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Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Become Antiangiogenic When Chondrogenically or Osteogenically Differentiated: Implications for Bone and Cartilage Tissue EngineeringOsteochondral tissue repair requires formation of vascularized bone and avascular cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but it is not known if these proangiogenic properties change as a result of chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the angiogenic/antiangiogenic properties of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBMSCs) before and after differentiation in vitro. Conditioned media from chondrogenic and osteogenic cell pellets and undifferentiated cells was applied to endothelial tube formation assays using Matrigel. Additionally, the cell secretome was analysed using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and screened for angiogenesis and neurogenesis-related factors using protein arrays. Endothelial tube-like formation was supported by conditioned media from undifferentiated eBMSCs. Conversely, chondrogenic and osteogenic conditioned media was antiangiogenic as shown by significantly decreased length of endothelial tube-like structures and degree of branching compared to controls. Undifferentiated cells produced higher levels of angiogenesis-related proteins compared to chondrogenic and osteogenic pellets. In summary, eBMSCs produce an array of angiogenesis-related proteins and support angiogenesis in vitro via a paracrine mechanism. However, when these cells are differentiated chondrogenically or osteogenically, they produce a soluble factor(s) that inhibits angiogenesis. With respect to osteochondral tissue engineering, this may be beneficial for avascular articular cartilage formation but unfavourable for bone formation where a vascularized tissue is desired.
Early Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Spinal Cord Injury Relieves Pain Hypersensitivity Through Suppression of Pain-Related Signaling Cascades and Reduced Inflammatory Cell RecruitmentBone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) modulate inflammatory/immune responses and promote motor functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the effects of BMSC transplantation on central neuropathic pain and neuronal hyperexcitability after SCI remain elusive. This is of importance because BMSC-based therapies have been proposed for clinical treatment. We investigated the effects of BMSC transplantation on pain hypersensitivity in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive bone marrow-chimeric mice subjected to a contusion SCI, and the mechanisms of such effects. BMSC transplantation at day 3 post-SCI improved motor function and relieved SCI-induced hypersensitivities to mechanical and thermal stimulation. The pain improvements were mediated by suppression of protein kinase C-γ and phosphocyclic AMP response element binding protein expression in dorsal horn neurons. BMSC transplants significantly reduced levels of p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in both hematogenous macrophages and resident microglia and significantly reduced the infiltration of CD11b and GFP double-positive hematogenous macrophages without decreasing the CD11b-positive and GFP-negative activated spinal-microglia population. BMSC transplants prevented hematogenous macrophages recruitment by restoration of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), which was associated with decreased levels of (a) inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6); (b) mediators of early secondary vascular pathogenesis (matrix metallopeptidase 9); (c) macrophage recruiting factors (CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL10), but increased levels of a microglial stimulating factor (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). These findings support the use of BMSC transplants for SCI treatment. Furthermore, they suggest that BMSC reduce neuropathic pain through a variety of related mechanisms that include neuronal sparing and restoration of the disturbed BSCB, mediated through modulation of the activity of spinal-resident microglia and the activity and recruitment of hematogenous macrophages.
Spinal motor neurite outgrowth over glial scar inhibitors is enhanced by coculture with bone marrow stromal cellsBACKGROUND CONTEXT: Transplantation of bone marrow cells into spinal cord lesions promotes functional recovery in animal models, and recent clinical trials suggest possible recovery also in humans. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are still unclear. PURPOSE: To characterize spinal cord motor neurite interactions with human bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in an in vitro model of spinal cord injury (SCI). STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Previously, we have reported that human MSCs promote the growth of extending sensory neurites from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), in the presence of some of the molecules present in the glial scar, which are attributed with inhibiting axonal regeneration after SCI. We have adapted and optimized this system replacing the DRG with a spinal cord culture to produce a central nervous system (CNS) model, which is more relevant to the SCI situation. METHODS: We have developed and characterized a novel spinal cord culture system. Human MSCs were cocultured with spinal motor neurites in substrate choice assays containing glial scar–associated inhibitors of nerve growth. In separate experiments, MSC-conditioned media were analyzed and added to spinal motor neurites in substrate choice assays. RESULTS: As has been reported previously with DRG, substrate-bound neurocan and Nogo-A repelled spinal neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth, but these inhibitory effects were abrogated in MSC/spinal cord cocultures. However, unlike DRG, spinal neuronal bodies and neurites showed no inhibition to substrates of myelin-associated glycoprotein. In addition, the MSC secretome contained numerous neurotrophic factors that stimulated spinal neurite outgrowth, but these were not sufficient stimuli to promote spinal neurite extension over inhibitory concentrations of neurocan or Nogo-A. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insight into how MSC transplantation may promote regeneration and functional recovery in animal models of SCI and in the clinic, especially in the chronic situation in which glial scars (and associated neural inhibitors) are well established. In addition, we have confirmed that this CNS model predominantly comprises motor neurons via immunocytochemical characterization. We hope that this model may be used in future research to test various other potential interventions for spinal injury or disease states