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Interaction of a dengue virus NS1-derived peptide with the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1 on natural killer cellsTownsley, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Woda, Marcia; Co, Mary; Thomas, Stephen J.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Yoon, In-Kyu; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; et al. (2015-10-06)Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) interact with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands and play a key role in the regulation and activation of NK cells. The functional importance of KIR-HLA interactions has been demonstrated for a number of chronic viral infections, but to date only a few studies have been performed in the context of acute self-limited viral infections. During our investigation of CD8(+) T cell responses to a conserved HLA-B57-restricted epitope derived from dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein-1 (NS1), we observed substantial binding of the tetrameric complex to non-T/non-B lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a long-standing clinical cohort in Thailand. We confirmed binding of the NS1 tetramer to CD56(dim) NK cells, which are known to express KIRs. Using depletion studies and KIR-transfected cell lines, we demonstrated further that the NS1 tetramer bound the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1. Phenotypical analysis of PBMC from HLA-B57(+) subjects with acute DENV infection revealed marked activation of NS1 tetramer-binding natural killer (NK) cells around the time of defervescence in subjects with severe dengue disease. Collectively, our findings indicate that subsets of NK cells are activated relatively late in the course of acute DENV illness and reveal a possible role for specific KIR-HLA interactions in the modulation of disease outcomes.
Pemphigus is associated with KIR3DL2 expression levels and provides evidence that KIR3DL2 may bind HLA-A3 and A11 in vivo.Augusto, Danillo G.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Lobo-Alves, Sara C.; Bass, Sara; Martin, Maureen P.; Carrington, Mary; McVicar, Daniel W.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Boston, MA, USA; Leidos Biomedical Research, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory for Experimental Immunology, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA; Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA. (Wiley, 2015-05-06)Although HLA-A3 and A11 have been reported to be ligands for KIR3DL2, evidence for any in vivo relevance of this interaction is still missing. To explore the functional importance of KIR3DL2 allelic variation, we analyzed the autoimmune disease pemphigus foliaceus, previously associated (lower risk) with activating KIR genes. KIR3DL2*001 was increased in patients (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04; p = 0.007). The risk was higher for the presence of both KIR3DL2*001 and HLA-A3 or A11 (OR = 3.76, p = 0.013), providing the first evidence that HLA-A3 and A11 may interact with KIR3DL2 in vivo. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism 1190T (rs3745902) was associated with protection (OR = 0.52, p = 0.018). This SNP results in a threonine-to-methionine substitution. Individuals who have methionine in this position exhibit a lower percentage of KIR3DL2-positive natural killer (NK) cells and also lower intensity of KIR3DL2 on expressing natural killer cells; additionally, we show that the expression of KIR3DL2 is independent of other killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Pemphigus foliaceus is a very unique complex disease strongly associated with immune-related genes. It is the only autoimmune disease known to be endemic, showing a strong correlation with environmental factors. Our data demonstrate that this relatively unknown autoimmune disease may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of KIR3DL2 ligand recognition.