• Application of immunological methods for the detection of species adulteration in dairy products

      Hurley, Ian P.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Coleman, Robert C.; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (Wiley, 2004-10-20)
      A number of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for the detection of milk adulteration in dairy products. Target antigens have been caseins, lactoglobulins, immunoglobulins and other whey proteins. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used in a variety of formats including direct, indirect, competitive and sandwich ELISAs. ELISAs have been successfully applied to the detection of cows' milk adulteration of sheep, goat and buffalo milk. Goat milk adulteration of sheep milk has also been detected. A number of ELISAs have also been applied to cheese. It is recommended that ELISA should be used in combination with PCR to ensure compliance with current legislation.
    • Measurement of bovine IgG by indirect competitive ELISA as a means of detecting milk adulteration

      Hurley, Ian P.; Coleman, Robert C.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (American Dairy Science Association, 2004-03)
      The aim of this work was to develop an assay capable of detecting adulteration of high premium milk with milk from cheaper sources. An indirect, competitive ELISA was developed for the rapid detection of cows’ milk in the milk of goat, sheep, and buffalo. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody produced against bovine IgG. This antibody recognizes a species-specific epitope on the heavy chain of both bovine IgG1 and IgG2. A peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgG antibody was used to detect bound monoclonal antibody and subsequent enzymatic conversion of substrate resulted in clear differences in absorbance when assaying different mixtures of milks adulterated with cows’ milk. Once optimized, the ELISA was found to be highly specific. Detection limits of the assay are 1.0 µg/mL of bovine IgG, or 0.1% (vol/vol) adulteration with cows’ milk. The assay was highly reproducible (CV < 10%) and performed equally well when used to detect bovine IgG in mixtures with the 3 types of milk tested. The ELISA performance makes it suitable for development as a kit, for use in the field as a high throughput screening ELISA.
    • Use of sandwich IgG ELISA for the detection and quantification of adulteration of milk and soft cheese

      Hurley, Ian P.; Coleman, Robert C.; Ireland, H. Elyse; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2006-02-21)
      The aim of the article was to develop an assay capable of detecting adulteration of soft goat, sheep and buffalo milk cheese with bovine milk from cheaper sources.