilitation programme.
    • Baseball: Myths and modernization

      Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004)
      This book chapter discusses the processes behind the development of baseball and in particular, the myth that baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday in 1839.
    • Beetroot supplementation improves the physiological responses to incline walking

      Waldron, Mark; Waldron, Luke; Lawlor, Craig; Gray, Adrian; Highton, Jamie M.; St Mary's University; University of New England; Medical Education Centre Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-03-15)
      Purpose: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. Methods: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24-h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Results: Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ~4.1% lower after BR (93 vs. 89 mmHg; P = 0.001), as well as during exercise (102 vs. 99 mmHg; P = 0.011) and recovery (97 vs. 94 mmHg; P = 0.001). Exercising (1227 vs. 1129 ml/min P < 0.001) and end-stage (1404 vs. 1249 ml/min; P = 0.002) oxygen uptake (𝑉O2) was lower in BR compared to PLA, which was accompanied by an average reduction in phase II 𝑉 ̇O2 amplitude (1067 vs. 940 ml/min; P = 0.025). Similarly, recovery 𝑉O2 (509 vs. 458 ml/min; P = 0.001) was lower in BR. Whole-blood potassium concentration increased from pre-post exercise in PLA (4.1 ± 0.3 vs. 4.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.013) but not BR (4.1 ± 0.31 vs. 4.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = 0.188). Conclusions: Energy cost of exercise, recovery of 𝑉O2, MAP and blood markers were ameliorated after BR. Previously reported mechanisms explain these findings, which are more noticeable during less efficient walking at steep gradients (15-20%). These findings have practical implications for hill-walkers.
    • Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria

      Muir, Anna P.; Biek, Roman; Mable, Barbara K.; University of Chester; University of Glasgow (BioMed Central, 2014-05-23)
      Background: Extreme environments can impose strong ecological and evolutionary pressures at a local level. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to low-temperature environments, which can result in a reduced activity period, slowed physiological processes and increased exposure to sub-zero temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural and physiological responses that facilitate survival in low-temperature environments. In particular, we asked: 1) do high-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) adults extend the time available for larval growth by breeding at lower temperatures than low-altitude individuals?; and 2) do tadpoles sampled from high-altitude sites differ physiologically from those from low-altitude sites, in terms of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and freeze tolerance? Breeding date was assessed as the first day of spawn observation and local temperature recorded for five, paired high- and low-altitude R. temporaria breeding sites in Scotland. Spawn was collected and tadpoles raised in a common laboratory environment, where RMR was measured as oxygen consumed using a closed respiratory tube system. Freeze tolerance was measured as survival following slow cooling to the point when all container water had frozen. Results: We found that breeding did not occur below 5°C at any site and there was no significant relationship between breeding temperature and altitude, leading to a delay in spawning of five days for every 100 m increase in altitude. The relationship between altitude and RMR varied by mountain but was lower for individuals sampled from high- than low-altitude sites within the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites (≥900 m). In contrast, individuals sampled from low-altitudes survived freezing significantly better than those from high-altitudes, across all mountains. Conclusions: Our results suggest that adults at high-altitude do not show behavioural adaptations in terms of breeding at lower temperatures. However, tadpoles appear to have the potential to adapt physiologically to surviving at high-altitude via reduced RMR but without an increase in freeze tolerance. Therefore, survival at high-altitude may be facilitated by physiological mechanisms that permit faster growth rates, allowing completion of larval development within a shorter time period, alleviating the need for adaptations that extend the time available for larval growth.
    • Behavioural development in wild Western lowland gorillas (gorilla gorilla gorilla)

