• The composition and oxidative stability of vegetarian omega-3 algal oil nanoemulsions suitable for functional food enrichment

      Li, Weili; Lane, Katie E.; Robinson, Sharon; ZHOU, Qiqian; Liverpool John Moores University, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Chester (Wiley Online Library, 2019-10-10)
      Abstract Background: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) nanoemulsion enriched foods offer potential to address habitually low oily fish intakes. Nanoemulsions increase LCn3PUFA bioavailability, but may cause lipid oxidation. This study examined oxidative stability of LCn3PUFA algal oil-in-water nanoemulsions created by ultrasound using natural and synthetic emulsifiers during 5-weeks of storage at 4, 20 and 40°C. Fatty acid composition, droplet size ranges and volatile compounds were analysed. Results: No significant differences were found for fatty acid composition at various temperatures and storage times. Lecithin nanoemulsions had significantly larger droplet size ranges at baseline and during storage regardless of temperatures. While combined Tween 40 and lecithin nanoemulsions had low initial droplet size ranges, there were significant increases at 40°C after 5-weeks storage. Gas chromatograms identified hexanal and propanal as predominant volatile compounds, along with 2-ethylfuran; propan-3-ol; valeraldehyde. The Tween 40 only nanoemulsion sample showed formation of lower concentrations of volatiles compared to lecithin samples. Formation of hexanal and propanal remained stable at lower temperatures although higher concentrations were found in nanoemulsions than bulk oil. The lecithin only sample had formation of higher concentrations of volatiles at increased temperatures despite having significantly larger droplet size ranges than the other samples. Conclusions: Propanal and hexanal were the most prevalent of five volatile compounds detected in bulk oil and lecithin and/or Tween 40 nanoemulsions. Oxidation compounds remained more stable at lower temperatures indicating suitability for enrichment of refrigerated foods. Further research to evaluate the oxidation stability of these systems 35 within food matrices is warranted.
    • The development of vegetarian omega-3 oil in water nanoemulsions suitable for integration into functional food products

      Lane, Katie E.; Li, Weili; Smith, Christopher J.; Derbyshire, Emma J.; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03-31)
      Global trends show that habitual omega-3 intakes are short of recommended guidelines, particularly among vegetarians and vegans. The potential health implications of low long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCω3PUFA) intakes coupled with concerns about sustainability of fish stocks call for innovative approaches to provide food based solutions to this problem. Nanoemulsions are systems with extremely small droplet sizes that could provide a solution while improving the bioavailability of LCω3PUFA. Oil in water nanoemulsion systems were successfully created using ultrasound with oil loads of up to 50% (w/w) using vegetarian LCω3PUFA oils (flaxseed and algae). Nanoemulsions of 50% (w/w) with mean droplet size measurements of 192 (flaxseed) and 182 nm (algae) using combinations of the emulsifiers Tween 40 and lecithin were prepared. This technique could be applied to create vegetarian LCω3PUFA nanoemulsions suitable for integration into enriched functional food products with the potential to increase LCω3PUFA intake and bioavailability