• Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Different Developmental Disability Diagnoses

      O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-01-25)
      Factors predicting the emotional well-being of adult siblings of those with developmental disability (DD) remain under-researched. In this study adult siblings of individuals with Down’s syndrome, autism, Prader-Willi syndrome and those with DD but with unknown aetiology were compared with each other and a closely-matched control group to ascertain if sibling disability type made a difference to anxiety and/or depression levels. Also considered was the interactive effect of gender, age, parental and sibling educational attainment levels, socio-economic status and birth order on anxiety and depression outcomes. With the exception of siblings of those with Down’s syndrome, adult siblings of those with ASD, PWS and DUA reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than the control group. There were some predictive effects for anxiety and depression of the demographic variables but none common to all disability types and no moderating effects of demographic factors were found. Consequently other solutions must be found as to why this important group of people have elevated rates of anxiety and depression in comparison to the general population.
    • Metacognitive beliefs as psychological predictors of social functioning: an investigation with young people at risk of psychosis

      Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew I.; Morrison, Anthony P.; Birchwood, Max; Jones, Peter B.; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Wells, Adrian; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-09-14)
      Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity. This was after controlling for age, gender, treatment allocation, cognitive schemas, positive symptom severity, social anxiety, and depression. Metacognitive danger items were most important. Age was the only control variable found to be an independent predictor of structured activity in the regression model, despite negative bi-variate relationships with structured activity found across three cognitive schema subscales and social anxiety. This is the first study to find that higher negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger predict lower social functioning in an ARMS sample, and that the perception of thoughts being dangerous was of particular importance. Psychological interventions should consider targeting this metacognitive dimension to increase social functioning. Future longitudinal research is required to strengthen findings in this area.
    • Patient-reported depression measures in cancer: a meta-review

      Wakefield, Claire E.; Butow, Phyllis N.; Aaronson, Neil A.; Hack, Thomas F.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; University of Chester (Lancet, 2015-07)
      It is unclear which patient-reported depression measures perform best in oncology settings. We conducted a meta-review to integrate the findings of reviews of more than 50 depression measures used in oncology. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and grey literature from 1999-2014 to identify 19 reviews representing 372 primary studies. Eleven reviews were rated as being of high quality. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) was most thoroughly evaluated, but was limited by cut-point variability. The HADS had moderate screening utility indices and was least recommended in advanced cancer/palliative care. The Beck Depression Inventory was more generalizable across cancer types/disease stages, with good indices for screening and case finding. The Centre of Epidemiology-Depression Scale was the best-weighted measure in terms of responsiveness. This meta-review provides a comprehensive overview of the strengths and limitations of available depression measures. It can inform the choice of the best measure for specific settings and purposes.
    • Psychological benefits of weight loss following behavioural and/or dietary weight loss interventions. A systematic research review

      Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Myrissa, Kyriaki; Hoyland, Alexa; Lawton, Clare; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-01)
      It is generally accepted that weight loss has significant physiological benefits, such as reduced risk of diabetes, lowered blood pressure and blood lipid levels. However, few behavioural and dietary interventions have investigated psychological benefit as the primary outcome. Hence, systematic review methodology was adopted to evaluate the psychological outcomes of weight loss following participation in a behavioural and/or dietary weight loss intervention in overweight/obese populations. 36 Studies were selected for inclusion and were reviewed. Changes in self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image and health related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated and discussed. Where possible, effect sizes to indicate the magnitude of change pre- to post- intervention were calculated using Hedges’ g standardised mean difference. The results demonstrated consistent improvements in psychological outcomes concurrent with and sometimes without weight loss. Improvements in body image and HRQoL (especially vitality) were closely related to changes in weight. Calculated effect sizes varied considerably and reflected the heterogeneous nature of the studies included in the review. Although the quality of the studies reviewed was generally acceptable, only 9 out of 36 studies included a suitable control/comparison group and the content, duration of intervention and measures used to assess psychological outcomes varied considerably. Further research is required to improve the quality of studies assessing the benefits of weight loss to fully elucidate the relationship between weight loss and psychological outcomes.
    • Unmet needs in young adults with a parent with chronic illness: a mixed method investigation and measure development study.

      Nicholls, Wendy; Patterson, Pandora; McDonald, Fiona; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J. (Wiley, 2016-05-10)
      Rationale: Given the high number of young adults caring for a family member, and the potential for adverse psychosocial outcomes, there is a need for a screening tool, with clinical utility, to identify those most vulnerable to poor outcomes and to aid targeted interventions. Objectives: (i) To determine whether current knowledge from cancer literature regarding young carers is generalisable to chronic conditions and, therefore, whether an existing screening tool could be adapted for this population. (ii) To develop a measure of unmet needs in this population and conduct initial psychometric analysis. Design: This was mixed-methods: interviews in study one informed measure development in study two. Inclusion criteria were: having a parent with a chronic condition, and being aged 16-24 years. In study 1, an interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on interviews from seven young adults (age range 17-19 years). Study 2 explored factor structure, reliability and validity of the Offspring Chronic Illness Needs Inventory (OCINI). Participants were 73 females and 34 males (mean ages 18.22, SD = 1.16; 18.65, SD = 1.25). Main Outcome Measures: OCINI, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Adult Carers Quality of Life Scale. Results: Interviews communicated that the impact of their parent’s condition went unacknowledged and resulted in psychosocial, support and informational needs. An exploratory principal axis analysis of the OCINI yielded five factors. Significant and positive correlations were found between unmet needs and stress, anxiety, and depression, and inversely with quality of life. Conclusions: The scale has applications in clinical settings where these young people, who are at risk of negative psychological outcomes, may be assessed and unmet needs targeted appropriately.