• Heart rate and perceived muscle pain responses to a functional walking test in McArdle disease

      Buckley, John P.; Quinlivan, Ros M.; Sim, Julius; Short, Deborah S.; Eston, Roger (Routledge, 2014-04-14)
      The aim of this study was to assess a 12-min self-paced walking test in patients with McArdle disease. Twenty patients (44.7 ±11 years; 11 female) performed the walking test where walking speed, distance walked, heart rate (HR) and perceived muscle pain (Borg CR10 scale) were measured. Median (interquartile range) distance walked was 890 m (470–935). From 1 to 6 min, median walking speed decreased (from 75.0 to 71.4 m∙min–1) while muscle pain and %HR reserve increased (from 0.3 to 3.0 and 37% to 48%, respectively). From 7 to 12 min, walking speed increased to 74.2 m∙min–1, muscle pain decreased to 1.6 and %HR reserve remained between 45% and 48%. To make relative comparisons, HR and muscle pain were divided by walking speed and expressed as ratios. These ratios rose significantly between 1 and 6 min (HR:walking speed P = .001 and pain:walking speed P < .001) and similarly decreased between 6 and 11 min (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Peak ratios of HR:walking speed and pain:walking speed were inversely correlated to distance walked: rs (HR) = −.82 (P < .0001) and rs (pain) = −.55 (P = .012). Largest peak ratios were found in patients who walked < 650 m. A 12-min walking test can be used to assess exercise capacity and detect the second wind in McArdle disease.
    • High CIP2A levels correlate with an antiapoptotic phenotype that can be overcome by targeting BCL-XL in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia

      Lucas, Claire; Milani, Mateus; Butterworth, Michael; Carmell, Natasha; Scott, Laura; Clark, Richard; Cohen, Gerald; Varadarajan, Shankar; University of Liverpool (Nature, 2016-02-29)
      Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a predictive biomarker of disease progression in many malignancies, including imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although high CIP2A levels correlate with disease progression in CML, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a screen of diagnostic chronic phase samples from patients with high and low CIP2A protein levels, high CIP2A levels correlate with an antiapoptotic phenotype, characterized by downregulation of proapoptotic BCL-2 family members, including BIM, PUMA and HRK, and upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-XL. These results suggest that the poor prognosis of patients with high CIP2A levels is due to an antiapoptotic phenotype. Disrupting this antiapoptotic phenotype by inhibition of BCL-XL via RNA interference or A-1331852, a novel, potent and BCL-XL-selective inhibitor, resulted in extensive apoptosis either alone or in combination with imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib, both in cell lines and in primary CD34(+) cells from patients with high levels of CIP2A. These results demonstrate that BCL-XL is the major antiapoptotic survival protein and may be a novel therapeutic target in CML.
    • High drug related mortality rates following prison release: Assessing the acceptance likelihood of a naltrexone injection and related concerns

      Murphy, Philip N.; Mohammed, Faizal; Wareing, Michelle; Cotton, Angela; McNeil, John; Irving, Paula; Jones, Steven; Sharples, Louisa; Monk, Rebecca; Elton, Peter; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-07-04)
      Background and aims. High drug related mortality amongst former prisoners in the 4 weeks following release is an internationally recognised problem. Naltrexone injections at release could diminish this by blockading opioid receptors, but naltrexone is not licenced for injection for treating opiate misuse in the United Kingdom and some other countries. This study examined the likelihood of accepting a naltrexone injection at release, and the relationship of this likelihood to other relevant variables. Method. Sixty-one male prisoners with a history of heroin use, who were approaching release from two prisons in the north-west of England, provided likelihood ratings for accepting a naltrexone injection if it were to have been available. Additional data was gathered regarding demographic and drug use histories, and also from psychometric instruments relevant to drug misuse and treatment preparedness. Results. Maximum likelihood ratings for accepting a naltrexone injection were recorded by 55.7% of the sample with only 9.8% indicating no likelihood of accepting an injection. Likelihood ratings were positively related to serving a current sentence for an acquisitive offence compared to drug related or violence offences, and negatively related to peak methadone dosages during the current sentence. Conclusions. Although naltrexone injections were not available to participants in this study, the findings suggest that the potential uptake for this intervention is sufficient to warrant a clinical trial with this population of British prisoners, with a view to potential changes to its current licencing status
    • History of traction

