• Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the relationship between having a sibling with developmental disabilities and anxiety and depression symptoms

      Murray, Lindsay; O'Neill, Linda; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-09-17)
      Background Children growing up with a sibling with disabilities report higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as adults. Here, we examined whether personality characteristics also play a part in mediating this relationship. Method We tested for differences in personality traits between 132 individuals who have a sibling with developmental disabilities and 132 closely matched comparisons. Results Differences in Big Five factors of personality were demonstrated across the disability groups and between the disability groups and the comparisons, especially in Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness. Individuals growing up alongside a sibling with developmental disabilities have a higher tendency to experience anxiety and depression symptoms, and this research is the first demonstration that personality traits mediate this relationship. Specifically, Neuroticism is a strong mediator of anxiety while both Neuroticism and Extraversion contribute mediating effects toward the development of depression. Limitations Our study made use of self-report methodology which, although having recognized limitations, is more reliable than parental reports. Given the cross-sectional nature of our design, we were not able to examine pre-existing developmental factors that may have influenced the participant’s propensity to particular personality traits and affective disorders. However, we obtained a large sample and closely matched participants to examine differences between those with a sibling with disabilities and those without. Conclusions As such, differences in personality traits have important implications for the understanding and treatment of siblings presenting with anxiety and depression symptoms. We recommend that intervention should target those high in Neuroticism among individuals who have a sibling with disabilities, and that more social support is put in place for siblings to mitigate their tendency towards introversion and buffer them against psychological maladjustment.
    • Investigating the celebrity effect: the influence of well-liked celebrities on adults' implicit and explicit responses to brands

      Rowley, Martin; Gilman, Hayley; Sherman, Susan Mary; Keele University (American Psychological Association, 2018-08-20)
      Celebrities are used within advertisements in an attempt to impact positively on consumers’ attitudes toward brands, purchase intentions, and ad believability. However, the findings from previous research on the effects of celebrity liking on brand evaluations have been mixed. In the study presented here, explicit and implicit responses to brands were more positive after pairing with well-liked celebrities (p < .01) and more positive than for brands paired with noncelebrities (p < .001). Participants also demonstrated a preference for celebrity-paired brands in their brand choices (p < .001). Participants’ general accuracy-based advertising skepticism was negatively correlated with explicit celebrity brand preferences (p < .05), whereas affect-based skepticism was negatively correlated with implicit (p < .05) preferences. These results are discussed in relation to the contextual and attitudinal factors that might trigger resistance to the effects of celebrity endorsement as well as the underlying psychological processes involved in responding to ads.
    • One step forward and two steps back? The ‘20 Principles’ for questioning vulnerable witnesses and the lack of an evidence-based approach.

      Cooper, Penny; Dando, Coral; Ormerod, Thomas; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Marchant, Ruth; Milne, Rebecca; Bull, Ray; Birkbeck University of London; University of Westminster; University of Sussex; University of Chester, Triangle, University of Portsmouth, University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2018-08-19)
      It is a widely held belief that questioning vulnerable witnesses is a specialist skill. In England and Wales vulnerable witness advocacy training built around ‘20 Principles’ has been developed and is being delivered. The 20 Principles do not cite a tested theoretical framework(s) or empirical evidence in support. This paper considers whether the 20 Principles are underpinned by research evidence. It is submitted that advocacy training and the approach to questioning witnesses in the courtroom should take into account the already available research evidence. The authors make recommendations for revision of the training and for a wider review of the approach taken to the handling of witness evidence.
    • Sleep duration and psychotic experiences in patients at risk of psychosis: A secondary analysis of the EDIE-2 trial

      Reeve, Sarah; Nickless, Alecia; Sheaves, Bryony; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Gumley, Andrew; Fowler, David; Morrison, Anthony; Freeman, David; University of Oxford; Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester; University of Glasgow; University of Sussex; University of Manchester (Elsevier, 2018-08-16)
      Sleep disturbance is common among individuals at risk of psychosis, yet few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and clinical trajectory. The Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-2) trial provides longitudinal data on sleep duration and individual psychotic experiences from a cohort of individuals at risk of psychosis, which this study utilises in an opportunistic secondary analysis. Shorter and more variable sleep was hypothesised to be associated with more severe psychotic experiences and lower psychological wellbeing. Mixed effect models were used to test sleep duration and range as predictors of individual psychotic experiences and psychological wellbeing over the 12-24 months (with assessments every 3 months) in 160 participants. Shorter sleep duration was associated with more severe delusional ideas and hallucinations cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The longitudinal relationships did not remain significant after conservative controls were added for the previous severity of psychotic experiences. No significant relationships were found between the sleep variables and other psychotic experiences (e.g. cognitive disorganisation), or psychological wellbeing. The results support a relationship between shorter sleep duration and delusional ideas and hallucinations. Future studies should focus on improving sleep disturbance measurement, and test whether treating sleep improves clinical trajectory in the at-risk group.
    • Development and Validation of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale

      Kirkham, Julie A.; Lloyd, Julian; Stockton, Hannah; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2018-08-16)
      This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale (RCFPS), a brief 11-item retrospective self-report measure of reference for, and engagement with, fantasy play during childhood. Five studies were conducted to (a) develop the initial items for the scale (n =77), (b) determine the underlying factor structure (n = 200), (c) test the fit of the model (n= 530), and (d) and (e) ascertain construct validity (n = 200) and convergent validity (n = 263). Overall, the results suggest that the RCFPS is a unidimensional measure with acceptable fit and preliminary validity. The RCFPS may prove useful in educational and developmental research as an alternative to longitudinal studies to further investigate how childhood fantasy play relates to individual differences in adulthood (e.g., in the areas of creativity, theory of mind, and narrative skills).
    • Piloting a brief relational operant training program: Analyses of response latencies and intelligence

      McLoughlin, Shane; Tyndall, Ian; Pereira, Antonina; University of Chester; University of Chichester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-06)
      Previous research suggests that training relational operant responding using the SMART (Strengthening Mental Abilities with Relational Training) program over several months can result in improved performance on cognitive intelligence tests. This study aimed to investigate whether engaging in a 3-week relational training program would improve (i) scores and (ii) reaction times on a standardised intelligence test, and (iii) to pilot a new multiple exemplar training procedure targeting complex analogical operant responding (SMARTA; SMART for Analogy). We administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-2) to eight adults across four time points. Control: Time 1–4: No intervention. Experimental: Time 1–2: No intervention. Time 2–3: SMART relational operant training. Time 3–4: SMARTA analogical relational operant training. Experimental participants demonstrated greater improvements in terms of both (i) response latencies and (ii) response fluencies on the Verbal Knowledge subscale of the KBIT-2.
    • Behavioural measures of listening effort in school-aged children: Examining the effects of SNR, hearing loss, and amplification

      McGarrigle, Ronan; Gustafson, Samantha; Hornsby, Benjamin; Bess, Fred; University of Chester; Vanderbilt University Medical Center (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-06-13)
      Objectives: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on two commonly-used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs). Design: A total of 82 children (aged 6 – 13 years) took part in this study; 37 children with normal hearing (CNH) and 45 CHL. All children performed a dual-task paradigm from which both measures of listening effort (dual-task visual RT and verbal RT) were derived. The primary task was word recognition in multi-talker babble in three individually selected SNR conditions: Easy, Moderate, and Hard. The secondary task was a visual monitoring task. Listening effort during the dual-task was quantified as the change in secondary task RT from baseline (single-task visual RT) to the dual-task condition. Listening effort based on verbal RT was quantified as the time elapsed from the onset of the auditory stimulus to the onset of the verbal response when performing the primary (word recognition) task in isolation. CHL completed the task aided and/or unaided to examine the effect of amplification on listening effort. Results: Verbal RTs were generally slower in the more challenging SNR conditions. However, there was no effect of SNR on dual-task visual RT. Overall, verbal RTs were significantly slower in CHL versus CNH. No group difference in dual-task visual RTs was found between CNH and CHL. No effect of amplification was found on either dual-task visual RTs or verbal RTs. Conclusions: This study compared dual-48 task visual RT and verbal RT measures of listening effort in the child population. Overall, verbal RTs appears more sensitive than dual-task visual RTs to the negative effects of SNR and hearing loss. The current findings extend the literature on listening effort in the pediatric population by demonstrating that, even for speech that is accurately recognized, school-age CHL show a greater processing speed decrement than their normal-hearing counterparts; a decrement that could have a negative impact on learning and academic achievement in the classroom.
    • Assessment of metacognitive beliefs in an at risk mental state for psychosis: A validation study of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30

      Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tully, Sarah; Stewart, Suzanne; Wells, Adrian; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-06-07)
      Aim: The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) has been used to assess metacognitive beliefs in a range of mental health problems. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the MCQ-30 in people at risk for psychosis. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five participants meeting criteria for an at risk mental state (ARMS) completed the MCQ-30 as part of their involvement in a randomised controlled trial. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess factor structure and construct validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the original 5-factor structure of the MCQ-30. Examination of principal component analysis and parallel analysis outputs also suggested a 5-factor structure. Correlation analyses including measures of depression, social anxiety and beliefs about paranoia showed evidence of convergent validity. Discriminant validity was supported using the normalising subscale of the beliefs about paranoia tool. Conclusions: The MCQ-30 demonstrated good fit using the original 5-factor model, acceptable to very good internal consistency of items was evident and clinical usefulness in those at risk for psychosis was demonstrated.
    • Anticipatory versus Reactive Spatial Attentional Bias to Threat

      Gladwin, Thomas; Möbius, Martin; McLoughlin, Shane; Tyndall, Ian; University of Chichester; Radboud University; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-05-11)
      Dot-probe or visual probe tasks (VPTs) are used extensively to measure attentional biases. A novel variant termed the cued VPT (cVPT) was developed to focus on the anticipatory component of attentional bias. This study aimed to establish an anticipatory attentional bias to threat using the cVPT and compare its split-half reliability with a typical dot-probe task. A total of 120 students performed the cVPT task and dot-probe tasks. Essentially, the cVPT uses cues that predict the location of pictorial threatening stimuli, but on trials on which probe stimuli are presented the pictures do not appear. Hence, actual presentation of emotional stimuli did not affect responses. The reliability of the cVPT was higher at most cue–stimulus intervals and was .56 overall. A clear anticipatory attentional bias was found. In conclusion, the cVPT may be of methodological and theoretical interest. Using visually neutral predictive cues may remove sources of noise that negatively impact reliability. Predictive cues are able to bias response selection, suggesting a role of predicted outcomes in automatic processes.
    • Online information and support needs of women with advanced breast cancer: A qualitative analysis

      Kemp, Emma; Koczwara, Bogda; Butow, Phyllis N.; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Levesque, Janelle V.; Spence, Danielle; Vatandoust, Sina; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Roy, Amitesh; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Karapetis, Christos S.; Richards, Caroline; Fitzgerald, Michael; Beatty, Lisa; Flinders University; Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer; University of Sydney; University of Queensland; University of New South Wales; Swinburne University of Technology; University of Chester; Breast Cancer Network Australia (Springer, 2018-04-24)
      Purpose: Women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) face significant adjustment challenges, yet few resources provide them with information and support, and attendance barriers can preclude access to face to face psychosocial support. This paper reports on two qualitative studies examining (i) whether information and support-seeking preferences of women with ABC could be addressed in an online intervention, and (ii) how an existing intervention for patients with early stage cancer could be adapted for women with ABC. Methods: Women with ABC participated in telephone interviews about their information and support- seeking preferences (N = 21) and evaluated an online intervention focused on early-stage cancer (N = 15). Interviews were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis using the framework method to identify salient themes. Results: Participants most commonly sought medical, lifestyle-related, and practical information/support; however, when presented with an online intervention, participants most commonly gave positive feedback on content on coping with emotional distress. Difficulty finding information and barriers to using common sources of information/support including health professionals, family and friends, and peers were reported; however, some women also reported not wanting information or support. All participants evaluating the existing intervention gave positive feedback on various components, with results suggesting an online intervention could be an effective means of providing information/support to women with ABC, given improved specificity/relevance to ABC and increased tailoring to individuals circumstances and preferences. Conclusions: Adaptation of an existing online intervention for early stage cancer appears a promising avenue to address the information and support needs of women with ABC.
    • Relationships between unmet needs, depression and anxiety in non-advanced cancer patients

