• A method for measuring robusticity in long bones

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      The robusticity of a long bone is usually determined by dividing its width at its mid-point by its lenght. Finding this mid-point can be cumbersome. Using two-dimensional radiographic (or photographic) images; it is possible to find the mid-point of a bone quickly and easily using the transparent overlay tool described.
    • Further notes on a statistical method for use when investigating differences in sexual dimorphism: A discussion paper

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1997-06-07)
      A statistical method for use when investigating sexual dimorphism is described which is a development of that proposed by Lewis (1995). This development is new and remains to be fully tested. It is presented here by way of seeking constructive criticism.
    • Quantifying measurement error

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      It is important for workers to have some estimate of the degree of error evident when measuring objects. Although many use their own "rule-of-thumb" to give them the personal satisfaction that they are working accurately, measures of error, or conversely reliability, are rarely given in the lierature. Some simple, useful equations are given that may be used privately or when reporting metrical work.
    • Some summary data from the N.W. Wales hand osteological database

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      Probably the richest store of osteological information lies in the radiographic images stored in X-ray departments. These have been greatly under-used. As an example of the sort of data available, some summary statistics from the N.W. Wales Hand Osteological Database are given. This data may be compared with historic or extant populations. Further data is available to colleagues on request.
    • The use of radiography in osteological measurement

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      Radiographs provide a means of obtaining permanent images of objects. These images may be readily and repeatedly copied, disseminated or used in a variety of ways without the need further to disturb the original material. Although measurements are frequently taken from such images for metrical analysis, it must be remembered that these images are only representations of the original object. To obtain accurate data, one must be aware of the sources of error inherent in the image-forming process so that radiographs can be used in the appropriate way. This paper outlines the factors involved in the production of radiographic images and applies this to the generation of accurate metrical data.