• Exercise dependence in bodybuilders: Antecedents and reliability of measurement

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester/University of Liverpool ; Penn State University (Edizioni Minerva, 2005-09)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to examine social and psychological antecedents of bodybuilding dependence (life satisfaction, socio-economic status, marital status and parental status) and examine the test-retest reliability of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale (BDS). One hundred and eighty-one male bodybuilders agreed to participate in the study.