      Ferrari, Martina; Ripamonti, Carla I; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Miccinesi, Guido; University of Chester; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy; ISPO Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Florence, Italy (Wichtig Publishing, 2018-04-16)
      Introduction: In oncology settings, less attention is given to patients’ unmet need and to existential and emotional distress, compared to physical symptoms. We aimed to evaluate correlations between unmet needs and emotional distress (self-reported anxiety and depression) in a consecutive cohort of cancer patients. The influence of socio- demographic and clinical factors was also considered. Methods: Three hundred cancer patients recruited from an out-patient Supportive Care Unit of a Comprehensive Cancer Centre completed the Need Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Unmet needs covered five distinct domains (informational, care/assistance, relational, psycho-emotional and material). Results: After removal of missing data, we analysed data from 258 patients. Need for better information on future health concerns (42%), better services from the hospital (43%), and to speak with individuals in the same condition (31%) were the most frequently reported as unmet. Based on the ESAS, 27.2% and 17.5% of patients respectively had a score of anxiety or depression > 3 and needed further examination for psychological distress. Female patients had significantly higher scores for anxiety (p<.001) and depression (p=.008) compared to males. Unmet needs were significantly correlated with both anxiety (rs=.283) and depression (rs=.284). Previous referral to a psychologist was significantly associated with depression scores (p=.015). Results were confirmed by multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: Screening for unmet needs whilst also considering socio-demographic and clinical factors, allows early identification of cancer patients with emotional distress. Doing so will enable optimal management of psychological patient-reported outcomes in oncology settings.
    • A leftward perceptual asymmetry when judging the attractiveness of visual patterns

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Crossley, Becky; Lee, Jennifer; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-15)
      Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs. In each experiment participants showed a significant bias to choose the stimulus with an attractive left side more than the stimulus with an attractive right side. The leftward bias emerged at age 10/11, was not caused by a systematic asymmetry in the perception of colourfulness or complexity, and was stronger when the difference in attractiveness between the left and right sides was larger. The results are relevant to the aesthetics of product and packaging design and show that leftward biases extend to the perceptual judgement of everyday items. Possible causes of the leftward bias for attractiveness judgements are discussed and it is suggested that the size of the bias may not be a measure of the degree of hemispheric specialisation.
    • Affective theory of mind inferences contextually influence the recognition of emotional facial expressions

      Stewart, Suzanne; Schepman, Astrid; Haigh, Matthew; McHugh, Rhian; Stewart, Andrew; University of Chester; Northumbria University; University of Manchester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-14)
      The recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions (Experiment 1) as well as differently-valenced emotions (Experiment 2) conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we found evidence for a context effect on accuracy only in Experiment 1. This demonstrates that affective theory of mind inferences made at the pragmatic level of a text can automatically, contextually influence the perceptual processing of emotional facial expressions in a separate task even when those emotions are of a distinctive valence. Thus, our novel findings suggest that language acts as a contextual influence to the recognition of emotional facial expressions for both same and different valences.
    • Beyond using composite measures to analyze the effect of unmet supportive care needs on caregivers’ anxiety and depression

      Lambert, Sylvie D.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Girgis, Afaf; McGill University; University of Chester; University of New South Wales (Wiley, 2018-03-06)
      Objective: Caregiver research has relied on composite measures (e.g., count) of unmet supportive care needs to determine relationships with anxiety and depression. Such composite measures assume that all unmet needs have a similar impact on outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify individual unmet needs most associated with caregivers’ anxiety and depression. Methods: 219 Caregivers completed the 44-item Supportive Care Needs Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [minimal clinically important difference (MCID)=1.5] at 6-8 months, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years following the patients' cancer diagnosis. The list of needs was reduced using Partial Least Square regression and those with a Variance Importance in Projection > 1 were analyzed using Bayesian Model Averaging. Results: Across time, eight items remained in the top 10 based on prevalence and were labelled “core”. Three additional ones were labelled “frequent”, as they remained in the top 10 from 1- year onwards. Bayesian Model Averaging identified a maximum of four significant unmet needs per time point – all leading to a difference greater than the MCID. For depression, none of the core unmet needs were significant, rather significance was noted for frequent needs and needs that were not prevalent. For anxiety, 3/8 core and 3/3 frequent unmet needs were significant. Conclusions: Prevalent Those unmet needs that are most prevalent are not necessarily the most significant ones, and findings provide an evidence-based framework to guide the development of caregiver interventions. A broader contribution is proposing a different approach to identify significant unmet needs.
    • Justify Your Alpha

