• The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-11-02)
      The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.
    • An investigation of the test-retest reliability of an ultrasound densitometer

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Owen, David G. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 18/10/1998)
      Army recruits undertake a rapidly increasing amount of exercise in their initial basic training period. Injuries due physical training forces many recruits out of the Army and costs the Ministry of Defence millions of pounds. Stress fractures are one of the most commonly diagnosed injuries amongst Army recruits. Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for stress fractures. A technique which can measure bone mineral density is Ultrasound Densitometry (US). This study will address a gap in the research by assessing the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the two US measurements, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the velocity of sound (VOS). Ninety eight white male recruits, median aged 18 (I.Q. range 1yr) were measured at the calcanea of the non-dominant foot. A repeated measures design was used, BUA and VOS were measured in 55 subjects by both researcher 'A1 and 'B' for inter-observer (inter-BUA & inter-VOS), and 43 subjects were measured for BUA and VOS twice by researcher 'A' for the intra-observer analysis (intra-BUA & intra-VOS). The results from this study found that a coefficient of variation (CV) analysis was not appropriate for assessing measurement error, this was due to the homoscedasity of the data. An alternative method the '95% limits of agreement' found that only VOS was reliable. The '95% limits of agreement1 results (bias ±1.96 x s) were 0.74 ±22.77 m/s for intra-VOS and 4.85 ±23.44 m/s for inter-VOS, the variance in scores were judged to be acceptable, f-test confirmed this with a non-significant difference between measurements (t=0.83, p=0.477; t=0.42, p=0.677, respectively). The '95% limits of agreement1 results for BUA were -0.22±11.56 dB/MHz (inter-BUA) and -1.39 ±11.11 dB/MHz (intra-BUA). These results represent an unacceptable variability in the range of scores obtained. This is highlighted when expressed as a proportion of the mean measurement: inter-BUA ±11.41% and intra-BUA ± 11.91%. However, the West's for inter- and intra-BUA indicate no significant difference (t = -0.07, p = 0.091; t = 1.60, p = 0.116). This insignificance may be the result of the inappropriateness of a statistical method that reliance on a comparison of means. The CV results for BUA indicate that both inter- and intra-BUA are reliable (4.08% & 4.38%, respectively), even though as already stated that the BUA measurements are not deemed reliable when analysed by the '95% limits of agreement'. The results of this study suggest that VOS measurements are reliable and that BUA measurements are non-reliable. As both BUA and VOS would have been used to assess those at risk of suffering stress fractures it was essential that both were found to be reliable. Thus US's appropriateness in individual diagnosis is questioned. This study has also highlighted how the use of an inappropriate statistical method, in this case the CV, can effect the interpretation of data and cause false claims over e.g. reliability.
    • A re-appraisal of the reliability of the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Rogers, Louise; University of Chester (Springer-Verlag, 2007-03-07)
    • Reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to simulated amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2017-12-01)
      The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (BOXFIT). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed two familiarisation trials before performing two complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterise the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V ̇O2), aerobic energy expenditure (EEaer), excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each round and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT. Additionally, an indication of the performance-based demands of the BOXFIT was provided by a measure of acceleration of the punches thrown in each round. Analysis revealed there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between repeated trials in any round for all dependent measures. The typical error (coefficient variation %) for all but one marker of internal load (CO2excess) was 1.2 – 16.5% and reflected a consistency that was sufficient for the detection of moderate changes in variables owing to an intervention. The reproducibility of the punch accelerations was high (CV% range = 2.1 – 2.7%). In general, these findings suggest that the internal load and performance-based efforts recorded during the BOXFIT are reproducible and thereby offers practitioners a method by which meaningful changes impacting on performance could be identified.