• Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake of hurlers

      Murphy, John; orcid: 0000-0002-8337-722X; O’Reilly, James (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-26)
      The current study investigated the association between sports nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a sample of adult Irish male hurling players. Nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ). Diet quality was measured by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modelling were used to assess associations between variables. A total of 265 (129 elite, 136 sub-elite) players were recruited. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge (SNKQ) was found between groups. Results showed a significant difference (p = 0.02; d = 0.39 ± 0.25; small) in food score (ARFS) between groups. A weak, positive association (r = 0.3, p = 0.007) was found between nutrition knowledge and food score. Elite level players, aged 28–32, with college degrees, that have previously received nutritional guidance displayed the highest levels of both nutrition knowledge and food score. Higher levels of nutrition knowledge and food score were expected in elite players, however were only found in food score. Nutrition knowledge does contribute to dietary quality although future interventions should focus on specific gaps in knowledge such as how to meet total energy/carbohydrate requirements.
    • The role of antibody expression and their association with bladder cancer recurrence: a single-centre prospective clinical-pilot study in 35 patients

      Ella-tongwiis, Peter; Lamb, Rebecca May; Makanga, Alexander; Shergill, Iqbal; Hughes, Stephen Fôn; orcid: 0000-0001-6558-9037; email: Stephen.hughes6@wales.nhs.uk (BioMed Central, 2020-11-25)
      Abstract: Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common cancer in the UK, with about 10,000 new cases annually. About 75–85% of BC are non-muscle invasive (NMIBC), which is associated with high recurrence and progression rates (50–60% within 7–10 years). There are no routine biomarkers currently available for identifying BC patients at increased risk of developing recurrence. The focus of this research study was to evaluate antibody expression in BC patients and their association with cancer recurrence. Methods: 35 patients scheduled for TURBT were recruited after written informed consent. Ethical approval for the project was granted via IRAS (REC4: 14/WA/0033). Following surgical procedure, tissues were preserved in 10% buffered formalin and processed within 24 h in FFPE blocks. 7 sections (4 µm each) were cut from each block and stained for CD31, Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), S100P, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), VEGFR-3 thrombomodulin and CEACAM-1 using immunohistochemistry. Clinical outcome measures (obtained via cystoscopy) were monitored for up to 6 months following surgical procedure. Results: There was significantly increased expression of CD31 (p < 0.001), HER-2 (p = 0.032), S100P (p < 0.001), COX-2 (p < 0.001), VEGFR-3 (p < 0.001) and decreased expression of thrombomodulin (p = 0.010) and CEACAM-1 (p < 0.001) in bladder tumours compared to normal bladder tissues. HER-2 expression was also significantly associated with cancer grade (p = 0.003), especially between grade 1 and grade 2 (p = 0.002) and between grade 1 and grade 3 (p = 0.004). There was also a significant association between cancer stage and HER-2 expression (p < 0.001). Although recurrence was significantly associated with cancer grade, there was no association with antibody expression. Conclusion: Findings from the present study may indicate an alternative approach in the monitoring and management of patients with BC. It is proposed that by allowing urological surgeons access to laboratory markers such as HER-2, Thrombomodulin and CD31 (biomarker profile), potentially, in the future, these biomarkers may be used in addition to, or in combination with, currently used scoring systems to predict cancer recurrence. However, verification and validation of these biomarkers are needed using larger cohorts.
    • Fitness Monitoring in Elite Soccer Players: Group vs. Individual Analyses.

      Rabbani, Alireza; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Twist, Craig (2020-11)
      The aims of this study were to (a) examine changes in group and individual HR measures during a submaximal warm-up test, and (b) investigate the relationship between accumulated internal training loads and HR changes during an in-season phase among elite soccer players (n = 14). Before and after an in-season phase (24 days), exercise HR (HRex) and HR recovery (HRR) expressed either as the number of beats recovered (HRR60s) or as the mean HR (HRpost1) during 1 minute of recovery were analyzed. Heart rate measures were expressed as the % of maximal HR. Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was computed for all training/match sessions. Group and individual HR changes were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Pearson correlation coefficients were also used to examine the relationships. Group analyses of HR changes revealed there were possibly to likely trivial changes in all HR measures. When analyzing individual data, no substantial change was observed for HRR60s%. However, substantial changes in HRex% and HRpost1% were observed for 4/14 and 5/14 players, respectively. The relationships between HRex% and HRpost1% were nearly perfect (r = 0.90, confidence limits [0.82-0.95]). The associations between changes in HRex% and HRpost1% were also nearly perfect (r = 0.92, 0.80-0.97). A very large inverse correlation was observed between HRex% and accumulated sRPE (r = -0.75, -0.44 to -0.90). This study highlights the value of conducting individual vs. group aerobic fitness monitoring. This study also showed the importance of how HRR is reported when aerobic fitness monitoring of elite soccer players.
    • Occurrence of chemical pollutants in major e-waste sites in West Africa and usefulness of cytotoxicity and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in determining the effects of some detected brominated flame retardants and e-waste soil-derived extracts.