      Lakens, Daniel; Adolfi, Federico G.; Albers, Casper J.; Anvari, Farid; Apps, Matthew A. J.; Argamon, Shlomo E.; Baguley, Thom; Becker, Raymond B.; Benning, Stephen D.; Bradford, Daniel E.; Buchanan, Erin M.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; van Calster, Ben; Carlsson, Rickard; Chen, Sau-Chin; Chung, Bryan; Colling, Lincoln J.; Collins, Gary S.; Crook, Zander; Cross, Emily S.; Daniels, Sameera; Danielsson, Henrik; DeBruine, Lisa; Dunleavy, Daniel J.; Earp, Brian D.; Feist, Michele I.; Ferrell, Jason D.; Field, James G.; Fox, Nicholas W.; Friesen, Amanda; Gomes, Caio; Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica; Grange, James A.; Grieve, Andrew P.; Guggenberger, Robert; Grist, James; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Hasselman, Fred; Hochard, Kevin D.; Hoffarth, Mark R.; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Ingre, Michael; Isager, Peder M.; Isotalus, Hanna K.; Johansson, Christer; Juszczyk, Konrad; Kenny, David A.; Khalil, Ahmed A.; Konat, Barbara; Lao, Junpeng; Larsen, Erik Gahner; Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Lukavský, Jiří; Madan, Christopher R.; Manheim, David; Martin, Stephen R.; Martin, Andrea E.; Mayo, Deborah G.; McCarthy, Randy J.; McConway, Kevin; McFarland, Colin; Nio, Amanda Q. X.; Nilsonne, Gustav; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Parsons, Sam; Pfuhl, Gerit; Quinn, Kimberly A.; Sakon, John J.; Saribay, S. Adil; Schneider, Iris K.; Selvaraju, Manojkumar; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Smith, Samuel G.; Smits, Tim; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Sreekumar, Vishnu; Steltenpohl, Crystal N.; Stenhouse, Neil; Świątkowski, Wojciech; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Williams, Matt N.; Williams, Samantha E.; Williams, Donald R.; Yarkoni, Tal; Ziano, Ignazio; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Eindhoven University of Technology; Favaloro University; National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET); University of Groningen; Flinders University; University of Oxford; Illinois Institute of Technology; Nottingham Trent University; Bielefeld University; University of Nevada; University of Wisconsin-Madison; Missouri State University; University of Arkansas; KU Leuven; Leiden University; Linnaeus University; Tzu-Chi University; University of British Columbia; University of Cambridge; University of Oxford; The University of Edinburgh; Bangor University; Ramsey Decision Theoretics; Linköping University; University of Glasgow; Florida State University; Yale University; University of Louisiana at Lafayette; St. Edward's University; University of Texas at Austin; West Virginia University; Rutgers University; Indiana University Purdue University; Booking.com; RWTH - Aachen University; Keele University; UCB Celltech; Eberhard Karls University Tübingen; University Tübingen; University of Cambridge; Radboud University Nijmegen; University of Chester; New York University; University of Nottingham (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-02-26)
      In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to p≤ .005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level
    • The Effect of Superstitious Thinking on Psychosocial Stress Responses and Perceived Task Performance

      Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Teo, Wan Yee; University of Chester; James Cook University Singapore (Wiley, 2018-02-18)
      Abstract Previous research on superstition, a subset of paranormal belief, suggests that people tend to invoke luck-related superstitions in stressful situations as an attempt to gain an illusion of control over outcomes. Based on this, the current study examined whether luck-related superstition, in the form of a ‘lucky’ pen, could influence the psychological response to a psychosocial stressor. Participants (N =114) aged between 17 and 59 years (M = 22.98, SD = 4.57) from James Cook University Singapore, were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) no-stress with no ‘lucky’ pen; (2) no-stress with a ‘lucky’ pen; (3) stress with no ‘lucky’ pen; (4) stress with a ‘lucky’ pen. The results revealed that participants provided with a “lucky” pen experienced lower state anxiety when exposed to the stressor. Further, participants provided with a ‘lucky’ pen perceived their performance to be better than those without it. However, superstitious belief did not significantly change following exposure to stress. Taken together, the present findings add some support to the suggestion that belief in transferable luck may facilitate coping with a stressor. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind the potential benefits of superstitious belief.
    • Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) after breast cancer: A qualitative study of factors associated with adherence

