• Occurrence of chemical pollutants in major e-waste sites in West Africa and usefulness of cytotoxicity and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in determining the effects of some detected brominated flame retardants and e-waste soil-derived extracts.

      Eze, Chukwuebuka ThankGod; orcid: 0000-0001-8076-2926; email: thankgod.eze@fuoye.edu.ng; Michelangeli, Francesco; Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem; Eze, Obianuju Oluchukwu; Ibraheem, Omodele; Ogbuene, Emeka Bright; Ogunwole, Germaine Akinola (2020-10-25)
      We investigated the occurrence of chemical pollutants in major e-waste sites in West Africa and usefulness of cytotoxicity and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in determining the effects of some detected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and e-waste soil-derived extracts. Analysis of the e-waste site samples using AAS and GC-MS techniques revealed the presence of a range of toxic metals as well as persistent and toxic organic pollutants, respectively, in the vicinity of the e-waste sites. As expected, the occurrence (%) of all the detected chemical pollutants in experimental soils significantly (P < 0.05) differs from occurrence (%) in control soil. The calculated LC values on RBL-2H3 cells of the detected tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were 3.75 μM and 4.2 μM, respectively. Tribromophenol (TBP), dibromobiphenyl (DBB), and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) were remarkably less toxic on RBL-2H3 cells compared with TBBPA and HBCD as they did not reduce RBL-2H3 cell viability below 50% in the tested concentration range (0-20 μM). The study revealed that TBBPA and HBCD could induce significant RBL-2H3 cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis. The study further shows that the cytotoxicity of some of these BFRs could increase synergistically when in mixtures and potentially activate inflammation through the stimulation of mast cell degranulation. The e-waste soil-derived extracts induced a concentration-dependent increase in EROD activity in the exposed RTG-W1 cells. Ultimately, nonpolar extracts had higher EROD-inducing potency compared with polar extracts and hence suggesting the presence in higher amounts of AhR agonists in nonpolar e-waste soil-derived extracts than polar extracts. Overall, there is urgent need for actions in order to improve the environmental quality of the e-waste sites.