      Eze, Chukwuebuka ThankGod; orcid: 0000-0001-8076-2926; email: thankgod.eze@fuoye.edu.ng; Michelangeli, Francesco; Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem; Eze, Obianuju Oluchukwu; Ibraheem, Omodele; Ogbuene, Emeka Bright; Ogunwole, Germaine Akinola (2020-10-25)
      We investigated the occurrence of chemical pollutants in major e-waste sites in West Africa and usefulness of cytotoxicity and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in determining the effects of some detected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and e-waste soil-derived extracts. Analysis of the e-waste site samples using AAS and GC-MS techniques revealed the presence of a range of toxic metals as well as persistent and toxic organic pollutants, respectively, in the vicinity of the e-waste sites. As expected, the occurrence (%) of all the detected chemical pollutants in experimental soils significantly (P < 0.05) differs from occurrence (%) in control soil. The calculated LC values on RBL-2H3 cells of the detected tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were 3.75 μM and 4.2 μM, respectively. Tribromophenol (TBP), dibromobiphenyl (DBB), and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) were remarkably less toxic on RBL-2H3 cells compared with TBBPA and HBCD as they did not reduce RBL-2H3 cell viability below 50% in the tested concentration range (0-20 μM). The study revealed that TBBPA and HBCD could induce significant RBL-2H3 cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis. The study further shows that the cytotoxicity of some of these BFRs could increase synergistically when in mixtures and potentially activate inflammation through the stimulation of mast cell degranulation. The e-waste soil-derived extracts induced a concentration-dependent increase in EROD activity in the exposed RTG-W1 cells. Ultimately, nonpolar extracts had higher EROD-inducing potency compared with polar extracts and hence suggesting the presence in higher amounts of AhR agonists in nonpolar e-waste soil-derived extracts than polar extracts. Overall, there is urgent need for actions in order to improve the environmental quality of the e-waste sites.
    • Ecotoxicological and regulatory aspects of environmental sustainability of nanopesticides.

      Grillo, Renato; email: renato.grillo@unesp.br; Fraceto, Leonardo F; Amorim, Mónica J B; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Chaudhry, Qasim (2020-10-02)
      Recent years have seen the development of various colloidal formulations of pesticides and other agrochemicals aimed at use in sustainable agriculture. These formulations include inorganic, organic or hybrid particulates, or nanocarriers composed of biodegradable polymers, that can provide a better control of the release of active ingredients. The very small particle sizes and high surface areas of nanopesticides may however also lead to some unintended (eco)toxicological effects due to the way in which they interact with the target and non-target species and the environment. The current level of knowledge on ecotoxicological effects of nanopesticides is scarce, especially in regard to the fate and behaviour of such formulations in the environment. Nanopesticides will however have to cross a stringent regulatory scrutiny before marketing in most countries for health and environmental risks under a range of regulatory frameworks that require pre-market notification, risk assessment and approval, followed by labelling, post-market monitoring and surveillance. This review provides an overview of the key regulatory and ecotoxicological aspects relating to nanopesticides that will need to be considered for environmentally-sustainable use in agriculture. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Sarcopenia during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions: long-term health effects of short-term muscle loss.

