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Physiological and anthropometric determinants of critical power, W′ and the reconstitution of W′ in trained and untrained male cyclistsAbstract Purpose This study examined the relationship of physiological and anthropometric characteristics with parameters of the critical power (CP) model, and in particular the reconstitution of W′ following successive bouts of maximal exercise, amongst trained and untrained cyclists. Methods Twenty male adults (trained nine; untrained 11; age 39 ± 15 year; mass 74.7 ± 8.7 kg; V̇O2max 58.0 ± 8.7 mL kg−1 min−1) completed three incremental ramps (20 W min−1) to exhaustion interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to assess relationships for W′ reconstitution after the first recovery (W′rec1), the delta in W′ reconstituted between recoveries (ΔW′rec), CP and W′. Results CP was strongly related to V̇O2max for both trained (r = 0.82) and untrained participants (r = 0.71), whereas W′ was related to V̇O2max when both groups were considered together (r = 0.54). W′rec1 was strongly related to V̇O2max for the trained (r = 0.81) but not untrained (r = 0.18); similarly, ΔW′rec was strongly related to V̇O2max (r = − 0.85) and CP (r = − 0.71) in the trained group only. Conclusions Notable physiological relationships between parameters of aerobic fitness and the measurements of W′ reconstitution were observed, which differed among groups. The amount of W′ reconstitution and the maintenance of W′ reconstitution that occurred with repeated bouts of maximal exercise were found to be related to key measures of aerobic fitness such as CP and V̇O2max. This data demonstrates that trained cyclists wishing to improve their rate of W′ reconstitution following repeated efforts should focus training on improving key aspects of aerobic fitness such as V̇O2max and CP.
Physiological, perceptual and performance responses associated with self-selected versus standardized recovery periods during a repeated sprint protocol in elite youth football players: A preliminary studyPurpose: To examine the physiological and perceptual responses of youth footballers to a repeated sprint protocol employing standardized and self-selected recovery. Methods: Eleven male participants (13.7 ± 1.1 years) performed a repeated sprint assessment comprising 10 x 30 m efforts. Employing a randomized crossover design, repeated sprints were performed using 30 s and self-selected recovery periods. Heart rate was monitored continuously with ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and lower body muscle power measured 2 min after the final sprint. The concentration of blood lactate was measured at 2, 5 and 7 minutes post sprinting. Magnitude of effects were reported using effect size (ES) statistics ± 90% confidence interval and percentage differences. Differences between trials were examined using paired student t-tests (p < 0.05). Results: Self-selected recovery resulted in most likely shorter recovery times (57.7%; ES 1.55 ± 0.5; p < 0.01), a most likely increase in percentage decrement (65%; ES 0.36 ±1 0.21; p = 0.12), very likely lower heart rate recovery (-58.9%; ES -1.10 ± 0.72; p = 0.05), and likely higher blood lactate concentration (p = 0.08-0.02). Differences in lower body power and RPE were unclear (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Self-selected recovery periods compromise repeated sprint performance.
The Relationship Between Match-Play Characteristics of Elite Rugby League and Indirect Markers of Muscle DamagePurpose: Whilst exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a rugby league match has been well documented, the specific match actions that contribute to EIMD are unclear. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the physical demands of elite rugby league matches and subsequent EIMD. Methods: Twenty-eight performances were captured using 10 Hz global positioning systems. Upper and lower body neuromuscular fatigue, creatine kinase (CK) and perceived muscle soreness were assessed 24 h before and at 12, 36 and 60 h after a competitive match. Results: High-intensity running was moderately higher in backs (6.6 ± 2.6 m•min-1) compared to forwards (5.1 ± 1.6 m•min-1), whereas total collisions were moderately lower (31.1 ± 13.1 cf. 54.1 ± 37.0). Duration (r = 0.9, CI: 0.77 to 0.96), total distance covered (r = 0.86, CI: 0.7 to 0.95) and distance covered over 18 km•h-1 (r = 0.76, CI: 0.51 to 0.91) were associated with increased CK concentration post-match. Total collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIE) were associated with large decrements in upper body neuromuscular performance (r = -0.48, CI: -0.74 to 0.02 and r = -0.49, CI: -0.77 to 0.05, respectively), muscle soreness (r = -0.68, CI: -0.87 to -0.1 and r = -0.66, CI: -0.89 to 0.21, respectively), and CK concentration (r = 0.67, CI: 0.42 to 0.85 and r = 0.73, CI: 0.51 to 0.87, respectively). Conclusion: Match duration, high-intensity running and collisions were associated with variations in EIMD markers, suggesting recovery is dependent on individual match demands.