• Psychological flexibility correlates with patient-reported outcomes independent of clinical or sociodemographic characteristics

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Storey, Lesley (Springer, 2015-12-17)
      Purpose: The evidence for the effectiveness of psychological interventions for cancer patients is currently unclear. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which increases individual’s levels of psychological flexibility, may be more effective than other frameworks of psychological intervention, but good quality research is needed to inform adoption and implementation. This study explored the correlation between psychological flexibility and patient reported outcomes to assess the viability of this intervention for cancer survivors. Methods: Recruitment was co-ordinated through a regional cancer centre. 129 respondents completed a cross-sectional postal questionnaire. They were of mixed gender, diagnosis and cancer stage; a mean 61 years old; and a mean 207 days post-diagnosis. Self-report questionnaires assessed psychological flexibility, mood, anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life and benefit finding. Results: Psychological flexibility was a strong and consistent correlate of outcome; effects were maintained even when potentially confounding clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were controlled. Conclusions: Psychological flexibility can be modified through ACT-based interventions. Given the strong correlational evidence found in this study, it seems that such interventions might be useful for cancer survivors. High quality and well-designed controlled trials are now needed to establish effectiveness.
    • Ultra-brief non-expert-delivered defusion and acceptance exercises for food cravings: A partial replication study

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Nicholls, Wendy; Williamson, Sian; Poonia, Jivone; Hochard, Kevin D.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2017-03-10)
      Food cravings are a common barrier to losing weight. This paper presents a randomised comparison of non-expert group-delivered ultra-brief defusion and acceptance interventions against a distraction control. Sixty-three participants were asked to carry a bag of chocolates for a week whilst trying to resist the temptation to eat them. A behavioural rebound measure was administered. Each intervention out-performed control in respect of consumption, but not cravings. These techniques may have a place in the clinical management of food cravings. We provide tentative evidence that the mechanism of action is through decreased reactivity to cravings, not through reduced frequency of cravings.