      Kirwan, Richard; orcid: 0000-0003-4645-0077; email: r.p.kirwan@2018.ljmu.ac.uk; McCullough, Deaglan; orcid: 0000-0002-9882-9639; Butler, Tom; orcid: 0000-0003-0818-1566; email: t.butler@chester.ac.uk; Perez de Heredia, Fatima; orcid: 0000-0002-2537-3327; Davies, Ian G; orcid: 0000-0003-3722-8466; Stewart, Claire; orcid: 0000-0002-8104-4819 (2020-10-01)
      The COVID-19 pandemic is an extraordinary global emergency that has led to the implementation of unprecedented measures in order to stem the spread of the infection. Internationally, governments are enforcing measures such as travel bans, quarantine, isolation, and social distancing leading to an extended period of time at home. This has resulted in reductions in physical activity and changes in dietary intakes that have the potential to accelerate sarcopenia, a deterioration of muscle mass and function (more likely in older populations), as well as increases in body fat. These changes in body composition are associated with a number of chronic, lifestyle diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, frailty, cognitive decline, and depression. Furthermore, CVD, diabetes, and elevated body fat are associated with greater risk of COVID-19 infection and more severe symptomology, underscoring the importance of avoiding the development of such morbidities. Here we review mechanisms of sarcopenia and their relation to the current data on the effects of COVID-19 confinement on physical activity, dietary habits, sleep, and stress as well as extended bed rest due to COVID-19 hospitalization. The potential of these factors to lead to an increased likelihood of muscle loss and chronic disease will be discussed. By offering a number of home-based strategies including resistance exercise, higher protein intakes and supplementation, we can potentially guide public health authorities to avoid a lifestyle disease and rehabilitation crisis post-COVID-19. Such strategies may also serve as useful preventative measures for reducing the likelihood of sarcopenia in general and in the event of future periods of isolation.
    • History of traction

      Flynn, Sandra (Elsevier, 2020-10-01)
    • Nicotinamide restricts neural precursor proliferation to enhance catecholaminergic neuronal subtype differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells

      Borlongan, Cesar V.; Griffin, Síle M.; orcid: 0000-0002-6670-5084; email: silemgriffin@gmail.com; Pickard, Mark R.; Hawkins, Clive P.; Williams, Adrian C.; Fricker, Rosemary A.; orcid: 0000-0001-8768-510X (Public Library of Science, 2020-09-14)
      Emerging evidence indicates that a strong relationship exists between brain regenerative therapies and nutrition. Early life nutrition plays an important role during embryonic brain development, and there are clear consequences to an imbalance in nutritional factors on both the production and survival of mature neuronal populations and the infant’s risk of diseases in later life. Our research and that of others suggest that vitamins play a fundamental role in the formation of neurons and their survival. There is a growing body of evidence that nicotinamide, the water-soluble amide form of vitamin B3, is implicated in the conversion of pluripotent stem cells to clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies. This study investigated the ability of nicotinamide to promote the development of mature catecholaminergic neuronal populations (associated with Parkinson’s disease) from mouse embryonic stem cells, as well as investigating the underlying mechanisms of nicotinamide’s action. Nicotinamide selectively enhanced the production of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons and serotonergic neurons from mouse embryonic stem cell cultures (Sox1GFP knock-in 46C cell line). A 5-Ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay ascertained that nicotinamide, when added in the initial phase, reduced cell proliferation. Nicotinamide drove tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neuron differentiation as effectively as an established cocktail of signalling factors, reducing the proliferation of neural progenitors and accelerating neuronal maturation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter expression. These novel findings show that nicotinamide enhanced and enriched catecholaminergic differentiation and inhibited cell proliferation by directing cell cycle arrest in mouse embryonic stem cell cultures, thus driving a critical neural proliferation-to-differentiation switch from neural progenitors to neurons. Further research into the role of vitamin metabolites in embryogenesis will significantly advance cell-based regenerative medicine, and help realize their role as crucial developmental signalling molecules in brain development.
    • Perceptions and experiences of occupational sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic responses to reducing sitting time at work

