• Activating and Guiding the Engagement of Seniors with online social networking: Experimental findings from the AGES 2.0 project

      Morton, Thomas; Wilson, Neil; Haslam, Catherine; Birney, Megan E.; Kingston, Rosemary; McCloskey, Lauren-Grace; University of Exeter; University of Queensland (SAGE, 2016-08-16)
      Objectives: Guided by theoretical and empirical work attesting to the health benefits of social connections, we tested whether internet connectivity, and training in its use for social purposes, can support the well-being of older adults receiving care. Methods: Participants (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive 3 months training versus care-as-usual. Cognitive and mental health were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: Results show significant cognitive improvements across time in the training, but not control, group. This effect was mediated through a combination of increased social activity, improved self-competence, and maintained personal identity strength. Indirect effects on mental health outcomes via these processes were also observed. Discussion: These findings suggest that internet access and training can support the self and social connectedness of vulnerable older adults and to contribute positively to well-being.
    • Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) after breast cancer: A qualitative study of factors associated with adherence

      Brett, Jo; Boulton, Mary; Fenlon, Deborah F.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Walter, Fiona; Donnelly, Peter; Lavery, Bernadette; Morgan, Adrienne; Morris, Carolyn; Watson, Eila; Oxford Brookes University; Swansea University; University of Chester; Cambridge University; South Devon Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Oxford University Hospitals Foundation NHS Trust; Independent Cancer Patients' Voice (Dove Medical Press, 2018-02-16)
      Introduction : Despite evidence of the efficacy of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy (AET) in reducing the risk of recurrence and mortality after treatment for primary breast cancer, adherence to AET is suboptimal. This study aimed to explore factors that influence adherence and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) following breast cancer to inform the development of supportive interventions. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 32 women who had been prescribed AET, 2-4 years following their diagnosis of breast cancer,. Both adherers (n=19) and non-adherers (n=13) were recruited. The analysis was conducted using the Framework approach. Results: Factors associated with adherence were: Managing side effects including information and advice on side effects, and taking control of side effects, Supportive relationships, and Personal influences. Factors associated with non-adherence were: Burden of side effects, Feeling unsupported, Concerns about long term AET use, Re-gaining normality, including valuing quality of life over length of life, and Risk perception Conclusions: Provision of timely information to prepare women for the potential side effects of AET and education on medication management strategies are needed, including provision of timely and accurate information on the efficacy of AET in reducing breast cancer recurrence, and on potential side effects and ways to manage these should they arise. . Trust in the doctor-patient relationship and clear patient pathways for bothersome side effects and concerns with AET are important. Training and education around AET for GPs should be considered alongside novel care pathways such as primary care nurse cancer care review, and community pharmacist follow-up.
    • Affective theory of mind inferences contextually influence the recognition of emotional facial expressions

      Stewart, Suzanne; Schepman, Astrid; Haigh, Matthew; McHugh, Rhian; Stewart, Andrew; University of Chester; Northumbria University; University of Manchester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-14)
      The recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions (Experiment 1) as well as differently-valenced emotions (Experiment 2) conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we found evidence for a context effect on accuracy only in Experiment 1. This demonstrates that affective theory of mind inferences made at the pragmatic level of a text can automatically, contextually influence the perceptual processing of emotional facial expressions in a separate task even when those emotions are of a distinctive valence. Thus, our novel findings suggest that language acts as a contextual influence to the recognition of emotional facial expressions for both same and different valences.
    • Aggression and conflict management at fusion in spider monkeys

      Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (The Royal Society, 2007-04)
      This article discusses fission–fusion dynamics amongst wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and how it is mitigated by the use of embraces.
    • Anticipatory versus Reactive Spatial Attentional Bias to Threat

      Gladwin, Thomas; Möbius, Martin; McLoughlin, Shane; Tyndall, Ian; University of Chichester; Radboud University; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-05-11)
      Dot-probe or visual probe tasks (VPTs) are used extensively to measure attentional biases. A novel variant termed the cued VPT (cVPT) was developed to focus on the anticipatory component of attentional bias. This study aimed to establish an anticipatory attentional bias to threat using the cVPT and compare its split-half reliability with a typical dot-probe task. A total of 120 students performed the cVPT task and dot-probe tasks. Essentially, the cVPT uses cues that predict the location of pictorial threatening stimuli, but on trials on which probe stimuli are presented the pictures do not appear. Hence, actual presentation of emotional stimuli did not affect responses. The reliability of the cVPT was higher at most cue–stimulus intervals and was .56 overall. A clear anticipatory attentional bias was found. In conclusion, the cVPT may be of methodological and theoretical interest. Using visually neutral predictive cues may remove sources of noise that negatively impact reliability. Predictive cues are able to bias response selection, suggesting a role of predicted outcomes in automatic processes.
    • Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Different Developmental Disability Diagnoses

