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Alternative methods of treating atelectasis in post-operative patientsFallows, Stephen; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Al Mutairi, Fouad (University of Chester, 2013)Cardiac surgery incisional pain can decrease inspiratory effort, alter normal respiratory mechanics, and increase the potential for post-operative pulmonary complications. Post-surgical atelectasis is the most frequent complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), ranging from 54% to 92%. All types of therapy such as an incentive spirometry (IS), deep breathing exercises (DBE) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have a valuable role to play in the prevention or the treatment of post-surgical atelectasis. However, the type of therapy that should be used is not completely clear yet. The present research aims to evaluate the benefit of early use of CPAP via mask therapy to treat or prevent post-surgical atelectasis after CABG, particularly in smokers and elderly patients, as compared to regular (IS) therapy. Also, it aims to evaluate the patients' and medical staff's experience about the use of the new method of CPAP via mask therapy. The present research was conducted at King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital in Saudi Arabia between March 2010 and December 2011. It used a mixed methods approach. The first two studies were intervention quantitative studies, which investigated the benefit of CPAP via mask therapy. The others were qualitative studies that evaluated the experience of patients and medical staff regarding CPAP therapy use.A total of 180 patients (male and female) (36 in each group) participated in the two quantitative studies. Ninety two participants (male and female) participated in the qualitative studies. The first quantitative study results showed an improvement in CPAP via mask therapy for half hours every two hours group measurements as compared to IS therapy groups. IC was increased significantly in the "CPAP every two hours group" as compared to control group (IS) (baseline mean for IS group 1.34L and "CPAP every two hours group" 1.42L, post- therapy mean 1.59L and 1.88L respectively, p= 0.037). In addition, when chest physiotherapy was added to the two regimens, the improvement of CPAP therapy measurements became more than IS therapy. Moreover, the patient’s acceptance rate for CPAP therapy every two hours was 93% and the medical staff acceptance rate was 86%. CPAP via mask therapy for half hour every two hours had better outcomes in treating or preventing post-surgical atelectasis after CABG, particularly in smokers and elderly patients. Adding chest physiotherapy led to even better outcomes. The use of the new method of CPAP therapy had high acceptance rate by the participants and medical staff.