• Community food initatives and public health

      Ellahi, Basma; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses community-based food initiatives to improve nutrition-related health.
    • Comparison of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated From Murine Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury

      Takahashi, Ai; Johnson, William Eustace Basil; Uchida, Kenzo; Matsumine, Akihiko; University of Chester, University of Fukui (SAGE, 2018-05-10)
      The use of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation to repair the injured spinal cord has shown consistent benefits in preclinical models. However, the low survival rate of grafted MSC is one of the most important problems. In the injured spinal cord, transplanted cells are exposed to hypoxic conditions and exposed to nutritional deficiency caused by poor vascular supply. Also, the transplanted MSCs face cytotoxic stressors that cause cell death. The aim of this study was to compare adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) isolated from individual C57BL6/J mice in relation to: (i) cellular characteristics, (ii) tolerance to hypoxia, oxidative stress and serum-free conditions, and (iii) cellular survival rates after transplantation. AD-MSCs and BM-MSCs exhibited a similar cell surface marker profile, but expressed different levels of growth factors and cytokines. To research their relative stress tolerance, both types of stromal cells were incubated at 20.5% O2 or 1.0% O2 for 7 days. Results showed that AD-MSCs were more proliferative with greater culture viability under these hypoxic conditions than BM-MSCs. The MSCs were also incubated under H2O2-induced oxidative stress and in serum-free culture medium to induce stress. AD-MSCs were better able to tolerate these stress conditions than BMMSCs; similarly when transplanted into the spinal cord injury region in vivo, AD-MSCs demonstrated a higher survival rate post transplantation Furthermore, this increased AD-MSC survival post transplantation was associated with preservation of axons and enhanced vascularization, as delineated by increases in anti-gamma isotype of protein kinase C and CD31 immunoreactivity, compared with the BM-MSC transplanted group. Hence, our results indicate that AD-MSCs are an attractive alternative to BM-MSCs for the treatment of severe spinal cord injury. However, it should be noted that the motor function was equally improved following moderate spinal cord injury in both groups, but with no significant improvement seen unfortunately following severe spinal cord injury in either group
    • Effect of combined home-based, overground robotic-assisted gait training and usual physiotherapy on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

      Wright, Amy; Stone, Keeron; Martinelli, Louis; Fryer, Simon; Smith, Grace; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Jobson, Simon; Faulkner, James; University of Winchester; University of Gloucestershire; Hobbs Rehabilitation; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester; University of Southampton; University of North Carolina; University of Winchester; University of Winchester (SAGE, 2020-12-27)
      Objectives:To assess the effect of a home-based over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program using the AlterG Bionic Leg orthosis on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke. Design:Randomized controlled trial. Setting:Home. Participants:Thirty-four ambulatory chronic stroke patients who recieve usual physiotherapy. Intervention:Usual physiotherapy plus either (1)10-week over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program (n=16), using the device for 30 minutes per day, or (2)control group (n=18), 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Measurements:The primary outcome was the Six-Minute Walk Test. Secondary outcomes included: Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometry. All measurements were completed at baseline, 10- and 22-weeks after baseline. Results:Significant increases in walking distance were observed for the Six-Minute Walk Test between baseline and 10-weeks for over-ground robotic-assisted gait training (135±81m vs. 158±93m, respectively; P0.001) but not for control (122±92m vs. 119±84m, respectively). Findings were similar for Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale (all P0.01). For over-ground robotic-assisted gait training, there were increases in time spent stepping, number of steps taken, number of sit-to-stand transitions, and reductions in time spent sitting/supine between baseline and 10-weeks (all P<.05). The differences observed in all of the aforementioned outcome measures were maintained at 22-weeks, 12 weeks after completing the intervention (all P >.05). Conclusion:Over-ground robotic-assisted gait training combined with physiotherapy in chronic stroke patients led to significant improvements in clinical functional outcomes and physical activity compared to the control group. Improvements were maintained at 22 weeks.
    • Examinations: A 'new orthodoxy' in physical education?