      O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-01-25)
      Factors predicting the emotional well-being of adult siblings of those with developmental disability (DD) remain under-researched. In this study adult siblings of individuals with Down’s syndrome, autism, Prader-Willi syndrome and those with DD but with unknown aetiology were compared with each other and a closely-matched control group to ascertain if sibling disability type made a difference to anxiety and/or depression levels. Also considered was the interactive effect of gender, age, parental and sibling educational attainment levels, socio-economic status and birth order on anxiety and depression outcomes. With the exception of siblings of those with Down’s syndrome, adult siblings of those with ASD, PWS and DUA reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than the control group. There were some predictive effects for anxiety and depression of the demographic variables but none common to all disability types and no moderating effects of demographic factors were found. Consequently other solutions must be found as to why this important group of people have elevated rates of anxiety and depression in comparison to the general population.
    • Are men funnier than women, or do we just think they are?

      Hooper, Jade; Sharpe, Donald; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester (2016-03)
      Despite the widely held view that men are funnier than women, research supporting this view is inconsistent. Instead, the view that men are funnier than women may be a stereotype rather than a reflection of real differences in humor. Considering a previously found source memory bias in the attribution of funnier captions to men and less funny captions to women, this stereotype may be working to further perpetuate this mistaken belief. The current study aims to investigate this possible stereotype and further investigate an attribution bias arising from this stereotype. Two-hundred and twenty-eight participants from three countries (Britain, Canada, and Australia) rated the funniness of male and female-authored cartoon captions while blind to the gender of the caption authors. Participants were then asked to guess the gender of the caption authors and were also asked which gender they believe to be the funniest. Participants both male and female believed men are the funniest gender. However, this belief was not reflected in their ratings of the funniness of the cartoon captions. Support was found for a bias in attributing male authorship to the funniest cartoon captions, and female authorship to the least funny cartoon captions. This bias cannot not be attributed to source memory. It was suggested this stereotype may be self-fulfilling in nature and additional mechanisms maintaining this stereotype are proposed.
    • Assessment of metacognitive beliefs in an at risk mental state for psychosis: A validation study of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30

      Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tully, Sarah; Stewart, Suzanne; Wells, Adrian; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-06-07)
      Aim: The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) has been used to assess metacognitive beliefs in a range of mental health problems. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the MCQ-30 in people at risk for psychosis. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five participants meeting criteria for an at risk mental state (ARMS) completed the MCQ-30 as part of their involvement in a randomised controlled trial. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess factor structure and construct validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the original 5-factor structure of the MCQ-30. Examination of principal component analysis and parallel analysis outputs also suggested a 5-factor structure. Correlation analyses including measures of depression, social anxiety and beliefs about paranoia showed evidence of convergent validity. Discriminant validity was supported using the normalising subscale of the beliefs about paranoia tool. Conclusions: The MCQ-30 demonstrated good fit using the original 5-factor model, acceptable to very good internal consistency of items was evident and clinical usefulness in those at risk for psychosis was demonstrated.
    • Associations between adults' recalled childhood bullying victimization, current social anxiety, coping, and self-blame: Evidence for moderation and indirect effects

      Boulton, Michael J.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012)
      This article discusses a study of 582 students aged 23+ years at two universities in the UK which tested for associations between adults' recall of four common subtypes of childhood bullying victimization and their current social anxiety. It also provided the first test of whether coping moderated those associations, if they were indirect effects through self-blame, and if sex differences existed.
    • Associations between being bullied, perceptions of safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher among primary school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; Duke, Elizabeth; Holman, Gemma; Laxton, Eleanor; Nicholas, Beth; Spells, Ruth; Williams, Emma; Woodmansey, Helen; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This study examined three main issues among 364 primary school children: (1) self‐reported levels of perceived safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher, (2) associations between perceived safety in the two contexts and peer reported levels of being bullied, and (3) if relationship with teacher moderated the associations between peer reported levels of being bullied and perceived safety in classroom and playground.
    • Associations between peer victimization, fear of future victimization and disrupted concentration on class work among junior school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester ; Keele University ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2008)
      This article discusses a study of 485 pupils aged 10-11 (from 11 junior schools in the UK) and levels of, and associations between, physical, verbal, and social exclusion victimization, fear of future victimization, and disrupted classroom concentration.
    • Attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviors: A survey of gender and culture differences in China and United Kingdom