      Deery, Elizabeth C. (University of Chester, 2020-09-10)
      Sedentary behaviour is linked to cardiometabolic health, independent of physical activity (PA), in a majority of the UK population. The workplace accounts for around 70% of daily sitting time, thus making it a popular domain for intervention. This thesis included a critical review and four studies which evaluated the use of sit-stand desks in relation to; perceptions and experiences; acute blood glucose responses; longerterm cardiometabolic health changes and self-reported use and finally the vascular health changes. Within this thesis a review of the literature was carried out, and examined evidence relating to occupational sedentary behaviour and its impact on health amongst adults, as well as the effectiveness of interventions to reduce occupational sitting time. The review highlighted that whilst many sit-stand desk interventions effectively reduced occupational sitting time, findings regarding both acute and chronic cardiometabolic responses to such interventions were equivocal. The review also highlighted that perceptions of sit-stand desk use are underinvestigated, particularly in the UK context. Study one used focus groups to examine the perceptions and experiences of sit-stand desk work amongst UK based officeworkers. Expected health beliefs and personal health history were important drivers of behaviour change whilst experienced benefits, organisational culture and peers were important in maintaining behaviour change. Study two examined the acute bloodglucose responses to sit-stand desk work using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and assessed changes to workplace sitting, standing and stepping time. Objectively measured workplace sitting time decreased by ~50% and total daily sitting percentage reduced from 70% to 45%. However there were no significant differences in postprandial blood glucose excursion between conditions. Occupational sitting time of this sample was much lower than that previously reported within the literature and may explain differences in findings. Study three examined a longer-term (6 and 12 month) intervention, assessing self-reported sitting time, self-reported physical activity and cardiometabolic health markers including anthropometric measurements, predicted aerobic capacity, blood pressure and blood profiles. Self-reported sitting time significantly decreased over 6 and 12 month interventions. A decrease was also seen in the control group prior to the intervention period suggesting a possible trial effect. Despite this change to self-reported sitting, there was no significant impact on cardiometabolic health markers. Study four explored the impact of an 8-week sit-stand desk intervention on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), blood pressure and blood profile whilst measuring fidelity to the intervention using both self-report and objective measures of PA and sitting time. There was a significant decrease in self-report total daily sitting time however, objectively measured sitting time and cardiometabolic health markers did not significantly differ over the intervention period. Moreover, a significant difference was observed between self-report and objectively measured sitting time at midpoint, in the intervention group only. To conclude, whilst sit-stand desks are an attractive means to work, which participants perceive to be of benefit physically, mentally and in their work performance, the installation of sit-stand desks in isolation does not appear to be a sufficient means by which to impact on longerterm occupational sitting time. Additionally, self-report methods may not be a suitable means to measure changes to sitting time during an intervention. Future research should aim to explore the behaviour change techniques effective in reducing occupational sitting time, whether interventions which successfully decrease occupational sitting time bring about cardiometabolic benefits and disparities between perceived and measured outcomes of sit-stand desk interventions on activity levels, health markers, and performance markers.
    • Comparing physician associates and foundation year two doctors-in-training undertaking emergency medicine consultations in England: a mixed-methods study of processes and outcomes

      Halter, Mary; orcid: 0000-0001-6636-0621; Drennan, Vari; orcid: 0000-0002-8915-5185; Wang, Chao; Wheeler, Carly; Gage, Heather; Nice, Laura; de Lusignan, Simon; orcid: 0000-0001-5613-6810; Gabe, Jonathan; Brearley, Sally; Ennis, James; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-09-01)
      Objectives: To compare the contribution of physician associates to the processes and outcomes of emergency medicine consultations with that of foundation year two doctors-in-training. Design: Mixed-methods study: retrospective chart review using 4 months’ anonymised clinical record data of all patients seen by physician associates or foundation year two doctors-in-training in 2016; review of a subsample of 40 records for clinical adequacy; semi-structured interviews with staff and patients; observations of physician associates. Setting: Three emergency departments in England. Participants: The records of 8816 patients attended by 6 physician associates and 40 foundation year two doctors-in-training; of these n=3197 had the primary outcome recorded (n=1129 physician associates, n=2068 doctor); 14 clinicians and managers and 6 patients or relatives for interview; 5 physician associates for observation. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was unplanned re-attendance at the same emergency department within 7 days. Secondary outcomes: consultation processes, clinical adequacy of care, and staff and patient experience. Results: Re-attendances within 7 days (n=194 (6.1%)) showed no difference between physician associates and foundation year two doctors-in-training (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.24, p=0.437). If seen by a physician associate, patients were more likely receive an X-ray investigation (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.24), p<0.001), after adjustment for patient characteristics, triage severity of condition and statistically significant clinician intraclass correlation. Clinical reviewers found almost all patients’ charts clinically adequate. Physician associates were evaluated as assessing patients in a similar way to foundation year two doctors-in-training and providing continuity in the team. Patients were positive about the care they had received from a physician associate, but had poor understanding of the role. Conclusions: Physician associates in emergency departments in England treated patients with a range of conditions safely, and at a similar level to foundation year two doctors-in-training, providing clinical operational efficiencies.
    • The importance of long-term genetic monitoring of reintroduced populations: inbreeding in the natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita)

