• A 1-h time interval between a meal containing iron and consumption of tea attenuates the inhibitory effects on iron absorption: a controlled trial in a cohort of healthy UK women using a stable iron isotope.

      Ahmad Fuzi, Salma F.; Koller, Dagmar; Brugrabber, Sylvaine; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Dainty, Jack R.; Mushtaq, Sohail; University of Chester; Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge; University of East Anglia; University Putra Malaysia (American Society for Nutrition, 2017-10-18)
      Background: Tea has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of nonheme iron absorption, but it remains unclear whether the timing of tea consumption relative to a meal influences iron bioavailability. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 1-h time interval of tea consumption on nonheme iron absorption in an iron-containing meal in a cohort of iron-replete, nonanemic female subjects with the use of a stable isotope (57Fe). Design: Twelve women (mean 6 SD age: 24.8 6 6.9 y) were administered a standardized porridge meal extrinsically labeled with 4 mg 57Fe as FeSO4 on 3 separate occasions, with a 14-d time interval between each test meal (TM). The TM was administered with water (TM-1), with tea administered simultaneously (TM-2), and with tea administered 1 h postmeal (TM-3). Fasted venous blood samples were collected for iron isotopic analysis and measurement of iron status biomarkers. Fractional iron absorption was estimated by the erythrocyte iron incorporation method. Results: Iron absorption was 5.7% 6 8.5% (TM-1), 3.6% 6 4.2% (TM-2), and 5.7% 6 5.4% (TM-3). Mean fractional iron absorption was found to be significantly higher (2.2%) when tea was administered 1 h postmeal (TM-3) than when tea was administered simultaneously with the meal (TM-2) (P = 0.046). An w50% reduction in the inhibitory effect of tea (relative to water) was observed, from 37.2% (TM-2) to 18.1% (TM-3). Conclusions: This study shows that tea consumed simultaneously with an iron-containing porridge meal leads to decreased nonheme iron absorption and that a 1-h time interval between a meal and tea consumption attenuates the inhibitory effect, resulting in increased nonheme iron absorption. These findings are not only important in relation to the management of iron deficiency but should also inform dietary advice, especially that given to those at risk of deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02365103.
    • A 12-week prospective randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of aerobic training on type 2 diabetes patients

      Sykes, Kevin; Yeung, Tin L. V.; Ko, Gary T. C.; University College Chester (Weston Medical Publishing, 2004)
      This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise program in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. A prospective randomized controlled trial with repeated measures was conducted. Thirty-six Hong Kong Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 58.1 yr) were randomized into Group 1 (exercise, n = 24) and Group 2 (controls, n = 16). Assessments at baseline and at three months included anthropometry, body fat measurement, biochemistry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD) assessment, exercise capacity, and SF-36® quality of life assessment (QualityMetric Inc., Lincoln, RI). Blood glucose was monitored before and after each exercise session. The immediate response to one hour of moderate aerobic exercise was a significant decrease in blood glucose (10.4 ± 3.5 mmol/L to 7.1 ± 2.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05). After 12 weeks, significant differences were noted between the groups in 6MWD (498 ± 128 m versus 299 ± 75 m, p = 0.000), exercise capacity in terms of metabolic equivalent units (5.1 ± 1.0 METs versus 2.8 ± 0.8 METs, p = 0.001), and insulin sensitivity (1.7 ± 1.0 S1 versus 4.3 ± 2.5 S1, p = 0.048). Group 1 also demonstrated an increase in HDL (1.16 ± 0.30 mmol/L to 1.27 ± 0.33 mmol/L, p = 0.002), lower body weight (67.3 ± 12.8 kg to 66.9 ± 12.8 kg, p = 0.045), lower body mass (26.5 ± 4.6 BMI to 26.3 ± 4.6 BMI), reduced glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c) (8.1 ± 1.3 percent to 7.7 ± 1.0 percent), and improved quality of life. In contrast, participants in Group 2 showed a significant decrease in the SF-36 social functioning domain (p = 0.035), lowered scores in all eight quality of life domains, and no changes in other variables. We conclude that moderate aerobic exercise should be advocated in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes.
    • A method for measuring robusticity in long bones

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999)
      The robusticity of a long bone is usually determined by dividing its width at its mid-point by its lenght. Finding this mid-point can be cumbersome. Using two-dimensional radiographic (or photographic) images; it is possible to find the mid-point of a bone quickly and easily using the transparent overlay tool described.
    • Abortion 'on the NHS': The National Health Service and abortion stigma

