• Effort Perception

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Eston, Roger; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of Chester; University of South Australia (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      Research addressing children's perceptions of exercise effort (their ‘perceived exertion’) has appeared steadily in the scientific literature over the last 30 years. Accepting that the established Borg adult rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was not appropriate for children, investigators set about developing child-specific scales which employed numbers, words and/or images that were more familiar and understandable. Numerous studies have examined the validity and reliability of such scales as the CERT, PCERT and OMNI amongst children aged 5 to 16, across different modes of exercise (cycling, running, stepping, resistance exercise), protocols (intermittent vs. continuous, incremental vs. non-incremental) and paradigms (estimation vs. production). Such laboratory-based research has enabled the general conclusion that children can, especially with practice, use effort perception scales to differentiate between exercise intensity levels, and to self-regulate their exercise output to match various levels indicated on them. However, inconsistencies in the methodological approaches adopted diminish the certainty of some of the interpretations made by researchers. In addition, though often mentioned, the would-be application of effort perception in physical education and activity/health promotion contexts has been relatively ignored. Accordingly, the scope for research in this applied domain is now considerable.
    • Misperception: No evidence to dismiss RPE as regulator of moderate-intensity exercise

      Eston, Roger; Coquart, J.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of South Australia; Universite´ de Rouen; University of Chester (American College of Sports Medicine, 2015-12-01)
      Dear Editor-in-Chief, Shaykevich et al. (7) demonstrate the efficacy of auditory feedback anchored at 75% of age-predicted HRmax to regulate intensity (claimed as ‘‘moderate’’) during several 20-min bouts of cycling. Their technical approach is novel, but 76% HRmax is the upper limit of moderate intensity, so given the large error in age-predicted HRmax, it is unlikely that their exercise bandwidth was ‘‘moderate’’ for all participants. This is not our major concern, but it reveals one among other inaccuracies: the most serious include training, interpretation, and inferences relating to the RPE.
    • Self-efficacy for temptations is a better predictor of weight loss than motivation and global self-efficacy: Evidence from two prospective studies among overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer.

      Armitage, Christopher J.; Wright, Claire E.; Parfitt, Gaynor; Pegington, Mary; Donnelly, Louise S.; Harvie, Michelle N.; University of Manchester; University of Chester; University of South Australia; University Hospital South Manchester (Elsevier, 2014-12-03)
      OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of weight loss could help to triage people who will benefit most from programs and identify those who require additional support. The present research was designed to address statistical, conceptual and operational difficulties associated with the role of self-efficacy in predicting weight loss. METHODS: In Study 1, 115 dieting overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer were weighed and completed questionnaires assessing motivation, global self-efficacy and self-efficacy for temptations. The main outcome measure was weight, measured 3-months post-baseline. Study 2 was identical (n=107), except changes in psychological variables were computed, and used to predict weight 6-months post-baseline. RESULTS: In Study 1, self-efficacy for temptations was a significant predictor of weight loss at 3-month follow-up. In Study 2, improved self-efficacy for temptations between baseline and four-weeks was predictive of lower weight at 6 months. CONCLUSION: The key finding was that self-efficacy for temptations, as opposed to motivation and global self-efficacy, was predictive of subsequent weight loss. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The implication is that augmenting dieters' capability for dealing with temptations might boost the impact of weight loss programs.
    • The validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a perceptually-regulated graded exercise test

      Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; King, Nicholas; University of Exeter ; University of Chester ; University of Exeter ; University of Wales, Bangor (Springer-Verlag, 2005-04-07)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from sub-maximal values elicited during a perceptually-regulated exercise test. We hypothesised that the strong relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and would enable to be predicted and that this would improve with practice. Ten male volunteers performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to establish followed by three sub-maximal RPE production protocols on a cycle ergometer, each separated by a period of 48 h.
    • What is the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on cardiorespiratory fitness in those undergoing cardiac rehabilitation? A systematic review with meta-analysis

      Mitchell, Braden L.; Lock, Merilyn J.; Parfitt, Gaynor; Buckley, John P.; Davison, Kade; Eston, Roger; University of South Australia, University Centre Shrewsbury/University of Chester (BMJ, 2018-08-18)
      18 Objective: Assess the role of exercise intensity on changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in 19 patients with cardiac conditions attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. 20 Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. 21 Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO and Web of Science. 22 Eligibility criteria for selection: Studies assessing change in CRF (reported as peak oxygen uptake; 23 V̇O2peak) in patients post-myocardial infarction and revascularisation, following exercise-based 24 cardiac rehabilitation. Studies establishing V̇O2peak via symptom-limited exercise test with ventilatory 25 gas analysis and reported intensity of exercise during rehabilitation were included. Studies with 26 mean ejection fraction <40% were excluded. 27 Results: 128 studies including 13,220 patients were included. Interventions were classified as 28 moderate, moderate-to-vigorous or vigorous intensity based on published recommendations. 29 Moderate and moderate-to-vigorous intensity interventions were associated with a moderate 30 increase in relative V̇O2peak (standardised mean difference ± 95% CI = 0.94 ± 0.30 and 0.93 ± 0.17, 31 respectively), and vigorous-intensity exercise with a large increase (1.10 ± 0.25). Moderate and 32 vigorous intensity interventions were associated with moderate improvements in absolute V̇O2peak 33 (0.63 ± 0.34 and 0.93 ± 0.20, respectively), whereas moderate-to-vigorous intensity interventions 34 elicited a large effect (1.27 ± 0.75). Large heterogeneity among studies was observed for all analyses. 35 Subgroup analyses yielded statistically significant, but inconsistent, improvements in CRF. 36 Conclusion: Engagement in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation was associated with significant 37 improvements in both absolute and relative V̇O2peak. Although exercise of vigorous intensity 38 produced the greatest pooled effect for change in relative V̇O2peak, differences in pooled effects 39 between intensities could not be considered clinically meaningful.