      Muir, Anna P.; Phillips, Susanna; Geary, Matt; Allmark, Matthew; Bennett, Sarah; Norman, Kim; Ball, Rachel J; Peters, Catherine; University of Chester; Cheshire Wildlife Trust; Eni UK Ltd (British Herpetological Society, 2020-07-31)
      Genetic monitoring is an important, but frequently lacking, component of management actions to support long-term persistence in reintroduced populations. Populations that remain small, due to demographic processes and genetic diversity, are more likely to experience a second extinction event. The natterjack toad (Epidelea calamita) is legally protected in Britain and was the subject of a reintroduction programme in the 1990s. However, subsequent genetic assessment has been mostly lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of two reintroduced populations of natterjack toads in order to inform conservation management. Adults were sampled and nine microsatellites amplified to assess neutral genetic variation within each site and for comparison with the source population. Inbreeding was observed at the reintroduction sites, as evidenced by high FIS values (0.43 and 0.72), low observed compared to expected heterozygosities, and significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Observed heterozygosity is currently lower in the reintroduction sites than it was in the source population at the time of the reintroductions (Red Rocks: 0.15±0.20; Talacre: 0.12±0.20; Ainsdale (source): 0.29). Evidence for a bottleneck was not found, although this is likely a result of sampling overlapping generations. No within-site population structuring was observed. Such low genetic diversity has not previously been recorded in any natterjack population. Genetic rescue, combined with pool creation, is the most viable option for safeguarding the species at these sites into the future. Our work highlights the importance of ongoing genetic monitoring, in collaboration with conservation organisations, to support conservation management.
    • Social Experience of Captive Livingstone’s Fruit Bats (Pteropus livingstonii)

      Stanley, Christina R; Smith, Tessa; Welch, Morgan J; Hosie, Charlotte; Wormell, Dominic; Price, Eluned; University of Chester; Jersey Zoo (MDPI, 2020-07-30)
      Social network analysis has been highlighted as a powerful tool to enhance the evidence-based management of captive-housed species through its ability to quantify the social experience of individuals. We apply this technique to explore the social structure and social roles of 50 Livingstone’s fruit bats (Pteropus livingstonii) housed at Jersey Zoo, Channel Islands, through the observation of associative, affiliative, and aggressive interactions over two data collection periods. We implement binomial mixture modelling and characteristic-based assortment quantification to describe the complexity and organisation of social networks, as well as a multiple regression quadratic assignment procedural (MRQAP) test to analyse the relationship between network types. We examine the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, and dominance rank) on social role by fitting models to explain the magnitude of node metrics. Additionally, we utilize a quadratic assignment procedural (QAP) test to assess the temporal stability of social roles over two seasons. Our results indicate that P. livingstonii display a non-random network structure. Observed social networks are positively assorted by age, as well as dominance rank. The frequency of association between individuals correlates with a higher frequency of behavioural interactions, both affiliative and aggressive. Individual social roles remain consistent over ten months. We recommend that, to improve welfare and captive breeding success, relationships between individuals of similar ages and dominance levels should be allowed to persist in this group where possible, and separating individuals that interact frequently in an affiliative context should be avoided.
    • Margaret Chorley Crosfield, FGS: the very first female Fellow of the Geological Society

      Burek, C. V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractIn May 1919 the first female Fellows of the Geological Society were elected and from then on attended meetings at the Society. The first person on the female fellows’ list was Margaret Chorley Crosfield. She was born in 1859 and died in 1952. She lived all her life in Reigate in Surrey. After studying and then leaving Cambridge, Margaret had sought to join the Geological Society of London for many years, in order to gain recognition of her research work, but also to attend meetings and use the library. This paper will look at her history and trace her geological achievements in both stratigraphy and palaeontology, as well as her extraordinary field notebooks that she left to the Geological Survey. She worked closely with two female geological colleagues, Mary Johnston and Ethel Skeat. Margaret Crosfield epitomizes the educated, amateur, independent woman who wanted to be recognized for her work, especially fieldwork, at a time when female contributions, especially in the field sciences, were not always acknowledged or even appreciated.
    • Enhancing the formulation of Shared Mental Models in football players