      Higgins, Louise; Zheng, Mo; Liu, Yali; Sun, Chun Hui; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of California ; Beijing Normal University ; Beijing Normal University (Springer, 2002-02)
      This article discusses a study which examined gender and cultural differences in China and the UK in terms of attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviours.
    • Becoming part of the team: Female student athletes’ engagement in initiation activities.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; Wakefield, Caroline; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Human Kinetics, 2017)
      The aim of the present research was to explore female student athletes’ participation in initiation activities specifically to examining whether activities in the United Kingdom followed similar trends to those reported elsewhere. A sample of eight female athletes, representing both traditional and non-traditional team and individual sports (M age = 20 years 3 months, SD = 1 year 3 months) who met inclusion criteria of having taken part in an initiation ceremony consented to participate in a semi structured interview. Thematic content analysis resulted in the emergence of six higher order themes represented by two general dimensions, the initiation event and initiation outcomes. Findings indicated that female student athletes’ initiation activities encompassed discrete stages as they moved from team newcomer to accepted team member. Of particular concern is the direct and indirect role of alcohol within these events and the health and behavioural risks.
    • Behavioral and endocrine responses in male marmosets to the establishment of multimale breeding groups: Evidence for non-monopolizing facultative polyandry

      Schaffner, Colleen; French, Jeffrey A.; University College Chester : University of Nebraska (Elsevier, 2004-06)
    • The Behavioral Effects of Frequent Nightmares on Objective Stress Tolerance

      Hochard, Kevin D.; Heym, Nadja; Townsend, Ellen; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University; University of Nottingham (Americal Psychological Association, 2016-03)
      Frequent nightmares have been linked to daily distress using self-report measures. The present study investigated the impact of frequent nightmares on a stressful cognitive test requiring participants to perform additions of two previously displayed single digit numbers from a number series, where display latency between digits becomes increasingly short - the Paced Visual Serial Addition Task-Computerized (PVSAT-C). Participants experiencing frequent nightmares (n=43) and controls (n=42) were compared on PVSAT-C performance. A significant main effect of nightmare frequency was observed with participants in the frequent nightmare group enduring the task for a shorter duration than controls (a behavioral measure of stress tolerance). Results suggest that individuals experiencing frequent nightmares have a reduced tolerance for stressors, leading to increased daily vulnerability to stressful stimuli. This study confirms previous findings linking nightmares and daily distress and extends the literature by providing objective evidence for the link between nightmares and reduced stress tolerance through behavioral testing. These findings highlight nightmares as a salient target for clinical intervention.
    • Behavioural measures of listening effort in school-aged children: Examining the effects of SNR, hearing loss, and amplification

      McGarrigle, Ronan; Gustafson, Samantha; Hornsby, Benjamin; Bess, Fred; University of Chester; Vanderbilt University Medical Center (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-06-13)
      Objectives: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on two commonly-used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs). Design: A total of 82 children (aged 6 – 13 years) took part in this study; 37 children with normal hearing (CNH) and 45 CHL. All children performed a dual-task paradigm from which both measures of listening effort (dual-task visual RT and verbal RT) were derived. The primary task was word recognition in multi-talker babble in three individually selected SNR conditions: Easy, Moderate, and Hard. The secondary task was a visual monitoring task. Listening effort during the dual-task was quantified as the change in secondary task RT from baseline (single-task visual RT) to the dual-task condition. Listening effort based on verbal RT was quantified as the time elapsed from the onset of the auditory stimulus to the onset of the verbal response when performing the primary (word recognition) task in isolation. CHL completed the task aided and/or unaided to examine the effect of amplification on listening effort. Results: Verbal RTs were generally slower in the more challenging SNR conditions. However, there was no effect of SNR on dual-task visual RT. Overall, verbal RTs were significantly slower in CHL versus CNH. No group difference in dual-task visual RTs was found between CNH and CHL. No effect of amplification was found on either dual-task visual RTs or verbal RTs. Conclusions: This study compared dual-48 task visual RT and verbal RT measures of listening effort in the child population. Overall, verbal RTs appears more sensitive than dual-task visual RTs to the negative effects of SNR and hearing loss. The current findings extend the literature on listening effort in the pediatric population by demonstrating that, even for speech that is accurately recognized, school-age CHL show a greater processing speed decrement than their normal-hearing counterparts; a decrement that could have a negative impact on learning and academic achievement in the classroom.
    • Beliefs about weight and breast cancer: An interview study with high risk women following a 12 month weight loss intervention