      Flynn, Sandra (Elsevier, 2020-10-01)
    • The Hormone Response Element Mimic Sequence of GAS5 LncRNA is Sufficient to Induce Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; Keele University, United Kingdom (2015)
      Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) encodes snoRNAs and lncRNA. The latter promotes apoptosis, but its expression is down-regulated in breast cancer. The mTOR and nonsense-mediated decay pathways together regulate GAS5 transcript levels but rapalogues fail to enhance GAS5 levels in triple-negative breast cancer cells, so that mTOR inhibitor-independent induction of GAS5 may be more productive in enhancing apoptotic responses to therapies in breast cancer. Notably, GAS5 lncRNA acts by riborepression of glucocorticoid/related receptors; a stem-loop sequence constitutes the GAS5 hormone response element mimic (HREM). The aim of this study was to determine if the GAS5 HREM sequence alone is sufficient to promote the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Cells were nucleofected with a DNA oligonucleotide corresponding to the GAS5 lncRNA HREM; controls received oligonucleotides either with scrambled GAS5 sequence or with stem complementarity present but lacking the GAS5 HRE consensus. Cells were irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light at 20 h post-transfection to induce apoptosis. The basal apoptotic rate almost doubled in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the HREM oligonucleotide compared with controls. This effect was apparent at 20 h post¬-transfection, and a corresponding decrease was observed in culture viability; clonogenic activity was also impaired. The HREM sequence also enhanced UV-C-induced apoptosis in an additive manner in both cell lines. Endogenous GAS5 lncRNA expression was unaffected by transfection of the HREM sequence. Thus the GAS5 lncRNA HREM is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including TNBC cells and this may serve as the basis for the development of novel oligonucleotide cancer therapies. Funded by the Breast Cancer Campaign.
    • The hormone response element mimic sequence of GAS5 lncRNA is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines – towards oligonucleotide therapies?

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; Keele University, United Kingdom (NCRI Cancer Conference 2014 Abstracts, 2014)
      Background Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5), a non-protein coding gene, encodes snoRNAs and lncRNA; transcript levels are controlled by the mTOR and nonsense-mediated decay pathways. GAS5 lncRNA promotes the apoptosis of breast cells, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, but its expression is down-regulated in breast cancer. Rapalogues enhance GAS5 levels in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells but not in TNBC cells, so that mTOR inhibitor-independent induction of GAS5 may be more productive in enhancing apoptotic responses to therapies. Notably, GAS5 lncRNA acts by riborepression of glucocorticoid/related receptors; a stem-loop sequence constitutes the GAS5 hormone response element mimic (HREM). The aim of this study was to determine if the GAS5 HREM sequence alone is sufficient to promote the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Method Cells were nucleofected with a DNA oligonucleotide corresponding to the GAS5 lncRNA HREM; controls received oligonucleotides either with scrambled GAS5 sequence or retaining stem-loop structure but lacking the GAS5 HRE consensus; mock-transfected cells were also studied. Cells were irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light at 20 h post-transfection to induce apoptosis. Culture viability and apoptosis were assessed and cellular GAS5 levels were determined by RT-qPCR. Results The basal apoptotic rate almost doubled in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the HREM oligonucleotide compared with controls. This effect was apparent at 20 h post­-transfection, and a corresponding decrease was observed in culture viability. The HREM sequence also enhanced UV-C-induced apoptosis in an additive manner in both cell lines. Endogenous GAS5 lncRNA expression was unaffected by transfection of the HREM sequence. Conclusion The GAS5 lncRNA HREM is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including TNBC cells. This study serves as an exemplar of how emerging knowledge of biologically important lncRNAs may be exploited towards the development of novel oncotherapeutic agents.
    • The hormone response element mimic sequence of GAS5 lncRNA is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

      Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.; Keele University (Impact Journals, 2016-02-03)
      Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) lncRNA promotes apoptosis, and its expression is down-regulated in breast cancer. GAS5 lncRNA is a decoy of glucocorticoid/related receptors; a stem-loop sequence constitutes the GAS5 hormone response element mimic (HREM), which is essential for the regulation of breast cancer cell apoptosis. This preclinical study aimed to determine if the GAS5 HREM sequence alone promotes the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Nucleofection of hormone-sensitive and -insensitive breast cancer cell lines with a GAS5 HREM DNA oligonucleotide increased both basal and ultraviolet-C-induced apoptosis, and decreased culture viability and clonogenic growth, similar to GAS5 lncRNA. The HREM oligonucleotide demonstrated similar sequence specificity to the native HREM for its functional activity and had no effect on endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Certain chemically modified HREM oligonucleotides, notably DNA and RNA phosphorothioates, retained pro-apoptotic. activity. Crucially the HREM oligonucleotide could overcome apoptosis resistance secondary to deficient endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Thus, the GAS5 lncRNA HREM sequence alone is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including triple-negative breast cancer cells. These findings further suggest that emerging knowledge of structure/function relationships in the field of lncRNA biology can be exploited for the development of entirely novel, oligonucleotide mimic-based, cancer therapies.
    • Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells adhere to and inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

      Wood, Chelsea R.; Al Dhahri, Douaa; Pickles, Neil; Sammons, Rachel L.; Worthington, Tony; Wright, Karina T.; Johnson, William Eustace Basil; Al-Delfi, Ibtesam R. T. (2018-10-23)
      We have cultured and phenotyped human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (AT MSCs) and inoculated these cultures with bacteria common to infected skin wounds, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whilst bacterial growth was measured by colony forming unit (c.f.u.) and biofilm assays. AT MSCs appeared to attach to the bacteria and to engulf S. aureus. Significantly fewer bacterial c.f.u. were present in AT MSC : bacterial co-cultures compared with bacteria cultured alone. Antibacterial activity, including an inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, was observed when bacteria were treated with conditioned medium harvested from the AT MSC :  bacterial co-cultures, irrespective of the bacterial species to which the AT MSCs had been exposed to previously. Hence, we have demonstrated that AT MSCs inhibit the growth of two common bacterial species. This was associated with bacterial adhesion, potential engulfment or phagocytosis, and the secretion of antibacterial factors.
    • Human placental oxygenation in late gestation: experimental and theoretical approaches

      Nye, Gareth; Ingram, Emma; Jenson, Oliver; Johnstone, Edward; Schneider, Henning; Lewis, Rohan; Chernyavsky, Igor; Brownbill, Paul; University of Manchester, University of Southampton, University of Bern (Wiley, 2018-01-26)
      The placenta is crucial for life. It is an ephemeral but complex organ acting as the barrier interface between maternal and fetal circulations, providing exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, waste products and immunoglobulins. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the detailed placental structure and function, particularly in relation to oxygen handling and transfer in healthy and pathological states in utero. Measurements to understand oxygen transfer in vivo in the human are limited, with no general agreement on the most appropriate methods. An invasive method for measuring partial pressure of oxygen in the intervillous space through needle electrode insertion at the time of Caesarean sections has been reported. This allows for direct measurements in vivo whilst maintaining near normal placental conditions; however, there are practical and ethical implications in using this method for determination of placental oxygenation. Furthermore, oxygen levels are likely to be highly heterogeneous within the placenta. Emerging non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, and ex vivo research are capable of enhancing and improving current imaging methodology for placental villous structure and increase the precision of oxygen measurement within placental compartments. These techniques, in combination with mathematical modelling, have stimulated novel cross-disciplinary approaches that could advance our understanding of placental oxygenation and its metabolism in normal and pathological pregnancies, improving clinical treatment options and ultimately outcomes for the patient.
    • Identifying the cellular targets of drug action in the central nervous system following corticosteroid therapy

      Jenkins, Stuart I.; Pickard, Mark R.; Khong, Melinda; Smith, Heather L.; Mann, Carl L. A.; Emes, Richard D.; Chari, Divya M.; Keele University, University of Nottingham, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust, United Kingdom (American Chemical Society, 2014-01-15)
      Corticosteroid (CS) therapy is used widely in the treatment of a range of pathologies, but can delay production of myelin, the insulating sheath around central nervous system nerve fibers. The cellular targets of CS action are not fully understood, that is, "direct" action on cells involved in myelin genesis [oligodendrocytes and their progenitors the oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)] versus "indirect" action on other neural cells. We evaluated the effects of the widely used CS dexamethasone (DEX) on purified OPCs and oligodendrocytes, employing complementary histological and transcriptional analyses. Histological assessments showed no DEX effects on OPC proliferation or oligodendrocyte genesis/maturation (key processes underpinning myelin genesis). Immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses show that both cell types express glucocorticoid receptor (GR; the target for DEX action), ruling out receptor expression as a causal factor in the lack of DEX-responsiveness. GRs function as ligand-activated transcription factors, so we simultaneously analyzed DEX-induced transcriptional responses using microarray analyses; these substantiated the histological findings, with limited gene expression changes in DEX-treated OPCs and oligodendrocytes. With identical treatment, microglial cells showed profound and global changes post-DEX addition; an unexpected finding was the identification of the transcription factor Olig1, a master regulator of myelination, as a DEX responsive gene in microglia. Our data indicate that CS-induced myelination delays are unlikely to be due to direct drug action on OPCs or oligodendrocytes, and may occur secondary to alterations in other neural cells, such as the immune component. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative molecular and cellular analysis of CS effects in glial cells, to investigate the targets of this major class of anti-inflammatory drugs as a basis for myelination deficits.
    • The importance of clinician, patient and researcher collaborations in Alport syndrome

      Rheault, Michelle N.; Savige, Judith; Randles, Michael J.; Weinstock, André; Stepney, Melissa; Turner, Neil; Parziale, Gina; Gross, Oliver; Flinter, Frances A; Miner, Jeffrey H; et al. (Springer Nature, 2019-05-01)
      Alport syndrome (AS) is caused by mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 and is characterised by progressive glomerular disease, sensorineural hearing loss and ocular defects. Occurring in less than 1:5000, AS is rare genetic disorder but still accounts for >1% of the prevalent population receiving renal replacement therapy. There is also increasing awareness about the risk of chronic kidney disease in individuals with heterozygous mutations in AS genes. The mainstay of current therapy is the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, yet potential new therapies are now entering clinical trials. The 2017 International Workshop on Alport Syndrome in Glasgow was a preconference workshop ahead of the 50th anniversary meeting of the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology. It focussed on updates in clinical practice, genetics, basic science and also incorporated patient perspectives. More than 80 international experts including clinicians, geneticists, researchers from academia and industry, and patient representatives took part in panel discussions and breakout groups. This report summarises the workshop proceedings and the relevant contemporary literature. It highlights the unique clinician, patient and researcher collaborations achieved by regular engagement between the groups.
    • An In Vitro Comparison of the Incorporation, Growth, and Chondrogenic Potential of Human Bone Marrow versus Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Clinically Relevant Cell Scaffolds Used for Cartilage Repair

      Kohli, Nupur; Johnson, William Eustace Basil; Wright, Karina T.; Sammons, Rachel L.; Jeys, Lee; Snow, Martyn
      Aim: To compare the incorporation, growth, and chondrogenic potential of bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in scaffolds used for cartilage repair. Methods: Human BM and AT MSCs were isolated, culture expanded, and characterised using standard protocols, then seeded into 2 different scaffolds, Chondro-Gide or Alpha Chondro Shield. Cell adhesion, incorporation, and viable cell growth were assessed microscopically and following calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (Live/Dead) staining. Cell-seeded scaffolds were treated with chondrogenic inducers for 28 days. Extracellular matrix deposition and soluble glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release into the culture medium was measured at day 28 by histology/immunohistochemistry and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Results: A greater number of viable MSCs from either source adhered and incorporated into Chondro-Gide than into Alpha Chondro Shield. In both cell scaffolds, this incorporation represented less than 2% of the cells that were seeded. There was a marked proliferation of BM MSCs, but not AT MSCs, in Chondro-Gide. MSCs from both sources underwent chondrogenic differentiation following induction. However, cartilaginous extracellular matrix deposition was most marked in Chondro-Gide seeded with BM MSCs. Soluble GAG secretion increased in chondrogenic versus control conditions. There was no marked difference in GAG secretion by MSCs from either cell source. Conclusion: Chondro-Gide and Alpha Chondro Shield were permissive to the incorporation and chondrogenic differentiation of human BM and AT MSCs. Chondro-Gide seeded with BM MSCs demonstrated the greatest increase in MSC number and deposition of a cartilaginous tissue.
    • An in vitro comparison of the neurotrophic and angiogenic activity of human and canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): translating MSC-based therapies for spinal cord injury.

      Al Delfi, Ibtesam R. T; Wood, Chelsea R.; Johnson, Louis D. V.; Snow, Martyn D.; Innes, John F.; Myint, Peter; Johnson, William E. B.; Kut University College; University of Chester; Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham; Veterinary Tissue Bank, Chirk
      The majority of research into the effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplants on spinal cord injury (SCI) is performed in rodent models, which may help inform on mechanisms of action, but does not represent the scale and wound heterogeneity seen in human SCI. In contrast, SCI in dogs occurs naturally, is more akin to human SCI, and can be used to help address important aspects of the development of human MSC-based therapies. To enable translation to the clinic and a comparison across species, we have examined the paracrine, regenerative capacity of human and canine adipose-derived MSCs in vitro. MSCs were initially phenotyped according to tissue culture plastic adherence, CD immunoprofiling and tri-lineage differentiation potential. Conditioned medium (CM) from MSC cultures was then assessed for its neurotrophic and angiogenic activity using established cell-based assays. MSC CM significantly increased neuronal cell proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and βIII tubulin immunopositivity. In addition, MSC CM significantly increased endothelial cell migration, cell proliferation and the formation of tubule-like structures in Matrigel assays. There were no marked or significant differences in the capacity of human or canine MSC CM to stimulate neuronal cell or endothelial cell activity. Hence, this study supports the use of MSC transplants for canine SCI, furthermore it increases understanding of how this may subsequently provide useful information and translate to MSC transplants for human SCI.
    • An in vitro spinal cord injury model to screen neuroregenerative materials

      Weightman, Alan P.; Pickard, Mark R.; Yang, Ying; Chari, Divya M.; Keele University (Elsevier, 2014-01-29)
      Implantable 'structural bridges' based on nanofabricated polymer scaffolds have great promise to aid spinal cord regeneration. Their development (optimal formulations, surface functionalizations, safety, topographical influences and degradation profiles) is heavily reliant on live animal injury models. These have several disadvantages including invasive surgical procedures, ethical issues, high animal usage, technical complexity and expense. In vitro 3-D organotypic slice arrays could offer a solution to overcome these challenges, but their utility for nanomaterials testing is undetermined. We have developed an in vitro model of spinal cord injury that replicates stereotypical cellular responses to neurological injury in vivo, viz. reactive gliosis, microglial infiltration and limited nerve fibre outgrowth. We describe a facile method to safely incorporate aligned, poly-lactic acid nanofibre meshes (±poly-lysine + laminin coating) within injury sites using a lightweight construct. Patterns of nanotopography induced outgrowth/alignment of astrocytes and neurons in the in vitro model were strikingly similar to that induced by comparable materials in related studies in vivo. This highlights the value of our model in providing biologically-relevant readouts of the regeneration-promoting capacity of synthetic bridges within the complex environment of spinal cord lesions. Our approach can serve as a prototype to develop versatile bio-screening systems to identify materials/combinatorial strategies for regenerative medicine, whilst reducing live animal experimentation.
    • Influence of Amplitude of Oscillating Magnetic Fields on Magnetic Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Transfer to Astrocytes

      Tickle, Jacqueline A.; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Pickard, Mark R.; Chari, Divya M.; Keele University, United Kingdom (World Scientific, 2014-08-07)
      Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are emerging as a major nanoplatform for regenerative neurology, particularly as transfection agents for gene delivery. Magnetic assistive technology, particularly the recent innovation of applied oscillating magnetic fields, can significantly enhance MNP-mediated gene transfer to neural cells. While transfection efficiency varies with oscillation frequency in various neural cell types, the influence of oscillation amplitude has not yet been investigated. We have addressed this issue using cortical astrocytes that were transfected using MNPs functionalized with plasmid encoding a reporter protein. Cells were exposed to a range of oscillation amplitudes (100–1000 μm), using a fixed oscillation frequency of 1 Hz. No significant differences were found in the proportions of transfected cells at the amplitudes tested, but GFP-related optical density measurements (indicative of reporter protein expression) were significantly enhanced at 200 μm. Safety data show no amplitude-dependent toxicity. Our data suggest that the amplitude of oscillating magnetic fields influences MNP-mediated transfection, and a tailored combination of amplitude and frequency may further enhance transgene expression. Systematic testing of these parameters in different neural subtypes will enable the development of a database of neuro-magnetofection protocols — an area of nanotechnology research where little information currently exists.
    • The influence of nicotinamide on the development of neurons

