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Patients’ Perspectives of Oral and Injectable Type 2 Diabetes Medicines, Their Body Weight and Medicine-Taking Behavior in the UK: A Systematic Review and Meta-EthnographyAbstractThe aim of this review is to identify peoples’ perspectives of their glucose-lowering and anti-obesity drugs in relation to diabetes and weight control and to explore how these views affect medication adherence. Theoretical perspectives associated with medicine-taking behavior are also explored. The systematic review was based on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies identified through a search of 12 medical and social science databases and subsequent citation searches. The quality of all studies was assessed. Sixteen studies were included with data from 360 UK individuals. No relevant studies were identified which focused on anti-obesity and non-insulin injectable drugs. The review revealed that the patients’ perspectives and emotional state were influenced by starting and/or changing to a new glucose-lowering medicine. These were also influenced by prior medication experience, disease perceptions and interactions with clinicians. Despite reports of positive experiences with and positive perceptions of medicines, and of participation in strategies to regain life control, medication non-adherence was common. Accepting glucose-lowering medicines impacted on the individual’s perception of lifestyle changes, and it was notable that weight loss was not perceived as a strategy to support diabetes management. Synthesis revealed that more than one theory is required to explain medicine-taking behavior. New insights into the underlying factors of poor adherence and the specific practical issues identified in this review can help in the development of patient-centered interventions.Funding: Diabetes UK.
Self-efficacy for temptations is a better predictor of weight loss than motivation and global self-efficacy: Evidence from two prospective studies among overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer.OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of weight loss could help to triage people who will benefit most from programs and identify those who require additional support. The present research was designed to address statistical, conceptual and operational difficulties associated with the role of self-efficacy in predicting weight loss. METHODS: In Study 1, 115 dieting overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer were weighed and completed questionnaires assessing motivation, global self-efficacy and self-efficacy for temptations. The main outcome measure was weight, measured 3-months post-baseline. Study 2 was identical (n=107), except changes in psychological variables were computed, and used to predict weight 6-months post-baseline. RESULTS: In Study 1, self-efficacy for temptations was a significant predictor of weight loss at 3-month follow-up. In Study 2, improved self-efficacy for temptations between baseline and four-weeks was predictive of lower weight at 6 months. CONCLUSION: The key finding was that self-efficacy for temptations, as opposed to motivation and global self-efficacy, was predictive of subsequent weight loss. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The implication is that augmenting dieters' capability for dealing with temptations might boost the impact of weight loss programs.