      Brett, Jo; Boulton, Mary; Fenlon, Deborah F.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Walter, Fiona; Donnelly, Peter; Lavery, Bernadette; Morgan, Adrienne; Morris, Carolyn; Watson, Eila; Oxford Brookes University; Swansea University; University of Chester; Cambridge University; South Devon Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Oxford University Hospitals Foundation NHS Trust; Independent Cancer Patients' Voice (Dove Medical Press, 2018-02-16)
      Introduction : Despite evidence of the efficacy of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy (AET) in reducing the risk of recurrence and mortality after treatment for primary breast cancer, adherence to AET is suboptimal. This study aimed to explore factors that influence adherence and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) following breast cancer to inform the development of supportive interventions. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 32 women who had been prescribed AET, 2-4 years following their diagnosis of breast cancer,. Both adherers (n=19) and non-adherers (n=13) were recruited. The analysis was conducted using the Framework approach. Results: Factors associated with adherence were: Managing side effects including information and advice on side effects, and taking control of side effects, Supportive relationships, and Personal influences. Factors associated with non-adherence were: Burden of side effects, Feeling unsupported, Concerns about long term AET use, Re-gaining normality, including valuing quality of life over length of life, and Risk perception Conclusions: Provision of timely information to prepare women for the potential side effects of AET and education on medication management strategies are needed, including provision of timely and accurate information on the efficacy of AET in reducing breast cancer recurrence, and on potential side effects and ways to manage these should they arise. . Trust in the doctor-patient relationship and clear patient pathways for bothersome side effects and concerns with AET are important. Training and education around AET for GPs should be considered alongside novel care pathways such as primary care nurse cancer care review, and community pharmacist follow-up.
    • No evidence against Sketch Reinstatement of Context, Verbal Labels or the use of Registered Intermediaries for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Response to Henry et al. (2017)

      Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.; Cooper, Penny; Marchant, Ruth; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Milne, Rebecca; Bull, Ray; University of Westminster; University of Sussex; City, University of London; Triangle Services; University of Chester; University of Portsmouth; University of Derby (Springer Verlag, 2018-02-13)
      Recently, Henry et al. (2017) found no evidence for the use of Verbal labels, Sketch Reinstatement of Context and Registered Intermediaries by forensic practitioners when interviewing children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. We consider their claims, noting the limited ecological validity of the experimental paradigm, the impacts of repeated interviewing where retrieval support is not provided at first retrieval, question the interviewer/intermediary training and their population relevant experience, and comment on the suppression of population variances. We submit that rejecting these techniques on the basis of this study is completely unwarranted and potentially damaging, particularly if used in legal proceedings to undermine the value of testimony from children with ASD, who continually struggle to gain access to justice.
    • ‘Section 28’ and the pre-recording of cross-examination: What can advocates expect in 2018?

      Cooper, Penny; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; City, University of London; University of Chester (Lexisnexis Butterworths, 2018-01-05)
      In 2018, so long as the recently identified technological issues are remedied (rumoured to be about storage capacity for the recordings), pre-recorded cross-examination will be rolled out across Crown Courts in England and Wales. The process evaluation report (MoJ, 2016) for the pilot of section 28 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (YJCEA 1999) was encouraging as well as realistic; it acknowledged that findings might not be replicated on roll-out because courts in the study might not being representative of courts in general. The authors believe that the success of the scheme substantially rests in the hands of judges and practitioners. Here we briefly summarise the background to the roll-out, highlight some important aspects of the new guidance in the Criminal Practice Directions (CPD), illustrate practice with real case studies, and discuss the implications for professional development.
    • Internet use and preferences among women living with advanced breast cancer

      Kemp, Emma; Koczwara, Bogda; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Levesque, Janelle V.; Spence, Danielle; Vatandoust, Sina; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Roy, Amitesh; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Karapetis, Christos S.; Richards, Caroline; Fitzgerald, Michael; Beatty, Lisa; Flinders University; Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer; University of Queensland; University of New South Wales; Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research; Swinburne University; University of Chester; Breast Cancer Network Australia (Wiley, 2018)
      Despite high distress and unmet informational and psychosocial needs, and recommendations for development of advanced breast cancer (ABC)-specific resources, there remains a paucity of appropriate, accessible psychological interventions. This survey study examined internet use and preferences of women with ABC, to the gauge feasibility of providing an ABC- specific internet intervention. Most participants (83%) used the internet daily. Results indicated most women with ABC would find an ABC-specific internet intervention helpful, and that it would address gaps in current internet resources, including provision of strategies to manage treatment side effects and fear of cancer progression.