• Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Drewnowski, Adam; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2003-09)
      Whereas soft drinks are described as primarily thirst-quenching liquids, juices and milk are said to be liquid foods, with a greater satiating power. This study was conducted to compare the effects of orange juice, low-fat milk (1%), regular cola, and sparkling water on hunger, thirst, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal. Thirty-two volunteers (14 men and 18 women), ages 18–35 years, consumed a breakfast preload composed of 590 ml (20 oz) of an energy-containing beverage (1036 kJ) or water (0 kJ) and a slice of toast (418 kJ) on four different occasions. Participants rated hunger, thirst, fullness, and desire to eat at baseline and at 20-min intervals for 2 h following preload ingestion. A tray lunch was presented at 2 h, 15 min and food consumption was measured. Compared to sparkling water, the three energy-containing beverages were associated with higher fullness and reduced hunger rating and desire to eat. However, energy intakes at lunch (4511±151 kJ for men and 3183±203 kJ for women) were the same across all four beverage conditions and no compensation for breakfast energy was observed. The three beverages of equal energy value were significantly different from sparkling water, but not from each other, in their effects on hunger and satiety ratings. All four beverages satisfied thirst equally well. Whether energy-containing cola, juice, and low-fat milk facilitate a positive energy balance remains a topic for further study.
    • No difference in satiety or in subsequent energy intakes between a beverage and a solid food

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Flores, Sonia Y.; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2004-09-30)
      Energy compensation following the consumption of caloric beverages is said to be imprecise and incomplete. This study compared the relative impact on satiety and energy intakes of the physical form of foods versus the timing of consumption. Thirty-two volunteers (16 men and 16 women), aged 18–35 years, consumed equal-energy preloads (1254 kJ, 300 kcal) of regular cola (710 ml, 24 oz) or fat-free raspberry cookies (87 g, 3 oz) on two occasions each. The preloads were presented either 2 h or 20 min before the test meal. Their principal ingredient was sugar. Participants rated motivational states prior to ingestion and at 30-min intervals. A tray lunch was presented at 12:30 p.m., and food consumption was measured. Regular cola and cookies suppressed hunger ratings equally and no temporal difference in satiety was observed. Cola, but not cookies, resulted in lower ratings of thirst. Energy intakes at lunch were lower when the preload was consumed closer to the test meal (20 min) but was not affected by physical form (liquid vs. solid). Cola, but not cookies, reduced water intakes at lunch. There was no satiety deficit following the ingestion of a beverage as compared with a solid food. The timing of consumption may be more important than the physical form of energy consumed.