• Health-related effects and improving extractability of cereal arabinoxylans

      Fadel, Abdulmannan; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Ashworth, Jason J.; Li, Weili; Ng, Yu L.; Plunkett, Andrew; Manchester Metropolitan University; Beni-Suef University; Charité-University Medicine; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-11-11)
      Arabinoxylans (AXs) are major dietary fibers. They are composed of backbone chains of -(1–4)- linked xylose residues to which -l-arabinose are linked in the second and/or third carbon positions. Recently, AXs have attracted a great deal of attention because of their biological activities such as their immunomodulatory potential. Extraction of AXs has some difficulties; therefore, various methods have beenusedto increase the extractability ofAXs withvaryingdegrees of success, suchas alkaline, enzymatic, mechanical extraction. However, some of these treatments have been reported to be either expensive, such as enzymatic treatments, or produce hazardous wastes and are non-environmentally friendly, such as alkaline treatments. On the other hand, mechanical assisted extraction, especially extrusion cooking, is an innovative pre-treatment that has been used to increase the solubility of AXs. The aim of the current review article is to point out the health-related effects and to discuss the current research on the extraction methods of AXs.
    • Improving the extractability of arabinoxylans and the molecular weight of wheat endosperm using extrusion processing

      Abdulmannan, Fadel; Jason, Ashworth; Andrew, Plunkett; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Yazan, Ranneh; University of Leeds; Manchester Metropolitan University; Beni-Suef University; Universiti Putra Malaysia; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-09-14)
      Cereal derived arabinoxylans (AXs) are non-starch polysaccharides that have immunomodulatory activities. These activities are thought to be related to the low molecular weight fractions of AXs. Wheat and wheat by-products are rich in AXs, however, the water extractable fraction of AXs in wheat products is low. Water extraction of AXs can be improved by extrusion processing, which increases the extractability of the water soluble fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the extractability and molecular weight of the water soluble fraction of AXs from wheat endosperm after extrusion at screw speeds of 80 and 160 rpm. Extrusion processing significantly (P<0.05) increased the water extractability of AXs in a screw-speed dependent manner (13.07±0.12% at 80 rpm and 15.45±0.16% at 160 rpm compared to8.95±0.10% in the non-extruded control) due to a significant increase (P<0.05) in low molecular weight fractions of AXs in extruded samples.