• Arabinoxylans: Bioactivities in Relation to Their Molecular Structure

      Li, Weili; Zhang, Zhengxiao; Smith, Christopher J.; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University (Bentham Science, 2017-03-09)
      Arabinoxylans are a group of compounds with a basic structure consisting of a xylose backbone with arabinose side chains. Variations in structure occur as a result of variations in the xylose chain length, the ratio of arabinose to xylose and the introduction of alternative side-chains. This allows for an enormous potential range of structures. Arabinoxylans are major components of the cell walls of cereals. They have been reported to have numerous health benefits. This chapter presents a systematic description of the molecular features of arabinoxylans and relates these to the different extraction technologies used to obtain them. The proposal, that their immune modulation activity is related to their molecular weight and structure, is presented. Results demonstrating the effects of various arabinoxylans in various in vitro immunological tests are discussed.
    • Extraction, identification and biological activities of saponins in sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei

      Khattaba, Rafat A.; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnasera, Yaser S.; Alih, Imran; Taibah University; Suez Canal University; Jizan University; Alarish University; University of Chester; Sunderland University; Kunsan National University; Central University, New Delhi (Bentham Science, 2018-04-01)
      Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt.