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Acute glycaemic management before, during and after exercise for cardiac rehabilitation participants with diabetes mellitus; a joint statement of the British and Canadian Associations of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the International Council for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation and the British Association of Sport and Exercise SciencesType 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM) are significant precursors and comorbidities to cardiovascular disease and prevalence of both types is still rising globally. Currently,~25% of participants (and rising) attending cardiac rehabilitation in Europe, North America and Australia have been reported to have DM (>90% have T2DM). While there is some debate over whether improving glycaemic control in those with heart disease can independently improve future cardiovascular health-related outcomes, for the individual patient whose blood glucose is well controlled, it can aid the exercise programme in being more efficacious. Good glycaemic management not only helps to mitigate the risk of acute glycaemic events during exercising, it also aids in achieving the requisite physiological and psycho-social aims of the exercise component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). These benefits are strongly associated with effective behaviour change, including increased enjoyment, adherence and self-efficacy. It is known that CR participants with DM have lower uptake and adherence rates compared with those without DM. This expert statement provides CR practitioners with nine recommendations aimed to aid in the participant’s improved blood glucose control before, during and after exercise so as to prevent the risk of glycaemic events that could mitigate their beneficial participation.
The sedentary office: an expert statement on the growing case for change towards better health and productivityAn international group of experts convened to provide guidance for employers to promote the avoidance of prolonged periods of sedentary work. The set of recommendations was developed from the totality of the current evidence, including long-term epidemiological studies and interventional studies of getting workers to stand and/or move more frequently. The evidence was ranked in quality using the four levels of the American College of Sports Medicine. The derived guidance is as follows: for those occupations which are predominantly desk based, workers should aim to initially progress towards accumulating 2 h/day of standing and light activity (light walking) during working hours, eventually progressing to a total accumulation of 4 h/day (prorated to part-time hours). To achieve this, seated-based work should be regularly broken up with standing-based work, the use of sit–stand desks, or the taking of short active standing breaks. Along with other health promotion goals (improved nutrition, reducing alcohol, smoking and stress), companies should also promote among their staff that prolonged sitting, aggregated from work and in leisure time, may significantly and independently increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and premature mortality. It is appreciated that these recommendations should be interpreted in relation to the evidence from which they were derived, largely observational and retrospective studies, or short-term interventional studies showing acute cardiometabolic changes. While longer term intervention studies are required, the level of consistent evidence accumulated to date, and the public health context of rising chronic diseases, suggest initial guidelines are justified. We hope these guidelines stimulate future research, and that greater precision will be possible within future iterations.
What is the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on cardiorespiratory fitness in those undergoing cardiac rehabilitation? A systematic review with meta-analysis18 Objective: Assess the role of exercise intensity on changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in 19 patients with cardiac conditions attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. 20 Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. 21 Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO and Web of Science. 22 Eligibility criteria for selection: Studies assessing change in CRF (reported as peak oxygen uptake; 23 V̇O2peak) in patients post-myocardial infarction and revascularisation, following exercise-based 24 cardiac rehabilitation. Studies establishing V̇O2peak via symptom-limited exercise test with ventilatory 25 gas analysis and reported intensity of exercise during rehabilitation were included. Studies with 26 mean ejection fraction <40% were excluded. 27 Results: 128 studies including 13,220 patients were included. Interventions were classified as 28 moderate, moderate-to-vigorous or vigorous intensity based on published recommendations. 29 Moderate and moderate-to-vigorous intensity interventions were associated with a moderate 30 increase in relative V̇O2peak (standardised mean difference ± 95% CI = 0.94 ± 0.30 and 0.93 ± 0.17, 31 respectively), and vigorous-intensity exercise with a large increase (1.10 ± 0.25). Moderate and 32 vigorous intensity interventions were associated with moderate improvements in absolute V̇O2peak 33 (0.63 ± 0.34 and 0.93 ± 0.20, respectively), whereas moderate-to-vigorous intensity interventions 34 elicited a large effect (1.27 ± 0.75). Large heterogeneity among studies was observed for all analyses. 35 Subgroup analyses yielded statistically significant, but inconsistent, improvements in CRF. 36 Conclusion: Engagement in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation was associated with significant 37 improvements in both absolute and relative V̇O2peak. Although exercise of vigorous intensity 38 produced the greatest pooled effect for change in relative V̇O2peak, differences in pooled effects 39 between intensities could not be considered clinically meaningful.