      Wright, Claire E.; Harvie, Michelle N.; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Donnelly, Louise S.; University of Chester ; University Hospital of South Manchester ; University Hospital of South Manchester ; University of Manchester ; University of Chester ; University Hospital of South Manchester (BioMed Central, 2015-01-09)
      Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. Lifestyle factors including excess weight contribute to risk of developing the disease. Whilst the exact links between weight and breast cancer are still emerging, it is imperative to explore how women understand these links and if these beliefs impact on successful behaviour change. Overweight/obese premenopausal women (aged 35–45) with a family history of breast cancer (lifetime risk 17–40%) were invited to a semi-structured interview following their participation in a 12 month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing their risk of breast cancer. Interviews were carried out with 9 women who successfully achieved ≥5% weight loss and 11 who were unsuccessful. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes were developed from the analysis. The first theme how women construct and understand links between weight and breast cancer risk is composed of two subthemes, the construction of weight and breast cancer risk and making sense of weight and breast cancer risk. The second theme - motivation and adherence to weight loss interventions - explains that breast cancer risk can be a motivating factor for adherence to a weight loss intervention. The final theme, acceptance of personal responsibility for health is composed of two subthemes responsibility for one’s own health and responsibility for family health through making sensible lifestyle choices.Beliefs about weight and breast cancer risk were informed by social networks, media reports and personal experiences of significant others diagnosed with breast cancer. Our study has highlighted common doubts, anxieties and questions and the importance of providing a credible rationale for weight control and weight loss which addresses individual concerns.
    • Beyond using composite measures to analyze the effect of unmet supportive care needs on caregivers’ anxiety and depression

      Lambert, Sylvie D.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Girgis, Afaf; McGill University; University of Chester; University of New South Wales (Wiley, 2018-03-06)
      Objective: Caregiver research has relied on composite measures (e.g., count) of unmet supportive care needs to determine relationships with anxiety and depression. Such composite measures assume that all unmet needs have a similar impact on outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify individual unmet needs most associated with caregivers’ anxiety and depression. Methods: 219 Caregivers completed the 44-item Supportive Care Needs Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [minimal clinically important difference (MCID)=1.5] at 6-8 months, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years following the patients' cancer diagnosis. The list of needs was reduced using Partial Least Square regression and those with a Variance Importance in Projection > 1 were analyzed using Bayesian Model Averaging. Results: Across time, eight items remained in the top 10 based on prevalence and were labelled “core”. Three additional ones were labelled “frequent”, as they remained in the top 10 from 1- year onwards. Bayesian Model Averaging identified a maximum of four significant unmet needs per time point – all leading to a difference greater than the MCID. For depression, none of the core unmet needs were significant, rather significance was noted for frequent needs and needs that were not prevalent. For anxiety, 3/8 core and 3/3 frequent unmet needs were significant. Conclusions: Prevalent Those unmet needs that are most prevalent are not necessarily the most significant ones, and findings provide an evidence-based framework to guide the development of caregiver interventions. A broader contribution is proposing a different approach to identify significant unmet needs.
    • A bifactorial solution to the psychopathy checklist screening version in a sample of civil psychiatric patients

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Hyland, Philip; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; National College of Ireland ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-03-31)
      Background: There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). An established view is that it reflects a unitary construct underpinned by two correlated factors. More recent research has, however, undermined this conceptualisation. Aims: Our aim was to compare 10 competing models of the PCL: SV in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. Method: Ten distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modelling. Results: A bifactor model, including two general factors (interpersonal-affective and antisocial-lifestyle), and four subordinate factors (interpersonal, affective, antisocial, and lifestyle) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of the conceptualisation was supported through the use of composite reliability, and the differential relationships exhibited between the general factors and measures of personality, impulsivity, and mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that two general factors should be taken into account when interpreting the PCL:SV for clinical purposes.
    • The cancer care experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual patients: A secondary analysis of data from the UK Cancer Patient Experience Survey.

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Plumpton, C. O.; Flowers, Paul; McHugh, Rhian; Neal, Richard; Semlyen, Joanna; Storey, Lesley; University of Chester; Bangor University; Glasgow Caledonian University; University of Leeds; University of East Anglia; Queen's University (Wiley, 2017-02-27)
      Understanding the effects of population diversity on cancer-related experiences is a priority in oncology care. Previous research demonstrates inequalities arising from variation in age, gender and ethnicity. Inequalities and sexual orientation remain underexplored. Here, we report, for the first time in the UK, a quantitative secondary analysis of the 2013 UK National Cancer Patient Experience Survey which contains 70 questions on specific aspects of care, and six on overall care experiences. 68,737 individuals responded, of whom 0.8% identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Controlling for age, gender and concurrent mental health comorbidity, logistic regression models applying post-estimate probability Wald tests explored response differences between heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian/gay respondents. Significant differences were found for 16 questions relating to: (a) a lack of patient-centred care and involvement in decision making, (b) a need for health professional training and revision of information resources to negate the effects of heteronormativity, and (c) evidence of substantial social isolation through cancer. These findings suggest a pattern of inequality, with less positive cancer experiences reported by lesbian, gay and (especially) bisexual respondents. Poor patient-professional communication and heteronormativity in the healthcare setting potentially explain many of the differences found. Social isolation is problematic for this group and warrants further exploration.