      Robbins, Mandy; Newton, Joseph L. (University of Chester, 2020-06-24)
      A significant amount of research has examined the development of Decision-Making (DM) in sport. However, only a limited amount of research has explored decisions in the context of which they are made. Using the Naturalistic Decision-Making (NDM) paradigm this thesis employs Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) approaches and Performance Analysis (PA) within a professional football environment, through the lens of a performance analyst. Applying the DM Framework, outlined by Richards, Collins and Mascarenhas (2016), this thesis applied a mixed method approach using three CTA approaches; Critical Decision Method (CDM), Thinking Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) and Concept Mapping (CM) to examine the development of Shared Mental Models (SMMs). Additionally, PA data was collected to measure on-field application of SMMs in the format of match performance. Method: The development of DM ability was examined using professional footballers (n=16) and professional coaches (n=2), over an eight-week period. PA provided video footage of critical attacking play situations for use in team meetings. Meetings were designed to empower players in the DM process and involved the integration of CTA approaches in the form of a DM booklet. The booklet consisted of questions and diagrams relating to six clips identified by the coaches. Players and coaches would reflect on the clips individually and collectively as a team in an off-field setting. Each clip was split into three Phases, and six clips were shown to all team members in weekly meetings. To ascertain the retention of SMMs developed over the eight weeks, qualitative narratives recorded by the players (DM booklets) were analysed. No CTA processes were applied on week seven, as this was classified as a retention week. The CTA booklet recorded individual team members understanding of the situation and facilitated group discussions after clips. PA analysed data in the form of match statistics to assess transference of SMMs to the field of play. Results: CTA analysed data qualitatively indicated that individual Situational Awareness (SA) improved. Players identified more key themes in weeks six and eight compared to week one, indicating a development in SMMs and increased compatibility of SMM outlined by the two expert coach’s SA. Additionally, the complexity of the players SMMs and team SMMs developed. The PA data illustrated that the team generated more shots on target and more shots on target per Phase 3 entry in weeks six and eight than week zero (pre-investigation). The improved on-field performance of key performance indicators, combined with the increased identification of key themes and growing compatibility of players SMM in line with the expert coaches, demonstrate a more developed SMM which resulted in enhanced DM by the team. In summary, the application of PA and CTA methods within an off-field environment provides a mechanism to develop SMMs in a professional football team which transfer to enhancing on-field team DM in competitive play. However, this work utilising off-field learning environments to enhance DM, is still in its early stages and more research is needed.
    • Investigating the Prevalence of Anaemia in Rural Gambia, in Relation to Levels of Zinc Protoporphyrin, Haemoglobin and Haptoglobin (Phenotype and Genotype)

      Bah, Ebrima; Michelangeli, Frank (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-29)
      Abstract Objectives To find out the overlapping and correlating relationships between serum haptoglobin level, haptoglobin genotype and phenotype, blood haemoglobin level and zinc protoporphyrin (measured in washed RBCs) in association to prevalence of anaemia. It will focus on comparing all the mention components in contrast to each other. The study will also look for the frequency distribution of the major HP alleles. Methods 1278 participants were randomly selected. Blood samples collected by trained nurses. Data generation was done at the Medical research council (keneba field station) research site. Data Analysis was conducted at the university of Chester with the assistance of the computer department team. Results P = 0.000 indicating anaemia prevalence with HP 1 allele. P &amp;gt; 0.05 when ID, IDA and AI relates with HP genotype. Positive correlation between ZnPP and HP serum level, but negative between ZnPP and Hb. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb level. P = 0.013 between HP genotype and HP serum. P = 0.100 between HP genotype and ZnPP. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb. ZnPP shared a positive correlation with HP serum level, and a negative correlation with Hb level. The correlation significant = 0.01 level (2-tailed) P = 0.01. The correlation between HP genotype and HP serum level was significant with P = 0.013, but the correlation between HP genotype and ZnPP was not significant with P = 0.100. Conclusions HP genotype had association with anaemia prevalence and more occurrence was observed in carriers of the type ‘1’ allele. It had no association with ID, IDA and AI. HP genotype had association with HP serum level and Hb level but had no association with ZnPP level. ZnPP level was observed to have had association with HP serum level, Hb level and IDA; but had no association with ID and AI in the region. Funding Sources All the resources used in this study were from MRC Keneba (International Nutrition Group) which is supported by funds from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement (Hennig et al., 2015).
    • An investigation of canine mesenchymal stem cells and their secretome in the context of spinal cord injury

      Johnson, Eustace; Wood, Chelsea R (University of Chester, 2020-05-26)
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition that has devastating effects on both humans and animals alike. Damage inflicted causes loss of neural tissue and secondary inflammatory mechanisms produce an inhibitory environment that results in partial or complete loss of motor and sensory functions. Additionally, SCI can cause multisystem issues such as organ failures, infections, muscle atrophy and decrease in mental health. Coupled with emotional and financial burdens, these effects can reduce quality of life. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are known to have immunomodulatory, angiogenic and paracrine activity, all of which are beneficial to wound healing following SCI. Pre-clinical studies have shown encouraging results of MSC therapy for SCI, however replication of results has been difficult to achieve in the clinic. Dogs also suffer from SCI and show the same heterogenous nature and pathophysiology of SCI as humans. This provides a good potential clinical model for MSC therapies for SCI, as well as providing benefit in the veterinary clinic. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to assess if canine MSC (cMSC) and cMSC secretome (conditioned medium; CM) could potentially be used for treatment of SCI in veterinary clinics, simultaneously providing model data that could be translated into the human clinic. It was first required to confirm efficacy of cMSC when used to treat other conditions in dogs, such as arthritis, along with safety of autologous transplantation. Characterisation of both cMSC phenotype and paracrine (angiogenic and neurogenic) activity was confirmed using ISCT criteria and the established cell lines EA.hy926 and SH-SY5Y. Further examination showed that exposure to certain elements of the injured spinal cord, such as CSPG which are found within the inhibitory glial scar, exerted some effects on cMSC and cMSC angiogenic and neurogenic paracrine activity. To finish, the study aimed to assess the effect of cMSC CM on an ex vivo model of the spinal cord, a multicellular environment and it was found that cMSC CM increased astrocyte reactivity but reduced neuronal maturation and growth, suggesting that cMSC paracrine activity depends in part on the spinal cord microenvironment. Overall, this study has shown that cMSC, in particular cMSC CM, could be used as complete or partial treatment for SCI in dogs.
    • Factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa: a systematic mapping review.

      Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah; orcid: 0000-0001-5084-6213; Mohindra, Aarti; Booth, Andrew; Laar, Amos; Wanjohi, Milka; Graham, Fiona; Pradeilles, Rebecca; Cohen, Emmanuel; orcid: 0000-0001-5643-1473; Holdsworth, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-6028-885X (2020-05-26)
      To identify factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa and identify areas for future research. We systematically reviewed published/grey literature (protocol CRD4201706893). Findings were compiled into a map using a socio-ecological model on four environmental levels: individual, social, physical and macro. Urban food environments in Africa. Studies involving adolescents and adults (11-70 years, male/female). Thirty-nine studies were included (six adolescent, fifteen adolescent/adult combined and eighteen adult). Quantitative methods were most common (twenty-eight quantitative, nine qualitative and two mixed methods). Studies were from fifteen African countries. Seventy-seven factors influencing dietary behaviours were identified, with two-thirds at the individual level (45/77). Factors in the social (11/77), physical (12/77) and macro (9/77) environments were investigated less. Individual-level factors that specifically emerged for adolescents included self-esteem, body satisfaction, dieting, spoken language, school attendance, gender, body composition, pubertal development, BMI and fat mass. Studies involving adolescents investigated social environment-level factors more, for example, sharing food with friends. The physical food environment was more commonly explored in adults, for example, convenience/availability of food. Macro-level factors associated with dietary behaviours were food/drink advertising, religion and food prices. Factors associated with dietary behaviour were broadly similar for men and women. The dominance of studies exploring individual-level factors suggests a need for research to explore how social, physical and macro-level environments drive dietary behaviours of adolescents and adults in urban Africa. More studies are needed for adolescents and men, and studies widening the geographical scope to encompass all African countries.
    • From public issues to personal troubles: individualising social inequalities in health within local public health partnerships

