• Investigating the Prevalence of Anaemia in Rural Gambia, in Relation to Levels of Zinc Protoporphyrin, Haemoglobin and Haptoglobin (Phenotype and Genotype)

      Bah, Ebrima; Michelangeli, Frank (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-29)
      Abstract Objectives To find out the overlapping and correlating relationships between serum haptoglobin level, haptoglobin genotype and phenotype, blood haemoglobin level and zinc protoporphyrin (measured in washed RBCs) in association to prevalence of anaemia. It will focus on comparing all the mention components in contrast to each other. The study will also look for the frequency distribution of the major HP alleles. Methods 1278 participants were randomly selected. Blood samples collected by trained nurses. Data generation was done at the Medical research council (keneba field station) research site. Data Analysis was conducted at the university of Chester with the assistance of the computer department team. Results P = 0.000 indicating anaemia prevalence with HP 1 allele. P > 0.05 when ID, IDA and AI relates with HP genotype. Positive correlation between ZnPP and HP serum level, but negative between ZnPP and Hb. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb level. P = 0.013 between HP genotype and HP serum. P = 0.100 between HP genotype and ZnPP. P = 0.000 between ZnPP and IDA. P = 0.024 between HP genotype and Hb. ZnPP shared a positive correlation with HP serum level, and a negative correlation with Hb level. The correlation significant = 0.01 level (2-tailed) P = 0.01. The correlation between HP genotype and HP serum level was significant with P = 0.013, but the correlation between HP genotype and ZnPP was not significant with P = 0.100. Conclusions HP genotype had association with anaemia prevalence and more occurrence was observed in carriers of the type ‘1’ allele. It had no association with ID, IDA and AI. HP genotype had association with HP serum level and Hb level but had no association with ZnPP level. ZnPP level was observed to have had association with HP serum level, Hb level and IDA; but had no association with ID and AI in the region. Funding Sources All the resources used in this study were from MRC Keneba (International Nutrition Group) which is supported by funds from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement (Hennig et al., 2015).