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Nowell, Angela A. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2005-02)
      Behavioural development has received little attention in primates, despite having important influences on infant mortality, interbirth intervals, and therefore, growth of populations. Gorillas have long developmental periods, exhibit strong maternal bonds and integrate into intricate social systems, making them an ideal species in which to investigate non-human primate development. Gorillas exist across a range of habitats, and differences in behaviour, both within and between species reflect socioecological differences, for example, in the availability and distribution of food. Consequently, by using gorillas as a model, opportunities also exist to investigate environmental constraints on the development of independence. This study provides the first detailed analysis, with reference to ecological factors, of the development of behavioural skills and relationships in wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Behavioural development of western lowland gorillas is then compared with published accounts of development in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) to determine the extent to which differing ecology influences behaviour. The study was conducted at Mbeli Bai in the Republic of Congo, a large, marshy clearing, visited by gorillas predominantly for feeding purposes. Data were collected using scan, focal, all-occurrence and ad libitum sampling methods from 58 gorillas below 8 years of age. Spatial relationships, suckling, and the nature of interactions involving immature individuals were analysed. The distribution of time between different behaviours by immatures, and the development of independent feeding and travelling behaviour was also investigated, and all were tested for differences as a result of immature age, sex and social group, or the mother's parity. Towards the end of infancy, individuals showed competent feeding behaviour in the bai. However, western lowland gorillas were not weaned until the juvenile period, and until this time, close association was common between mothers and offspring. With increasing independence from the mother there was limited investment in relationships with other individuals, and instead, a greater emphasis was placed on developing skills through play, alloparenting and agonistic interactions. When results were compared with those of mountain gorillas, there was evidence of increased investment in relationships, particularly with the silverback, by immature mountain gorillas, which was assumed to reflect lower rates of natal dispersal by mountain gorillas, and the greater likelihood that relationships with individuals in the natal group could prove useful in the future. Suckling and close proximity to the mother continued until later ages in western lowland gorillas, resulting in clear differences between them mountain gorillas in the duration of investment by mothers. More frugivorous western lowland gorillas required increased levels of investment by the mother before independence could be achieved, demonstrating the effect that resource availability can have on behavioural development in species where resources are widely and unpredictably dispersed.
    • BENETT, Etheldred Anna Maria (1776-1845)

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Thoemmes Continuum, 2004)
      This dictionary entry the life and career of the British geologist Etheldred Benett (1776-1845), one of the first female geologists and and expert on the early history of Wiltshire geology.
    • A bio-assay for effectors of osteoclast differentiation in serum from patients with bone disease

      Dugard, Marit-Naomi; Sharp, Christopher A.; Evans, Sally F.; Williams, John H. H.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Elsevier, 2005-06)
      Osteoclast differentiation and activity, and hence bone loss, depend on two opposing cytokines. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) produced by osteoblasts and T-cells stimulates, while osteoprotegerin inhibits. Both of these cytokines are found in serum. Our aim was to develop a functional assay for any factors present in human serum that can affect osteoclast differentiation and to assess whether any such factors vary in diseases in which bone loss occurs.
    • Biodiversity in the North West: The slime moulds of Cheshire

      Ing, Bruce; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2011)
      The county of Cheshire, in its broadest, historical sense, has a rich diversity of wildlife, linked to a varied geology and land use. This is an account of a group of strange but fascinating organisms, the slime moulds, which straddle the boundaries between fungi and protozoans. After a short introduction to the biology and ecology of slime moulds, the physical and ecological environment of wider Cheshire is described. The main body of the work is a detailed catalogue of all the species ever recorded in the district. The records date back into the 19th century but are mostly concentrated in the last 40 years, since the author came to Chester. There are more than 90 maps, on a 5 km grid square base, of the commoner species.
    • A bird's eye view of NK cell receptor interactions with their MHC class I ligands.

      Saunders, Philippa M.; Vivian, Julian P.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Sullivan, Lucy C.; Pymm, Phillip; Rossjohn, Jamie; Brooks, Andrew G. (2015-09)
      The surveillance of target cells by natural killer (NK) cells utilizes an ensemble of inhibitory and activating receptors, many of which interact with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. NK cell recognition of MHC class I proteins is important developmentally for the acquisition of full NK cell effector capacity and during target cell recognition, where the engagement of inhibitory receptors and MHC class I molecules attenuates NK cell activation. Human NK cells have evolved two broad strategies for recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules: (i) direct recognition of polymorphic classical HLA class I proteins by diverse receptor families such as the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), and (ii) indirect recognition of conserved sets of HLA class I-derived peptides displayed on the non-classical HLA-E for recognition by CD94-NKG2 receptors. In this review, we assess the structural basis for the interaction between these NK receptors and their HLA class I ligands and, using the suite of published KIR and CD94-NKG2 ternary complexes, highlight the features that allow NK cells to orchestrate the recognition of a range of different HLA class I proteins.
    • Birth defects and anti–heat shock protein 70 antibodies in early pregnancy

      Child, David F.; Hudson, Peter R.; Hunter-Lavin, Claire; Mukhergee, Sagarika; China, Susnata; Williams, Clive P.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester (Hunter-Lavin & Williams) (Springer-Verlag, 2006-03)
    • Blacon Sure Start parent satisfaction survey

      Barrow, Marjorie; Rouse, Julia; Thurston, Miranda; Chester College of Higher Education (Unversity College Chester, 2003-11)
      This report evaluates Sure Start in Blacon during 2003.
    • The body matters: Psychophysical impact of retiring from elite sport