      Astbury-Ward, Edna; University of Chester (BMJ journals, 2015-03-05)
      Before the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), the health of the British nation was in a perilous state and hospitals survived on the philanthropy of rich benefactors. Following its introduction on 5 July 1948, the NHS was the biggest and most expensive social reform of the era.1 It was founded on three core principles: that it should meet the needs of everyone, that it should be free at the point of delivery, and that its use should be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. These principles govern the NHS today. The NHS should not discriminate against anyone who requires health care. Yet abortion care remains almost the only acute health need not comprehensively provided for within the NHS.2 In England and Wales in 2013, 98% (185 331) of all abortions were funded by the NHS,3 but only 34% of abortions took place in NHS settings. The majority were in the independent sector, funded by the NHS.4 This is in sharp contrast to Scotland, where in 2013 only 40 women out of 12 447 (0.3%) had their abortions in a non-NHS setting.5 The question is why?
    • Accelerated and efficient neuronal differentiation of Sox1GFP mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro using nicotinamide

      Griffin, Sile; Pickard, Mark R.; Fricker, Rosemary; Keele University, United Kingdom (NECTAR (Network of European CNS Transplantation and Restoration) 24th Annual Meeting, 27/28th November 2014, Galway, Ireland, 2014)
      A major challenge for advancement of clinical neuronal replacement therapies is the production of high yields of purified neuronal populations of appropriate phenotype with control over proliferation to prevent tumorigenesis. We previously reported that treatment of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC;46CSox1GFP reporter cell line) monolayer cultures with the vitamin B3 metabolite nicotinamide at the early onset of development not only increased the efficiency of neuronal generation by two-fold but also enriched the ratio of purified neurons to non-neuronal cells in culture. This study aimed to investigate if nicotinamide enhances neural induction in this model and whether it also promotes the production/differentiation of specific neuronal subtypes. To address these aims, monolayer mESC cultures were treated with nicotinamide (10 mM) for different durations and immunocytochemistry/fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess the expression of stem cell, neural progenitor (NP) and neuronal subtype markers. Morphometric analyses were also performed to assess the extent of differentiation. Nicotinamide treatment significantly decreased Oct4+ pluripotent cells and concomitantly increased GFP+ cells at day 4, suggesting enhanced neural lineage commitment. By day 14, nicotinamide treatment (from day 0-7) reduced both Oct4+ and GFP expression concomitant with enhanced expression of neuron-specific β-tubulin, indicative of accelerated neuronal differentiation. Nicotinamide selectively enhanced the production of catecholaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic neurons and, moreover, enhanced various aspects of neuronal morphology and maturation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a direct effect of nicotinamide at the initial stages of embryonic stem cell differentiation which could be critical for rapidly andefficiently promoting neural commitment to highly enriched neuronal lineages. The strong clinical potential of nicotinamide could successfully be applied to future neural cell-based therapies including Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, both to eradicate proliferating cells and for a more enhanced and specific differentiation
    • Accumulating aerobic exercise for effective weight control

      Sykes, Kevin; Leong, Lau; Cotterrell, Mary; Chester College of Higher Education (Royal Society of Health, 2003)
      The article discusses a study to compare the effects of different patterns of regular treadmill walking and cycle ergometry on body weight, body composition, waist and hip circumferences in overweight adult Singaporean females.
    • Activating KIR Haplotype Influences Clinical Outcome Following HLA-Matched Sibling Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

      Heatley, S. L.; Mullighan, C. G.; Doherty, K.; O'Connor, Geraldine, M.; Hahn, U.; Szer, J.; Schwarer, A.; Bradstock, K.; Sullivan, L. C.; Bardy, P. G.; Brooks, A. G.; University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Australian Red Cross Blood Service, Adelaide, SA, Australia; St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; 4 Royal Adelaide and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia (Wiley, 2018-06-25)
      Natural killer cells are thought to influence the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), impacting on relapse, overall survival, graft versus host disease and the control of infection, in part through the complex interplay between the large and genetically diverse killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family and their ligands. This study examined the relationship between KIR gene content and clinical outcomes including the control of opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus in the setting of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling HSCT in an Australian cohort. The presence of the KIR B haplotype which contain more activating receptors in the donor, in particular centromeric B haplotype genes (Cen-B), was associated with improved overall survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing sibling HSCT and receiving myeloablative conditioning. Donor Cen-B haplotype was also associated with reduced acute graft versus host disease grades II-IV whereas donor telomeric-B haplotype was associated with decreased incidence of CMV reactivation. In contrast, we were not able to demonstrate a reduced rate of relapse when the donor had KIR Cen-B, however relapse with a donor Cen-A haplotype was a competing risk factor to poor overall survival. Here we show that the presence of donor activating KIR led to improved outcome for the patient, potentially through reduced relapse rates and decreased incidence of acute GvHD translating to improved overall survival.
    • Adherence to exercise in later life: How can exercise on prescription programmes be made more effective?

      Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; University College Chester (Oxford University Press, 2004-09)
      A broad consensus has emerged in relation to the desirability of promoting exercise among a variety of ‘at risk’ groups via ‘exercise on prescription’ (EoP) schemes, as an alternative to orthodox, biomedical approaches to the management of health problems. Underpinning the rationale for such schemes is the notion that they can act as vehicles for encouraging long-term adherence to exercise. Whilst there is a common sense appeal to using EoP schemes to promote exercise, research to date suggests that evidence of their impact is limited. This paper attempts to make sense of these findings in the light of recent debates about adult lifestyles and exercise. More specifically, it brings work in the sociology of leisure to bear on the topic, on the premise that any study of adults' propensity towards sustainable physical activity needs to be viewed as an aspect of their lives ‘in the round’. Such an analysis points up the value of synthesizing perspectives from across the disciplinary divide in order to shed light on particular ‘problems’, which obviate the necessity for further empirical work. The paper concludes by identifying a number of implications for public health policy and practice with respect to the matter of encouraging lifelong participation in sport and exercise in general, and via EoP schemes in particular. One such implication is the development of a model for understanding participation that shifts the emphasis away from a focus on motivation and behaviour change per se towards satisfaction and enjoyment through the development of skills and relationships. Reconceptualizing the matter of participation in this way is likely to lead not only to a more realistic appreciation of what can be expected from EoP schemes, but also a more adequate understanding of adherence to exercise in later life.
    • Alignment of multiple glial cell populations in 3D nanofiber scaffolds: toward the development of multicellular implantable scaffolds for repair of neural injury

      Weightman, Alan P.; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Pickard, Mark R.; Chari, Divya M.; Yang, Ying; Keele University, United Kingdom (Elsevier, 2014-02)
      Non-neuronal cells of the central nervous system (CNS), termed "neuroglia," play critical roles in neural regeneration; therefore, replacement of glial populations via implantable nanofabricated devices (providing a growth-permissive niche) is a promising strategy to enhance repair. Most constructs developed to date have lacked three-dimensionality, multiple glial populations and control over spatial orientations, limiting their ability to mimic in vivo neurocytoarchitecture. We describe a facile technique to incorporate multiple glial cell populations [astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes] within a three-dimensional (3D) nanofabricated construct. Highly aligned nanofibers could induce elongation of astrocytes, while OPC survival, elongation and maturation required pre-aligned astrocytes. The potential to scale-up the numbers of constituent nanofiber layers is demonstrated with astrocytes. Such complex implantable constructs with multiple glial sub-populations in defined 3D orientations could represent an effective approach to reconstruct glial circuitry in neural injury sites.
    • Alternative methods of treating atelectasis in post-operative patients

      Fallows, Stephen; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Al Mutairi, Fouad (University of Chester, 2013)
      Cardiac surgery incisional pain can decrease inspiratory effort, alter normal respiratory mechanics, and increase the potential for post-operative pulmonary complications. Post-surgical atelectasis is the most frequent complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), ranging from 54% to 92%. All types of therapy such as an incentive spirometry (IS), deep breathing exercises (DBE) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have a valuable role to play in the prevention or the treatment of post-surgical atelectasis. However, the type of therapy that should be used is not completely clear yet. The present research aims to evaluate the benefit of early use of CPAP via mask therapy to treat or prevent post-surgical atelectasis after CABG, particularly in smokers and elderly patients, as compared to regular (IS) therapy. Also, it aims to evaluate the patients' and medical staff's experience about the use of the new method of CPAP via mask therapy. The present research was conducted at King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital in Saudi Arabia between March 2010 and December 2011. It used a mixed methods approach. The first two studies were intervention quantitative studies, which investigated the benefit of CPAP via mask therapy. The others were qualitative studies that evaluated the experience of patients and medical staff regarding CPAP therapy use.A total of 180 patients (male and female) (36 in each group) participated in the two quantitative studies. Ninety two participants (male and female) participated in the qualitative studies. The first quantitative study results showed an improvement in CPAP via mask therapy for half hours every two hours group measurements as compared to IS therapy groups. IC was increased significantly in the "CPAP every two hours group" as compared to control group (IS) (baseline mean for IS group 1.34L and "CPAP every two hours group" 1.42L, post- therapy mean 1.59L and 1.88L respectively, p= 0.037). In addition, when chest physiotherapy was added to the two regimens, the improvement of CPAP therapy measurements became more than IS therapy. Moreover, the patient’s acceptance rate for CPAP therapy every two hours was 93% and the medical staff acceptance rate was 86%. CPAP via mask therapy for half hour every two hours had better outcomes in treating or preventing post-surgical atelectasis after CABG, particularly in smokers and elderly patients. Adding chest physiotherapy led to even better outcomes. The use of the new method of CPAP therapy had high acceptance rate by the participants and medical staff.
    • Androgens in a female primate: relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color

