• Exposure to criminal environment and criminal social identity in a sample of adult prisoners: The moderating role of psychopathic traits

      Sherretts, Nicole; Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities ; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2016-02-31)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of period of incarceration, criminal friend index (a retrospective measure intended to quantify criminal associations before first incarceration), and four psychopathy factors (interpersonal manipulation, callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) in criminal social identity (CSI) while controlling for age and gender. Participants were a sample of 501 incarcerated offenders (males n = 293; females n = 208) from three prisons located in Pennsylvania Sate. Moderated regression analyses indicated no significant direct association between period of incarceration and CSI or between criminal friend index and CSI. However, a significant moderating effect of interpersonal manipulation on the relationship between period of incarceration and CSI was observed. Period of incarceration was significantly positively correlated with CSI (particularly with in-group ties subscale) only for those offenders who scored high (1 SD above the mean) on interpersonal manipulation and significantly negatively correlated for those who scored low (1 SD below the mean) on interpersonal manipulation. Also, criminal friend index was positively significantly associated with in-group ties for high levels (1 SD above the mean) of callous affect. The main findings provide evidence for the claim that prisoners are likely to simulate changes in identity through the formation of bonds with other offenders and that this can be achieved using interpersonal manipulation skills.
    • The moderating role of psychopathic traits in the relationship between period of confinement and criminal social identity in a sample of juvenile prisoners

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03)
      The main aim of the current study was to examine how primary psychopathy may interact with period of confinement to predict Criminal Social Identity (CSI) scores, while controlling for covariates. Methods: The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Levenson Self-report Psychopathy Scale, and the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates were administered to 126 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Results: Results indicated no significant direct relationship between period of confinement and CSI scores. However, as expected, a significant moderating effect of primary psychopathy on the association between period of confinement and CSI scores was observed while controlling for covariates. Specifically, the significant effect of period of confinement on CSI was observed only for those participants who scored higher (1 SD above the mean) on primary psychopathy (affective and interpersonal features). Conclusion: For incarcerated juveniles with greater primary psychopathic traits, the formation and/or intensification of CSI may be an adaptive response to incarceration.
    • Validation of the Urdu version of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents

      Shagufta, Sonia; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Kola-Palmer, Derrol; University of Huddersfield; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-03)
      Purpose: The aim was to examine the dimensionality, composite reliability, and incremental validity of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI) in a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents (N = 315) following translation of the measure into Urdu. Design/methodology/approach: Four alternative factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor modelling techniques. Findings: Results indicated that a three factor model provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models tested. The reliability of the scale was established using composite reliability. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that the three MCSI factors were differentially related with external variables, indicating that the MCSI measures substantially different domains. Implications: Implications for theory and future research are discussed. Originality/Value: The results add valuable evidence as to the cross-cultural applicability of the MCSI.