      Griffin, Sile; Pickard, Mark R.; Hawkins, Clive P.; Williams, Adrian C.; Chari, Divya M.; Fricker, Rosemary; Orme, Rowan P.; Keele University, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (2014-09-09)
      A major challenge in translating the promise of stem cell therapies to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative disorders is to rapidly and efficiently direct pluripotent stem cells to generate differentiated neurons. The application of active vitamin metabolites known to function in embryonic development and maintenance in the adult brain such as retinoic acid (vitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and calcitriol (vitamin D3) have proven effective in current in-vitro differentiation protocols. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the biologically active vitamin B3 metabolite, nicotinamide could enhance the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, cultured as monolayers, into mature neurons at either early or late stages of development. Interestingly, nicotinamide elicited a dose-responsive increase in the percentage of neurons when added at an early developmental stage to the cells undergoing differentiation (days 0–7). Nicotinamide (10 mM) increased the proportion of β-III tubulin positive neurons by two fold and concomitantly decreased the total number of cells in culture, measured by quantification of 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole positive cells. This effect could result from induction of cell-cycle exit and/or selective cell death in non-neural populations. Higher levels of nicotinamide (20 mM) induced cytoxicity and cell death. This study supports previous evidence that vitamins and their metabolites can efficiently direct stem cells into neurons. Current work is focusing on the effect of nicotinamide on the process of neural induction and whether nicotinamide influences the generation of particular neuronal subtypes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, specifically focusing on midbrain dopamine neurons; towards a therapy for Parkinson's disease.
    • The influence of pH and fluid dynamics on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass Short title: Antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass

      Begum, Saima; Johnson, William Eustace Basil; Worthington, Tony; Martin, Richard; Aston University (IOP Publishing, 2016-02-02)
      In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the potential antibacterial properties that bioactive glasses may possess. However, there have been several conflicting reports on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass®. Various mechanisms regarding its mode of action have been proposed, such as changes in the environmental pH, increased osmotic pressure, and 'needle-like' sharp glass debris which could potentially damage prokaryotic cell walls and thus inactivate bacteria. In this current study, a systematic investigation was undertaken on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass® on Escherichia coli NCTC 10538 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCO 6538 under a range of clinically relevant scenarios including varying Bioglass® concentration, direct and indirect contact between Bioglass® and microorganisms, static and shaking incubation conditions, elevated and neutralised pH environments. The results demonstrated that, under elevated pH conditions, Bioglass® particles have no antibacterial effect on S. aureus while a concentration dependent antibacterial effect against E. coli was observed. However, the antibacterial activity ceased when the pH of the media was neutralised. The results of this current study, therefore, suggest that the mechanism of antibacterial activity of Bioglass® is associated with changes in the environmental pH; an environment that is less likely to occur in vivo due to buffering of the system.
    • Interactions between PP4 and PEA-15 in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells

      Mohammed, Hiba N.; Pickard, Mark R.; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Keele University, United Kingdom (NCRI Cancer Conference 2015 Abstracts, 2015)
      Background The serine/threonine protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is recognised to regulate a variety of cellular functions. Our previous work has shown that the catalytic subunit of PP4 (PP4c) promotes cell death and inhibits proliferation in breast cancer cells, suggestive of a role of PP4c as tumour suppressor gene. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15), a member of the death effector domain protein family known to control cell survival, is reported to be regulated by PP4c. The aims of this study were to investigate the involvement of PEA-15 in mediating the effects of PP4c on breast cancer cells. Method PEA-15 phosphorylation was examined by western blot analysis on proteins extracted from MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells over-expressing PP4 and PP4 knock down cells. To investigate the role of PEA-15 in mediating the effects of PP4c, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 were transfected with control (-) siRNA or with three different PEA-15 specific siRNAs. 48 h post-transfection, control cells (transfected with negative control siRNA) and cells transfected with PEA-15 siRNAs were transiently transfected with pcDNA3.1-PP4c expression construct or pcDNA3.1. Cell viability and apoptosis level were assessed post transfection. Results In MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the phosphorylation state of PEA-15 increased when PP4c expression was suppressed and decreased when PP4c was over-expressed. Over-expression of PP4c in cells transfected with (-) siRNA caused 50% reduction in viability compared to cells transfected with empty vector. Cells transfected with PEA-15 siRNAs showed a decrease in viable cell number and long term survival. However, over-expression of PP4c in these cells did not have any additional effect on the decrease in cell viability. Conclusion These observations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by over-expression of PP4c is mediated, at least in part, by the dephosphorylation of PEA-15. The interactions between PEA-15 and PP4c may therefore be critical in breast cancer tumorigenesis.
    • An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) of coercion towards community dwelling older adults with dementia: Findings from MYsore studies of Natal effects on Ageing and Health (MYNAH)