      Setchell, Joanna M.; Smith, Tessa E.; Knapp, Leslie A.; Durham University; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (Elsevier, 2015-05-01)
      A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior andmorphology requires the examination of female, aswell as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging femalemandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from19 reproductively mature females over 13 months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3 months of gestation, and peaked at 5 months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship inmalemandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.
    • Animal Social Network Theory Can Help Wildlife Conservation

      Snijders, Lysanne; Blumstein, Daniel; Franks, Daniel Wayne; Stanley, Christina; University of Chester; Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin; Wageningen University & Research; University of California; University of York (Elsevier, 2017-06-22)
      Many animals preferentially associate with certain other individuals. This social structuring can influence how populations respond to changes to their environment, thus making network analysis a promising technique for understanding, predicting and potentially manipulating population dynamics. Various network statistics can correlate with individual fitness components and key population-level processes, yet the logical role and formal application of animal social network theory for conservation and management have not been well articulated. We outline how understanding of direct and indirect relationships between animals can be profitably applied by wildlife managers and conservationists. By doing so, we aim to stimulate the development and implementation of practical tools for wildlife conservation and management and to inspire novel behavioral research in this field.
    • ANNING, Mary (1799-1847)

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Thoemmes Continuum, 2004)
      This dictionary entry discusses the life and work of British fossil hunter Mary Anning (1799-1847).
    • Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players

      Moss, Samantha L.; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars B.; Twist, Craig (2015-02-16)
      In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 y) in non-elite (n= 47), elite (n= 37) and top-elite players (n= 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated10 m sprints were similar between standard (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players in throwing velocity only. Findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.
    • Anti-epileptic drugs and bone loss: phenytoin reduces pro-collagen I and alters the electrophoretic mobility of osteonectin in cultured bone cells.

      Wilson, Emma L.; Garton, Mark; Fuller, Heidi R.; RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital; RJAH Orthopaedic NHS Foundation Trust; Keele University (Elsevier, 2016-05)
      Phenytoin is an antiepileptic drug used in the management of partial and tonic-clonic seizures. In previous studies we have shown that valproate, another antiepileptic drug, reduced the amount of two key bone proteins, pro-collagen I and osteonectin (SPARC, BM-40), in both skin fibroblasts and cultured osteoblast-like cells. Here we show that phenytoin also reduces pro-collagen I production in osteoblast-like cells, but does not appear to cause a decrease in osteonectin message or protein production. Instead, a 24h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of phenytoin resulted in a dose-dependent change in electrophoretic mobility of osteonectin, which was suggestive of a change in post-translational modification status. The perturbation of these important bone proteins could be one of the mechanisms to explain the bone loss that has been reported following long-term treatment with phenytoin.
    • Antioxidant and genoprotective activity of selected cucurbitaceae seed extracts and LC–ESIMS/MS identification of phenolic components

      Yasir, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard; University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; University of California; Ulster University (Elsevier, 2015-11-30)
      Cucurbitaceae are one of most widely used plant species for human food but lesser known members have not been examined for bioactive components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and genoprotective activities from three cucurbitaceae seeds extracts and to identify phenolic components by LC–ESIMS/MS analysis. From the results, the yield of seeds extract was 20–41% (w/w) and samples had 16–40% total phenols as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Compared with methanol solvent, using acidified methanol led to increased extraction yield by 1.4 to 10-fold, higher phenolic content (149.5 ± 1.2 to 396.4 ± 1.9 mg GAE/g), higher DPPH radical quenching and enhanced enoprotective activity using the pBR322 plasmid assay. LC–ESI-MS/MS analysis led to identification of 14–17 components, based on authentic standards and comparison with literature reports, as mainly phenolic acids and esters, flavonol glycosides. This may be the first mass spectrometric profiling of polyphenol components from cucurbitaceae seeds.
    • Application of immunological methods for the detection of species adulteration in dairy products

