• Development of independence from the mother in Gorilla gorilla gorilla

      Nowell, Angela A.; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2007-05-02)
      This article investigates the development of independence in a population of wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Mbeli Bai, Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo.
    • The Efficacy of Energy-Restricted Diets in Achieving Preoperative Weight Loss for bariatric Pateints: A Systematic Review

      Naseer, Fathimath; Shabbir, Asim; Livingstone, Barbara; Price, Ruth; Syn, Nicholas, L; Flannery, Orla; Ulster University; National University Hospital, Singapore; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2018-08-18)
      In bariatric practice, a preoperative weight loss of at least 5% is recommended. However, the hypocaloric diets prescribed vary and no consensus exists. This study examined the efficacy of preoperative diets in achieving 5% weight loss. From a systematic literature search, eight randomised controlled trials (n = 862) were identified. Half of the trials used a Bvery-low-calorie diet^ whilst the rest employed a Blow-calorie diet^. Only five diets achieved ≥ 5% weight loss over varying durations and energy intakes. By inference, compliance with a 700–1050 kcal (2929–4393 kJ) diet, consisting of moderate carbohydrate, high protein and low/moderate fat, for 3 weeks is likely to achieve 5% weight loss. A low-carbohydrate diet (< 20 g/day) may achieve this target within a shorter duration. Additional research is required to validate these conclusions.
    • Food transfers in immature wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

      Nowell, Angela A.; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2006-10)
      This article discusses how the transfer of food items between primates serves an informative purpose in addition to supplementing the diet of immature individuals. Food transfers amongst immature western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), at Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo weew observed.
    • An introduction to Phylogenetic Path Analysis

      Gonzalez-Voyer, A.; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Estación Biológica de Doñana, Gran Paradiso National Park (Springer Verlag, 2014)
      The questions addressed by macroevolutionary biologists are often impervious to experimental approaches, and alternative methods have to be adopted. The phy- logenetic comparative approach is a very powerful one since it combines a large number of species and thus spans long periods of evolutionary change. However, there are limits to the inferences that can be drawn from the results, in part due to the limitations of the most commonly employed analytical methods. In this chapter, we show how confirmatory path analysis can be undertaken explicitly controlling for non-independence due to shared ancestry. The phylogenetic path analysis method we present allows researchers to move beyond the estimation of direct effects and analyze the relative importance of alternative causal models including direct and indirect paths of influence among variables. We begin the chapter with a general introduction to path analysis and then present a step-by-step guide to phylogenetic path analysis using the d-separation method. We also show how the known statistical problems associated with non-independence of data points due to shared ancestry become compounded in path analysis. We finish with a discussion about the potential effects of collinearity and measurement error, and a look toward possible future developments.
    • Lower-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against high-volume muscle-damaging exercise and the detrimental effects on endurance performance

      Burt, Dean G.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Springer Verlag, 2015-02-21)
      Purpose: This study examined whether lower-volume exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) performed 2 weeks before high-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against its detrimental effect on running performance. Methods: Sixteen male participants were randomly assigned to a lower-volume (five sets of ten squats, n = 8) or high-volume (ten sets of ten squats, n = 8) EIMD group and completed baseline measurements for muscle soreness, knee extensor torque, creatine kinase (CK), a 5-min fixedintensity running bout and a 3-km running time-trial. Measurements were repeated 24 and 48 h after EIMD, and the running time-trial after 48 h. Two weeks later, both groups repeated the baseline measurements, ten sets of ten squats and the same follow-up testing (Bout 2). Results: Data analysis revealed increases in muscle soreness and CK and decreases in knee extensor torque 24–48 h after the initial bouts of EIMD. Increases in oxygen uptake ˙V O2 , minute ventilation ˙V E and rating of perceived exertion were observed during fixed-intensity running 24–48 h after EIMD Bout 1. Likewise, time increased and speed and ˙V O2 decreased during a 3-km running time-trial 48 h after EIMD. Symptoms of EIMD, responses during fixed-intensity and running time-trial were attenuated in the days after the repeated bout of high-volume EIMD performed 2 weeks after the initial bout. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the protective effect of lower-volume EIMD on subsequent high-volume EIMD is transferable to endurance running. Furthermore, time-trial performance was found to be preserved after a repeated bout of EIMD.