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter discusses GCSE and A level examinations in physical education and claims that this has led to the arrival of a new academic Orthodoxy in physical education.
    • Extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales: Reflections on the 'state of play'

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter offers an outline of the state of extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales and discusses why extra-curricular physical education remains relatively conventional in content and form.
    • 'Friends as enemies': A sociological analysis of the relationship among touring professional golfers

      Fry, John; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015-08-06)
      This paper examines the relationship among male touring professional golfers from a figurational sociological standpoint. The paper is based on 20 interviews from players with experience playing at various levels on the EPGA professional tours and a level ‘above’ that. The results indicate a workplace culture where many begin to adopt the attitudes and behaviors that encourage the development of networks of temporary ‘we-group’ alliances. The ‘touring’ aspects of professional golf means many players strive to forge these alliances to help reduce feelings of loneliness, isolation, and homesickness while away for long periods of time. Such stresses are intensified given the globalization of sport generally and the associated increases in labor market migration that has become commonplace. The urge to develop friendship networks constrains players to behave in a manner expected of them rather than in a way that reflects their actual emotions, such as maintaining a positive attitude during difficult times like spells of poor performances and time away from their families. The relationships among players on tour is, however, non-permanent and/or partially changeable. Players are ‘friends’, characterized by togetherness and camaraderie, while, at the same, showing evidence of tensions and conflict as they are ultimately in direct competition with each other for a share of the overall prize money. Key words: professional golf, workplace relations, sport labor migration, figurational sociology, friendship networks
    • An In Vitro Comparison of the Incorporation, Growth, and Chondrogenic Potential of Human Bone Marrow versus Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Clinically Relevant Cell Scaffolds Used for Cartilage Repair

      Kohli, Nupur; Johnson, William Eustace Basil; Wright, Karina T.; Sammons, Rachel L.; Jeys, Lee; Snow, Martyn
      Aim: To compare the incorporation, growth, and chondrogenic potential of bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in scaffolds used for cartilage repair. Methods: Human BM and AT MSCs were isolated, culture expanded, and characterised using standard protocols, then seeded into 2 different scaffolds, Chondro-Gide or Alpha Chondro Shield. Cell adhesion, incorporation, and viable cell growth were assessed microscopically and following calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (Live/Dead) staining. Cell-seeded scaffolds were treated with chondrogenic inducers for 28 days. Extracellular matrix deposition and soluble glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release into the culture medium was measured at day 28 by histology/immunohistochemistry and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Results: A greater number of viable MSCs from either source adhered and incorporated into Chondro-Gide than into Alpha Chondro Shield. In both cell scaffolds, this incorporation represented less than 2% of the cells that were seeded. There was a marked proliferation of BM MSCs, but not AT MSCs, in Chondro-Gide. MSCs from both sources underwent chondrogenic differentiation following induction. However, cartilaginous extracellular matrix deposition was most marked in Chondro-Gide seeded with BM MSCs. Soluble GAG secretion increased in chondrogenic versus control conditions. There was no marked difference in GAG secretion by MSCs from either cell source. Conclusion: Chondro-Gide and Alpha Chondro Shield were permissive to the incorporation and chondrogenic differentiation of human BM and AT MSCs. Chondro-Gide seeded with BM MSCs demonstrated the greatest increase in MSC number and deposition of a cartilaginous tissue.
    • Inclusion, special educational needs, disability and physical education

      Smith, Andy; Thomas, Nigel; University College Chester ; Staffordshire University (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter explores some of the aspects of the complex inter-relationships and issues surrounding the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN)and disabilities in physical education. It focuses on the revised National Curriculum for Physical Education (2000) and dicusses sports suitable for pupils with SEN, the role of staff, assessing pupils with SEN and disabilities, and the experiences of pupils with SEN and disabilities in physical education.
    • Involvement and detachment in researching sexuality: Reflections on the process of semistructured interviewing

      Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-01-01)
      This article discusses the utility of the concept of involvement-detachment for involved in the study of the lifeworlds of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people where one of the researchers was a lesbian. The processes of semistructured interviewing and the benefits of teamwork in research are discussed.
    • Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships

      Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Sheffield ; Hedmark University College, Norway ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-04-01)
      Area-based initiatives (ABIs) have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in ABIs, little empirical work has explored relations between ABI providers and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This paper addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an ABI. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an ABI targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that, although effective delivery of ABIs is premised on a high level of coordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of cooperation. In particular, the interdependency of ABI providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here ‘organisational pull’) constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. ‘Local’ status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policy makers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. Keywords: partnership, collaboration, community services, area-based initiatives, organisational pull, figurational sociology
    • More than a game? The role of sports governing bodies in the development of sport education programmes