      Hurley, Ian P.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Coleman, Robert C.; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (Wiley, 2004)
      A number of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for the detection of milk adulteration in dairy products. Target antigens have been caseins, lactoglobulins, immunoglobulins and other whey proteins. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used in a variety of formats including direct, indirect, competitive and sandwich ELISAs. ELISAs have been successfully applied to the detection of cows' milk adulteration of sheep, goat and buffalo milk. Goat milk adulteration of sheep milk has also been detected. A number of ELISAs have also been applied to cheese. It is recommended that ELISA should be used in combination with PCR to ensure compliance with current legislation.
    • Approaching the problem of defining 'health' and 'disease' from the perspectives of evolutionary psychology and Darwinian medicine

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (2001-09)
      Concepts of 'health' and 'disease' are of fundamental importance to ethical considerations regarding medical provision. Yet the terms have no clearly agreed definitions. In fact, the difficulty of defining health has led to most attention being given to defining disease instead. Here, two schools of thought have arisen: the 'naturalist' which argues that disease is an objective entity in itself and the 'normativist' which gives emphasis to the subjective nature of disease experience differing between cultures and through history. Respectively, these two schools characterize quantitative (or functional) and qualitative (or evaluative) views of disease. Although both schools offer important insights, they are essentially at odds. This poster outlines an approach that seeks to find a basis for a meeting (if not a unification) of these schools by adopting ideas and approaches from evolutionary psychology and Darwinian medicine. From the perspective of reproductive fitness, the question of whether health and disease can be said to exist as biological entities is addressed and the idea that all that matters is reproductivity is considered. It is suggested that attitudes regarding certain biological entities, such as physical or physiological states, serve adaptive functions. The suggestion is then made that, although open to social and cultural influence, attitudes towards and qualitative definitions of health and disease also have biological bases. Thus, it may be argued that evaluative definitions of disease have functional (evolutionary) bases, thereby linking the naturalist and normativist schools of thought. Important in this linkage, however, is acceptance of ideas from evolutionary psychology. The only discipline that currently unites the study of health and disease with that of evolutionary biology (including evolutionary psychology) is Darwinian medicine. It is within this discipline that new theoretical and evidence-based understanding of 'health' and 'disease' is likely to prove fruitful – in particular, in giving 'health' appropriately weighted attention.
    • Arabinoxylans: Bioactivities in Relation to Their Molecular Structure

      Li, Weili; Zhang, Zhengxiao; Smith, Christopher J.; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University (Bentham Science, 2017-03-09)
      Arabinoxylans are a group of compounds with a basic structure consisting of a xylose backbone with arabinose side chains. Variations in structure occur as a result of variations in the xylose chain length, the ratio of arabinose to xylose and the introduction of alternative side-chains. This allows for an enormous potential range of structures. Arabinoxylans are major components of the cell walls of cereals. They have been reported to have numerous health benefits. This chapter presents a systematic description of the molecular features of arabinoxylans and relates these to the different extraction technologies used to obtain them. The proposal, that their immune modulation activity is related to their molecular weight and structure, is presented. Results demonstrating the effects of various arabinoxylans in various in vitro immunological tests are discussed.
    • Archibald Geikie: His influence on and support for the roles of female geologists

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Geological Society of London, 2018)
      This chapter explores the interaction between Archibald Geikie and female geologists in their many different roles and within the social context of his life time (1835-1924). The roles adopted by female geologists altered around 1875 due to a change in the educational and legal background. Geikie’s attitude to female fieldwork and research publications changes through time too. His life is divided up into 5 different stages according to his influence. Case studies of both single and married women are explored looking at the influence and interaction they had with Archibald Geikie. They include Maria Ogilvie Gordon, Catherine Raisin, Annie Greenly, Gertrude Elles, Ethel Skeat and Ethel Wood. Was one female role more acceptable to him than others? Geikie seems to accept most of the roles they undertook and he supported them wherever he could.