      Danivas, Vijay; Bharmal, Mufaddal; Keenan, Paul; Jones, Steven; Karat, Samuel C.; Kalyanaraman, Kumaran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Krishna, Murali; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-09-29)
      Purpose Limited availability of specialist services places a considerable burden on caregivers of Persons with Dementia (PwD) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). There are limited qualitative data on coercive behavior towards PwD in an LMIC setting. Aim The aim of this study was to find relevant themes of the lived experience of relatives as caregivers for PwD in view of their use of coercive measures in community setting in South India. Method Primary caregivers (n = 13) of PwDs from the Mysore study of Natal effects on Ageing and Health (MYNAH) in South India were interviewed to explore the nature and impact of coercion towards community dwelling older adults with dementia. The narrative data were coded using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach for thematic analysis and theory formation. Results Caregivers reported feeling physical and emotional burn-out, a lack of respite care, an absence of shared caregiving arrangements, limited knowledge of dementia, and a complete lack of community support services. They reported restrictions on their lives through not being able take employment, a poor social life, reduced income and job opportunities, and restricted movement that impacted on their physical and emotional well-being. Inappropriate use of sedatives, seclusion and environmental restraint, and restricted dietary intake, access to finances and participation in social events, was commonly reported methods of coercion used by caregivers towards PwD. Reasons given by caregivers for employing these coercive measures included safeguarding of the PwD and for the management of behavioral problems and physical health. Conclusion There is an urgent need for training health and social care professionals to better understand the use of coercive measures and their impact on persons with dementia in India. It is feasible to conduct qualitative research using IPA in South India.
    • Investigating the Prevalence of Anaemia in Rural Gambia, in Relation to Levels of Zinc Protoporphyrin, Haemoglobin and Haptoglobin (Phenotype and Genotype)

      Bah, Ebrima; Michelangeli, Frank (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-29)
      Abstract Objectives To find out the overlapping and correlating relationships between serum haptoglobin level, haptoglobin genotype and phenotype, blood haemoglobin level and zinc protoporphyrin (measured in washed RBCs) in association to prevalence of anaemia. It will focus on comparing all the mention components in contrast to each other. The study will also look for the frequency distribution of the major HP alleles. Methods 1278 participants were randomly selected. Blood samples collected by trained nurses. Data generation was done at the Medical research council (keneba field station) research site. Data Analysis was conducted at the university of Chester with the assistance of the computer department team. Results P = 0.000 indicating anaemia prevalence with HP 1 allele. P &amp;gt; 0.05 when ID, IDA and AI relates with HP genotype. Positive correlation between ZnPP and HP serum level, but negative between ZnPP and Hb. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb level. P = 0.013 between HP genotype and HP serum. P = 0.100 between HP genotype and ZnPP. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb. ZnPP shared a positive correlation with HP serum level, and a negative correlation with Hb level. The correlation significant = 0.01 level (2-tailed) P = 0.01. The correlation between HP genotype and HP serum level was significant with P = 0.013, but the correlation between HP genotype and ZnPP was not significant with P = 0.100. Conclusions HP genotype had association with anaemia prevalence and more occurrence was observed in carriers of the type ‘1’ allele. It had no association with ID, IDA and AI. HP genotype had association with HP serum level and Hb level but had no association with ZnPP level. ZnPP level was observed to have had association with HP serum level, Hb level and IDA; but had no association with ID and AI in the region. Funding Sources All the resources used in this study were from MRC Keneba (International Nutrition Group) which is supported by funds from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement (Hennig et al., 2015).