      Stephan, Yannick; Torregrosa, Miguel; Sanchez, Xavier; University Paris XI ; Autonomous University of Barcelona ; Edge Hill College (Elsevier, 2007-01)
      This article involved 69 French retired elite athletes and aimed to assess the relationship between the perception of bodily changes after retirement from elite sport and physical self and global self-esteem, in retired elite athletes.
    • Bone extracts can stimulate the secrtion of osteoprotegerin in the osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and SAOS-2

      Powell, Diane E.; Johnson, W. E. B.; Marshall, Michael J.; Williams, John H. H.; Davie, Michael W. J. (American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2005)
    • Borg's scales in strength training: From theory to practice in young and older adults

      Buckley, John P.; Borg, Gunnar A. V.; University of Chester ; University of Stockholm (Human Kinetics Publishers, 2011)
      This article discusses a study which applied Borg's psychophysical equation to measuring responses to strength training with weights machines.
    • Both habitat change and local lek structure influence patterns of spatial loss and recovery in a black grouse population

      Geary, Matthew; Fielding, Alan H.; Marsden, Stuart J.; University of Chester ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; Manchester Metropolitan University (Springer, 2015)
      Land use change is a major driver of declines in wildlife populations. Where human economic or recreational interests and wildlife share landscapes this problem is exacerbated. Changes in UK black grouse Tetrao tetrix populations are thought to have been strongly influenced by upland land use change. In a long-studied population within Perthshire, lek persistence is positively correlated with lek size, and remaining leks clustered most strongly within the landscape when the population is lowest, suggesting that there may be a demographic and/or spatial context to the reaction of the population to habitat changes. Hierarchical cluster analysis of lek locations revealed that patterns of lek occupancy when the population was declining were different to those during the later recovery period. Response curves from lek-habitat models developed using MaxEnt for periods with a declining population, low population, and recovering population were consistent across years for most habitat measures. We found evidence linking lek persistence with habitat quality changes and more leks which appeared between 1994 and 2008 were in improving habitat than those which disappeared during the same period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) identified changes in woodland and starting lek size as being important indicators of lek survival between declining and low/recovery periods. There may also have been a role for local densities in explaining recovery since the population low point. Persistence of black grouse leks was influenced by habitat, but changes in this alone did not fully account for black grouse declines. Even when surrounded by good quality habitat, leks can be susceptible to extirpation due to isolation.
    • A call to action for climate change research on Caribbean dry forests

      Nelson, Howard, P.; Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S.; Rusk, Bonnie L.; Geary, Matthew; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester; Grenada Dove Conservation Programme, St. Georges, Grenada (Springer, 2018-04-23)
      Tropical dry forest (TDF) is globally one of the most threatened forest types. In the insular Caribbean, limited land area and high population pressure have resulted in the loss of over 60% of TDF, yet local people’s reliance on these systems for ecosystem services is high. Given the sensitivity of TDF to shifts in precipitation regimes and the vulnerability of the Caribbean to climate change, this study examined what is currently known about the impacts of climate change on TDF in the region. A systematic review (n = 89) revealed that only two studies addressed the ecological response of TDF to climate change. Compared to the rapidly increasing knowledge of the effects of climate change on other Caribbean systems and on TDF in the wider neotropics, this paucity is alarming given the value of these forests. We stress the need for long-term monitoring of climate change responses of these critical ecosystems, including phenological and hotspot analyses as priorities.
    • Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play

      Clarke, Jon; Highton, Jamie M.; Close, Graeme L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Warrington Wolves RLFC; Liverpool John Moores University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2016-11-19)
      Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play
    • Carbohydrate-protein ingestion during self-regulated simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-09)
    • A Cartesian co-ordinate system for representing the second to fifth metacarpals in the human hand

      Lewis, Stephen J.; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004)
      Purpose The use of hand radiographs has both clinical and anthropometric applications. However, a method for converting standard bony points within the metacarpus to Cartesian co-ordinates does not exist. Methods A simple method for converting standard bony points of the second to fifth metacarpals to Cartesian co-ordinates is described for the first time. Results Using a small set of measurements and treating these with equations of known voracity, this method is accurate and allows the metacarpus to be interro¬gated via a much wider range of geometrical techniques than has so far been available. Conclusions This method allows naked-eye assessments to be supported or re¬placed by metrical evaluations. It is likely to have both clinical and anthropometric uses.
    • Catherine Raisin

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (The National Federation of Women's Institutes, 2011)
      This article discusses the life and career of the geologist and educational pioneer Catherine Raison (1855-1945)