      Mead, Rebecca; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Lancaster; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-20)
      This paper explores public health policy implementation through partnership working at the local level by examining how local actors from public health and the wider workforce, make sense of and work on social inequalities in health. An ethnographic case study was used to examine policy implementation in one local strategic partnership in north-west England during a period of significant resource constraint. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data generation. Sensitising concepts from figurational sociology were used to develop a theoretical account of how local policy implementation directed at narrowing social inequalities in health tended to give rise to relatively fragmented and short-term services, projects and practices, which focused on lifestyle factors and behaviour change. Theorising partnership work as figurations goes some way to explaining the apparent paradox among participants who expressed a relatively detached appreciation of wider social influences, alongside emotional involvement in their work. This process of individualisation explains how local professionals tended to conceptualise health inequality and the social determinants of health as personal troubles. Individualisation meant that the social reality of working in partnerships on difficult issues was simplified. Thus, any scope for working on the social determinants of health tended to be overlooked. The extent to which this was intentional or a matter of struggling to see opportunities, or a mixture of the two, was difficult to discern. Although the policy landscape has changed, the findings give some insight into understanding how local collaborative processes reproduce local public health work underpinned by lifestyle choices.
    • The effects of in-season, low-volume sprint interval training with and without sport-specific actions on the physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie M.; Moss, Samantha; Twist, Craig (Human Kinetics, 2020-05-01)
      Purpose: To determine the utility of a running and rugby-specific, in-season sprint interval interventions in professional rugby league players. Methods: Thirty-one professional academy rugby players were assigned to a rugby-specific (SITr/s, n = 16) or running (SITr, n = 15) sprint interval training group. Measures of speed, power, change of direction (CoD) ability, prone Yo-Yo IR1 performance and heart rate recovery (HRR) were taken before and after the 2-week intervention as were sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Internal, external and perceptual responses were collected during SITr/s/SITr, with wellbeing and neuromuscular function assessed before each session. Results: Despite contrasting (possible to most likely) internal, external and perceptual responses to the SIT interventions, possible to most likely within-group improvements in physical characteristics, HRR and sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1 were observed after both interventions. Between-group analysis favoured the SITr/s intervention (trivial to moderate) for changes in 10 m sprint time, CMJ, change of direction and medicine ball throw as well as sub-maximal (280-440 m) high metabolic power, PlayerLoad™ and acceleratory distance during the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Overall changes in wellbeing or neuromuscular function were unclear. Conclusion: Two-weeks of SITr/s and SITr was effective for improving physical characteristics, HRR and sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1, with no clear change in wellbeing and neuromuscular function. Between-group analysis favoured the SITr/s group, suggesting that the inclusion of sport- specific actions should be considered for in-season conditioning of rugby league players.
    • Distribution, status and recent population dynamics of Alpine ibex Capra ibex in Europe

      Brambillla, Alice; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Nelli, Luca; Bassano, Bruno; University of Zurich, University of Chester, University of Glasgow, Gran Paradiso National PArk (Wiley, 2020-04-20)
      1. Despite its recent successful and well-documented reintroduction history, a comprehensive and current update of the distribution and status of the Alpine ibex Capra ibex is lacking. As some concerns persist about its conservation, a status update appears essential for future conservation and management strategies on a large scale. 2. We provide an exhaustive update of the geographic range of the species, alongside estimates of its current abundance and population trends from 2004 to 2015. 3. We gathered census and distribution data for all the Alpine ibex colonies from management authorities and research groups that monitor them in different countries, and from the literature and publicly available reports. We produced a distribution map, reported the number of individuals observed in the most recent censuses, and estimated global, national, and local population trends using Bayesian hierarchical models. 4. Our model estimated that there were a total of 55297 Alpine ibex in the Alps in 2015 (lower 95% Credible Interval [CrI]: 51157; upper 95% CrI: 62710). The total number of individuals appears to have increased slightly over the last 10 years from the 47000-51000 estimated in previous reports. Positive population trends were observed in Switzerland and Italy, while no trend was apparent in France. For Austria, Germany, and Slovenia, there were insufficient data to estimate a trend. The slopes of the colonies’ trends were positively correlated with the year of colony foundation. 5. The geographic range of the Alpine ibex does not seem to have increased in size in recent years, although the accuracy of the spatial data varies among countries. 6. The periodic and standardised collection of census data for all colonies and a common policy of data-sharing at a European level appear essential for monitoring the global trend of this species and for planning balanced conservation and management actions.