      Reid, Paul; University College Chester (SAGE, 2003-10-01)
      This article explores the extent to which young people can transfer the skills and knowledge gained from a sport education programme to contexts experienced outside the curriculum. Furthermore, it seeks to identify how and where governing bodies of sport can be influential in the promotion of sport education values outside the school context; that is to say, are governing bodies able to develop initiatives to encourage community clubs to adopt a supporting role in the promotion and delivery of sport education?
    • The observational analysis of elite coaches within youth soccer: The importance of performance analysis

      Nicolls, Scott B.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester; Middlesex University; Manchester Institute of Health and Performance (SAGE, 2016-11-15)
      The study investigated the observational capabilities of experienced elite coaches whilst focusing upon soccer specific actions and playing positions within elite youth soccer. Six soccer coaches assessed the performances of 10 youth soccer players (across 8 matches) on their short/long passing, tackling, shooting, heading and dribbling. Analysis was undertaken on an overall, quality and positional grouping basis. Mean observational accuracy was 38.8%, with successful shooting (78.6%) and passing (29.9%) illustrating the range. The limited effective observation of dribbling (37.2%), often considered a separating factor within talent identification, highlights the need for objective measures to aid such processes. Positional grouping analysis elicited 20% more effective observation for unsuccessful compared with successful actions. The poor level of observational accuracy identified herein has significant implications on talent identification assessments devoid of post-performance analyses. The findings reinforce the importance of performance analysis in the provision of highly accurate and comprehensive augmented feedback within the coaching process.
    • Prescribing in mental health practice - the balancing act

      Green, Ben; University of Chester (SAGE, 2013-01-15)
      This book chapter aims to discuss the potential impact of psychiatric pharmacology on the physical health of people with mental health problems; discuss the potential impact of medical prescibing on those with mental health problems; and reflect on the role of the mental health practitioner in medication management.
    • Professional golf - A license to spend money? Issues of money in the lives of touring professional golfers

      Fry, John; Bloyce, Daniel; Pritchard, Ian; Myerscough College ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-11-14)
      Drawing upon figurational sociology, this paper examines issues of money that are central to touring professional golfers’ workplace experiences. Based on interviews with 16 professionals, results indicate the monetary rewards available for top golfers continues to increase, however, such recompense is available to relatively small numbers and the majority fare poorly. Results suggest that playing on tour with other like-minded golfers fosters internalized constraints relating to behaviour, referred to as ‘habitus’, whereby many players ‘gamble’ on pursuing golf as their main source of income despite the odds against them. Golfers are constrained to develop networks with sponsors for financial reasons which has left some players with conflicting choices between regular money, and adhering to restrictive contractual agreements, or the freedom to choose between different brands.
    • Public health and nutrition

      Ellahi, Basma; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses public health nutrition and its promotion of good health.
    • Social class, young people, sport and physical education

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter discusses the relationship between social class and physical education. It aims to demonstrate how social class can effect other areas of young people's lives that impact on physical education, such as leisure lifestyles.
    • Sports participation and the 'obesity/health crisis': Reflections on the case of young people in England

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004-12-01)
      There has been growing concern in recent years about the emergence of a supposed 'health crisis' - in the form of an 'obesity epidemic' - among young people, one of the maincauses of which, it is assumed, is their declining levels of involvement in sport and physical activity. This brief paper offers some critical comments on the taken-for-granted relationship between these two emergent 'crises' and argues that, in contrast to popular opinion, young people are, in fact, doing more sport and physical activity than at any other time in the past, but that this process has co-occurred, and continues to co-occur, with increasing levels of obesity and overweight. In order to begin to adequately explain these co-occurring processes, it is argued that we need to examine young people's lives in their total context, while noting, in particular, the continuing significance of broader social processes and the networks of relationships in which they are involved.
    • Understanding physical education

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-01-24)
      This book discusses the nature and purpose of physical education; extra-curriculr physical education; and gender, social class, health, youth, ethnicity, disability in relation to physical education.
    • Violence, competition and the emergence and development of modern sports: Reflections on the Stokvis-Malcolm debate

      Green, Ken; Liston, Katie; Smith, Andy; Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005-03-01)
      This article discusses the place of violence reducation in the socio-genesis of sports. It focuses on the debate between Dominic Malcolm and Ruud Stokvis.